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OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS AND FORESTS 



OF THE PROVINCE OF ONTARIO 



for the fiscal year ending 



MARCH 31, 1962 




ONTARIO 



SDl4 



V 



THE DETAILED 

ANNUAL REPORT 

of the 

Minister of Lands and Forests 

of the 

PROVINCE OF ONTARIO 

♦ 

For the Year ending March 31st, 1962 




ONTARIO 



To His Honour, 

The Lieutenant-Governor 

of the Province of Ontario. 

May It Please Your Honour: 

The undersigned begs respectfully to present to your 
Honour, the Annual Report of the Department of Lands and 
Forests for the fiscal year beginning April 1st, 1961, and 
ending March 31, 1962. 




J. W. Spooner, 

Minister 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Accounts Branch 2 

Conservation Authorities Branch 22 

Fish and Wildlife Branch 56 

Forest Protection Branch 132 

Lands and Surveys Branch 160 

Law Branch 196 

Operations Branch 208 

Parks Branch 222 

Personnel Branch 245 

Research Branch 256 

Timber Branch 282 



ACCOUNTS BRANCH 



Chiej: R. R. MacBean 




Assistant Chiej: F. M. Baker 








INTERNAL AUDIT 

Internal Audit & Field Inspections 










SYSTEMS & pr(x:edures 










REVENUE ACCOUNTING 

Cash Receiving, Accounts Receivable 

Issue of Fish & Wildlife Licenses, 

Park Permits, Timber Accounts, Land Sales 

Land Tax, Rentals 










EXPENDITURE & GENERAL ACCOUNTING 

Payrolls, Accounts Payable 

Accounting Machine Operations 










BUDGET ACCOUNTING 

Budget Estimates & Forecasts, 

Financial Reports 










LAND TAX ADMINISTRATION 

Assessments, Appeals, Addressograph 










GENERAL 

Secretarial 
Department Mail Services 





ACCOUNTS BRANCH 

During the year ended March 31st, 1962, cash receipts of the Department 
of Lands and Forests totalled $22,005,403.46. Total cash disbursements 
amounted to $28,020,094.02, representing an excess of $6,014,690.56 in 
disbursements over receipts. 

Total receipts show a nominal increase over the previous year. Sale of 
park campsite permits and vehicle entrance permits increased over the previous 
year, other sources of revenue showed slight gains. 

The sharp increase in disbursements is accounted for by the severe fire 
season in 1961 and the transfer of the Conservation Authorities Branch to the 
Department of Lands and Forests in 1962. 

The financial report shows the fiscal results of operations of the Conservation 
Authorities Branch for the year. 

The department again entered into a winter works program for the 
development of camp-site and picnic areas in co-operation with the Federal 
Government. 







Renting blinds to duck hunters at $4.00 per day on the new 1,700-acre Waterfowl 
Management Unit in the Crown marshes at Long Point Bay on Lake Erie. 



FINANCIAL REPORT 
FOR YEAR ENDED MARCH 31ST, 1962 

1. Cash Receipts and Disbursements 

The following summarizes the result of operations for the year: 

Total — Cash Disbursements $28,020,094.02 

Cash Receipts 22,005,403.46 

Excess of Disbursements over Receipts $6,014,690.56 

2. Comparison of Receipts and Disbursements with those of the Previous Two Years 

(a) Receipts Years ending March 31st 

Branch 1960 1961 1962 

$ $ $ 

Accounts 1,221,820. 1,273,216. 1,281,756. 

Fish and Wildlife 4,622,207. 4,848,111. 5,054,516. 

Forest Protection 126,872. 84,823. 75,803. 

Lands and Surveys 1,014,209. 1,004,861. 1,085,012. 

Parks 524,163. * 995,573. 990,311. 

Timber 11,926,007. 13,449,813. 13,518,005. 

19,435,278. 21,656,397. 22,005 ,403. 

Note — Receipts from Water Power Leases are reported by the Treasury 
Department. 

♦Includes $195,128.64 Federal contribution for winter work program. 

(b) Disbursements 

$ $ $ 
Chargeable to Ordinary Account _ 23,029,901. 23,229,038. 26,606,121. 
Chargeable to Capital Disburse- 
ments 991,022. 48,010. 1,413,973. 

24,020,923. 23,277,048. 28,020,094. 



STATEMENT OF RECEIPTS 
FOR YEAR ENDED 



RECEIPTS 



ACCOUNTS BRANCH 

Provincial Land Tax 

Sale of Maps, Casual Fees, etc. 



$1,172,529.74 
109,226.58 



$1,281,756.32 



FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH 

Licenses, Royalty and Sundry (See Statement 
No. 3) 



5,054,516.23 



FOREST PROTECTION BRANCH 

Forest Protection Section 

Recovery of Fire Fighting Costs and 
Miscellaneous 



Air Service Section 

Flying Fees 



53,823.12 
21,979.62 



LANDS AND SURVEYS BRANCH 

Lands Section 

Land Sales (Capital) 

Land Rentals 

Leases and Licenses of Occupation 

Other Lands Miscellaneous Receipts 

Park Rentals 

Leases and Licenses of Occupation 

Algonquin $ 14,551.64 

Rondeau 17,256.34 

Presqu'ile 3,326.46 

Long Point 1,046.95 

Sundry Parks 267.60 



$ 644,158.52 

377,987.56 
26,416.61 



36,448.99 



1,085,011.68 



PARKS BRANCH 

Park Concessions 

Rentals 

Permits (All Parks) 

Vehicle $438,631.50 

Campsite 447,534.95 



Boat 
Hunting 
Guide 



Miscellaneous 



Carried forward 



9,170.00 
5,593.00 
4,350.00 



$ 58,831.43 



905,279.45 
26,200.35 



990,311.23 
$8,487,398.20 



statement No. 1 
AND DISBURSEMENTS 
MARCH 31 ST, 1962 

DISBURSEMENTS 

MAIN OFFICE 

Minister's Salary — Statutory $ 12,000.00 

Salaries $1,940,144.97 

Travelling Expenses 79,809.68 

Maintenance and Operating 26,954.46 2,046,909.11 

Damage and Other Claims, Sundry Contingencies, etc. 7,034.27 

Compensation for Injured Workmen 114,770.52 

Unemployment Insurance Stamps 71,850.35 

Annuities and Bonuses to Indians 32,624.00 

Advisory Committee to the Minister 3,264.67 $ 2,288,452.92 



FIELD SERVICES 

BASIC ORGANIZATION — District Oflfices 

Salaries $13,312,277.84 

Travelling Expenses 634,195.95 

Maintenance and Operating $3,095,131.70 

Equipment — other than Forest 

Fire Suppression 1,139,753.93 

$4,234,885.63 
Less: Federal Contribution 713,844.88 3,521,040.75 17,467,514.54 



EXTRA FIRE FIGHTING 

Wages, etc., Maintenance and Operating $ 2,066,899.21 

Forest Fire Suppression Equipment 273,208.01 2,340,107.22 



AIR SERVICE 

Salaries $ 614,278.00 

Travelling Expenses 11,994.22 

Maintenance 486,958.71 1,113,230.93 



LANDS AND SURVEYS 

Ground Surveys $ 283,347.54 

Lake-of-the- Woods and Lac Seul Storage Dams — 

Control and Maintenance 1,272.25 284,619.79 



PUBLIC INFORMATION AND EDUCATION 

Salaries, etc.. Maintenance and Operating 139i,780.65 



Carried Forward $23,63a,7(I6..05 



RECEIPTS 

FOR YEAR ENDED MARCH 31 ST. 1962 

Brought Forward $ 8,487,398.20 

TIMBER BRANCH 

Timber Section (See Statement No. 2) 

Crown Dues $12,202,240.29 

Ground Rent 83,074.00 

Forest Protection Charges __ 1,085,269.26 
Interest, Scalers' Wages, Mill 

Licenses, etc. 10,822.25 

$13,381,405.80 
Cash Deposits 21,101.57 $13,402,507.37 

Government of Canada Payment under Forest 

Inventory Agreement 1960-61 3,837.43 13,406,344.80 

Reforestation Section 

Sale of Nursery Trees 111,660.46 



TOTAL RECEIPTS $22,005,403.46 

Excess of Disbursements over Receipts 6,014,690.56 



$28,020,094.02 



statement No. 1 (Cont'd) 

DISBURSEMENTS 
FOR YEAR ENDED MARCH 31ST, 1962 

Brought Forward $23,633,706.05 



GRANTS 



Association of Ontario Land Surveyors $ 200.00 

Ontario Forestry Association 10,000.00 

Jack Miner Migratory Bird Foundation Inc. — 3,000.00 

Tnomas N. Jones 300.00 

Ontario Fur Breeders' Association Inc. 5,000.00 

Ontario Council of Commercial Fisheries 2,500.00 

Ontario Trappers' Association 1,000.00 

Grants to Municipalities and Conservation 

Authorities (See Statement No. 6) 90,349.79 112,349.70 



WOLF BOUNTY $ 44,510.00 

BEAR BOUNTY 3,405.00 47,915.00 

PARK IMPROVEMENTS 

Acquisition of Land $ 154,957.05 

Land Improvements, Sundry buildings and 

structures 1,805,392.66 

Construction of Major Buildings 104,113.18 

Picnic Tables, Grills, Refuse Containers and 

other Equipment 64,131.40 

$2 128 594.29 

Less: Federal Contribution 44li345.'ll 1,687,249.18 



MAINTENANCE OF ACCESS ROADS 

Salaries, etc.. Maintenance and Operating 192,641.79 

FOLEYET FLOOD RELIEF FUND 

Special Warrant - 25,000.00 

CONSERVATION AUTHORITIES 

Salaries $294,926.36 

Travelling Expenses 10,773.32 

Maintenance and Operating 9,818.61 $ 315,518.29 



Publication of Technical Reports 5,867.75 

River Valley Conservation Surveys, etc 137,269.18 

Grants to Conservation Authorities 

(See Statement No. 7) 358,769.84 

Grants to Municipal Camping Areas 

(See Statement No. 8) 89,833.64 907,258.70 

GRANTS TO CONSERVATION AUTHORITIES 
(CAPITAL) 

(See Statement No. 7) 1,413,973.51 

TOTAL DISBURSEMENTS $28,020,094.02 



TIMBER 

TIMBER 

ANALYSIS OF CASH 

FOR YEAR ENDED 



District 



Crown 
Dues 



Ground 
Rent 



Forest 

Protection 

Charges 



Interest 

Scalers' Wages, 

Mill Licenses, 

Etc. 



Chapleau $ 569,327.03 

Cochrane 1,096,963.55 

Fort Frances 402,259.16 

Geraldton 1,806,309.92 

Gogama 366,858.77 

Kapuskasing 1,727,686.44 

Kenora 863,112.78 

Lindsay 96,673.24 

North Bay 623,535.29 

Parry Sound 254,793.66 

Pembroke 460,856.72 

Port Arthur 1,240,603.58 

Sault Ste. Marie __ 619,307.12 

Sioux Lookout 658,674.63 

Sudbury 221,026.18 

Swastika 543,661.15 

Tweed 184,826.51 

White River 449,792.93 

Other Districts 15,971.63 



$12,202,240.29 



Percentage of Total 
Timber Revenue _ 



; 1,107.00 


$ 14,169.60 


$ 678.28 


7,220.00 


92,416.00 


387.50 


627.00 


8,025.60 


114.03 


13,584.00 


173,850.76 


225.71 


1,923.00 


24,614.40 


37.13 


7,339.00 


93,939.20 


796.81 


10,432.00 


133,529.63 


567.10 


176.00 


2,252.80 


276.12 


3,758.00 


48,061.00 


449.42 


1,317.00 


16,857.60 


400.49 


4,419.00 


57,473.75 


548.94 


12,816.00 


164,043.80 


501.11 


3,891.00 


50,056.74 


903.54 


1,201.00 


14,822.40 


42.68 


4,472.00 


58,817.04 


256.82 


1,882.00 


24,889.80 


2,525.62 


522.00 


6,681.60 


562.35 


6,388.00 


83,301.60 


5.00 




17,465.94 


1,543.60 



$83,074.00 



$1,085,269.26 



$10,822.25 



91.16 



.62 



8.10 



.09 



10 



statement No. 2 



BRANCH 

SECTION 

RECEIPTS BY DISTRICTS 

MARCH 31 ST. 1962 



Forest 








Percentage of 


Inventory 


Total 


Cash Deposits 


Total Timber 


Total Timber 


Agreement 


Timber 


Received and 


Revenue and 


Revenue and 


1960-61 


Revenue 


Refunded 


Cash Deposits 


Cash Deposits 




$ 585,281.91 


$ 7,500.00(Cr.) 


$ 577,781.91 


4.31 




1,196,987.05 


17,605.40 


1,214,592.45 


9.06 




411,025.79 


5,253.00 


416,278.79 


3.11 




1,993,970.39 




1,993,970.39 


14.87 




393,433.30 




393,433.30 


2.93 




1,829,761.45 




1,829,761.45 


13.65 




1,007,641.51 


4,330.00 (Cr.) 


1,003,311.51 


7.48 




99,378.16 


300.00 


99,678.16 


.75 




675,803.71 


2,250.00(Cr.) 


673,553.71 


5.03 




273,368.75 


8,836.79 (Cr.) 


264,531.96 


1.97 




523,298.41 


2,000.00 


525,298.41 


3.91 




1,417,964.49 


700.00 


1,418,664.49 


10.58 




674,158.40 


717.59 (Cr.) 


673,440.81 


5.02 




674,740.71 


7,000.00 


681,740.71 


5.09 




284,572.04 


6,032.53 


290,604.57 


2.17 




572,958.57 


1,500.00 


574,458.57 


4.28 




192,592.46 


4,345.02 


196,937.48 


1.47 




539,487.53 




539,487.53 


4.03 


$3,837.43 


38,818.60 




38,818.60 


.29 


$3,837.43 


$13,385,243.23 


$21,101.57 


$13,406,344.80 


100.00% 



.03 



100.00% 



11 



statement No. 3 
FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH 

ANALYSIS OF CASH RECEIPTS 
FOR YEAR ENDED MARCH 31 ST, 1962 



FISHERIES 

Licenses 

Angling $2,527,212.49 

Commercial Fishing 90,160.00 

Smelt 18,698.40 

$2,636,070.89 
Royalty 

Commercial Fishing 2,693.38 $2,638,764.27 



GAME 

Licenses 

Non-Resident Hunting $ 936,819.05 

Bear 21.00 

Deer 420,726.99 

Moose 358,694.75 

Ground Hog 27,096.85 

Gun 295,013.70 

Dog 22,574.05 

Trappers 31,621.00 

Fur Dealers 3,521.00 

Fur Farmers 5,155.00 

Pheasant 6,130.00 

Tanners 115.00 

Cold Storage 312.00 

$2,107,800.39 
Royalty 

Game 212,460.79 2,320,261.18 



GENERAL 

Licenses 

Guides $ 12,632.00 

Wild Rice 23.00 

Hunt Camp Permits 1,000.00 

Fines 43,720.18 

Costs Collected 927.36 

Sales — Confiscated Articles 15,159.21 

— General 2,390.87 

Pheasant Tags 1,649.40 

Miscellaneous 4,807.35 82,309,37 



Federal-Provincial Fur Management 
Agreement 1960-61 

Government of Canada Repayments 13,181.41 



$5,054,516.23 



12 



statement No. 4 
RESEARCH BRANCH 

STATEMENT OF EXPENDITURE 
FOR YEAR ENDED MARCH 31 ST, 1962 

PROGRAMS 

Forestry $353,974.65 

Fisheries 283,038.32 

Mechanical 35,897.87 

Physical 39,475.00 

Wildlife 143,186.59 

Branch Administration 69,856.23 

Maintenance Costs 58,648.14 

Equipment Costs Unallocated 668.05 

$984,744.85 



13 



TOTAL EXPENDITURE ALLOCATED 
FOR YEAR ENDED 



Forest 

Ordinary Expenditure Total Protection Lands Timber 

$ $ $ $ 

Main Office 2,288,453. 440,364. 251,876. 549,009. 

Surveys 284,620. 

Basic Organization (before deduction 

of Federal Contribution $713,844.) 18,181,359. 5,126,524. 493,078. 5,318,322. 
Extra Fire Fighting (Wages and 

Equipment) 2,340,107. 2,340,107. 

Public Information 139,781. 19,569. 2,796. 12,580. 

Air Service 1,113,231. 

Grants 112,350. 90,350. 

Wolf and Bear Bounties 47,915. 

Park Improvements (before deduction 

of Federal Contribution $441,345.) 2,128,594. 

Maintenance (Access Roads) 192,642. 33,231. 106,165. 45,983. 

Conservation Authorities 907,259. 

Foleyet Flood Relief (Special 

Warrants) 25,000. 

27,761,311. 7,959,795. 853,915. 6,016,244. 

Distribution of General Expenditure and Administration Costs Over Main Services 

Air Service (as per analysis) 742,484. 27,046. 100,784. 

Field Administration (pro rated) 507,340. 63,192. 517,270. 

— Percentage 28% 4% 29% 

Research (as per analysis) 54,489, 12,088. 371,844. 

Surveys (pro rated) 12,845. 462,399. 96,333. 

— Percentage 2% 72% 15% 

27,761,311. 9,276,953. 1,418,640. 7,102,475. 



Less: Federal Contributions applied as Credits 

Canada Forestry Act 

— Forest Resources Inventory (pro 

rated in keeping with costs) 184,764. 46,191. 27,715. 73,905. 

— Reforestation 179,582. 179,582. 

— Forest Fire Protection 289,894. 289,894. 

Fur Management Agreement 59,605. 

Campgrounds — Picnic Areas Agree- 
ment 441,345. 

TOTAL ORDINARY EXPENDITURE 26,606,121. 8,940,868. 1,390,925. 6,848,988. 



Capital Disbursements 

Grants to Conservation Authorities 
TOTAL DISBURSEMENTS 

Percentage of Total 



1,413,973. 



28,020,094. 8,940,868. 1,390,925. 6,848,988. 
32% 5% 24% 



14 



statement No. 5 



TO MAIN SERVICES RENDERED 

31ST MARCH. 1962 



Fish and Conservation Air 

Wildlife Parks Authorities Service Research 



Field Ad- 
Surveys ministration 



$ $ 

379,014. 343,309. 

2,682,329. 1,622,350. 



$ 



19,009. 



298,837. 



7,035. 



60,106. 

11,800. 
47,915. 



41,934. 



2,128,594. 
7,263. 



162,515. 984,745. 

2,796. 
1,113,231. 



284,620. 
28,052. 1,763,444. 



200. 



10,000. 



907,259. 



25,000. 



3,181,164. 4,143,450. 907,259. 1,275,746. 1,006,550. 611,709. 1,805,479. 



377,876. 


27,556. 


275,516. 


382,581. 


15% 


21% 


589,131. 


8,066. 


6,422. 


64,222. 


1% 


10% 



^1,275,746. 



29,068. 

1% 

*1,035,618. 



30,512. * 1,805,479. 

2% 

*642,221. 



4,430,109. 4,625,875. 907,259. 



36,953. 
59,605. 



441,345. 



4,333,551. 4,184,530. 907,259. 



1,413,973. 



4,333,551. 4,184,530. 2,321,232. 
16% 15% 8% 



15 



^Deductions 



statement No. 6 

GRANTS TO MUNICIPALITIES AND CONSERVATION 
AUTHORITIES UNDER THE FORESTRY ACT, R.S.O. 1960 

Municipalities and Conservation Authorities 

Ausable River $ 7,132.13 

Big Creek Region 4,794.70 

Ganaraska River 1,363.87 

Grand Valley 11,742.34 

Corporation of the County of Lanark 3,068.91 

Corporation of the United Counties of Leeds and Grenville 603.56 

Metro Toronto and Region 8,881.55 

Moira River 10,338.06 

Napanee Valley 2,787.20 

North Grey 16,085.69 

Otter Creek 2,147.25 

Corporation of the County of Renfrew 11,242.50 

Saugeen Valley 9,100.96 

South Nation River 1,061.07 

$90,349.79 



Statement No. 7 

GRANTS TO CONSERVATION AUTHORITIES UNDER THE 
CONSERVATION AUTHORITIES ACT. R.S.O. 1960 



Conservation Authorities 

Ausable River 

Big Creek Region 

Catfish Creek 

Central Lake Ontario 

Credit Valley 

Crowe Valley 

Ganaraska River 

Grand Valley 

Holland Valley 

Junction Creek 

Lower Thames Valley 

Maitland Valley 

Metropolitan Toronto and Region 

Moira River 

Napanee Valley 

Neebing Valley 

Niagara Peninsula 

North Grey Region 

Nottawasaga Valley 

Otonabee Region 

Otter Creek 

Sauble Valley 

Saugeen Valley 

Sixteen-Mile Creek 

Spencer Creek 

South Nation River 

Sydenham Valley 

Twelve Mile Creek 

Upper Thames 

Whitson Valley 

Less: Federal Contribution 



Administration 


Development 


Total 


$ 14,399.17 


$ 3,603.72 


$ 18,002.89 


9,352.92 


6,812.95 


16,165.87 


693.34 


— 


693.34 


1,535.75 


211.36 


1,747.11 


25,890.66 


47,908.95 


73,799.61 


725.80 


632.58 


1,358.38 


1,683.09 


175.07 


1,858.16 


31,427.29 


68,453.83 


99,881.12 


1,798.51 


1,219.11 


3,017.62 


1,527.65 


6,164.24 


7,691.89 


1,316.22 


— 


1,316.22 


821.35 


536.77 


1,358.12 


170,405.00 


1,084,149.70 


1,254,554.70 


6,014.91 


5,474.15 


11,489.06 


873.93 


500.10 


1,374.03 


712.36 


— 


712.36 


11,172.13 


43,013.15 


54,185.28 


4,299.95 


7,134.36 


11,434.31 


981.60 


— 


981.60 


2,360.54 


— 


2,360.54 


3,568.41 


2,117.28 


5,685.69 


1,975.56 


10,143.20 


12,118.76 


9,607.85 


5,134.64 


14,742.49 


7,378.01 


158,569.46 


165,947.47 


1,813.05 


1,593.75 


3,406.80 


760.59 


168.19 


928.78 


1,106.09 


— 


1,106.09 


7,347.76 


33,781.05 


41,128.81 


36,844.42 


82,486.94 


119,331.36 


375.93 


— 


375.93 


$358,769.84 


$1,569,984.55 


$1,928,754.39 




156,011.44 


156,011.44 


$358,769.84 


$1,413,973.11 


$1,772,742.95 



16 



statement No. 8 

GRANTS TO MUNICIPAL CAMPING AREAS UNDER THE PARKS 
ASSISTANCE ACT, R.S.O. 1960 

Municipal Camping Areas 

Town of Cochrane $ 1,384.41 

City of Fort William 27,025.00 

Township of Innisfil 2,645.00 

Town of Kenora 9,720.46 

Town of Orillia 6,467.48 

City of Samia 37,500.00 

Town of Thessalon 780.35 

Town of Wiarton 1,182.00 

Town of Wingham 3,128.94 

$89,833.64 



17 



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20 




This artificial lake in Boyd Conservation Area, Metropolitan Toronto and Region, is 

always popular in sumnner. 




The Fanshawe Dann on the Thannes River at London. This was the first major flood 
control structure built by a Conservation Authority. 



21 



CONSERVATION AUTHORITIES BRANCH 



Chief: A. S. L. BARNES 



ADMINISTRATION 
Supervisor: F. G. Jackson 

Forestry P. M. R. Harvie 

Wildlife & Recreation K. M. Mayall 

Field Supervision A. D. Latomell 

Parks Inspection H. J. Christian 

Historical Research V. B. Blake 

Land Use 



ENGINEERING 

Supervisor: J. W. Murray 

Project Engineering F. J. Forbes 

Surveys 

Flood Warning 

Hydrometeorology D. N. McMullen 

(Government of Canada) 



22 



CONSERVATION AUTHORITIES BRANCH 

The Conservation Authorities Branch was transferred from the Department 
of Economics and Development to the Department of Lands and Forests on 
January 1, 1962. 

Originally the Conservation Branch was established in the Department of 
Planning and Development in 1944, and charged with the administration of The 
Conservation Authorities Act, 1945. The name of the Department was later 
changed to Economics and Development, and the name of the Branch to Con- 
servation Authorities Branch. 

The work of the Conservation Authorities Branch is concerned with or- 
ganizing Conservation Authorities in Ontario and directing and assisting these 
Authorities in carrying out conservation projects within the watersheds under 
their jurisdiction. The Branch is also concerned with the administration of The 
Grand River Conservation Act, 1938, and The Parks Assistance Act, 1960. 

Three Conservation Authorities were formed in 1946, immediately follow- 
ing the passage of The Conservation Authorities Act. In the years since, a total 
of 31 Conservation Authorities have been formed, of which 27 are in Southern 
Ontario, and four in Northern Ontario. It should be clearly understood that 
a Conservation Authority is a body corporate, and can undertake almost any 
type of conservation work. It is only when it obtains a government grant for 
a project that the Conservation Authorities Branch takes the necessary pre- 
cautions to see that money is wisely expended. This is one of the main func- 
tions of the Field Officer appointed by the Department. 

Conservation Authorities involve the concept of local responsibility for 
the development and management of resources. The Act gives an Authority 
power to undertake programs in all fields of conservation. Initiative to form a 
Conservation Authority under the Act must come from the municipal level. 
When once formed, the responsibility to carry out a program essentially re- 
mains with the Authority. 

Formation of Conservation Authorities 

The steps to be taken in the formation of a Conservation Authority are 
indicated in Sections 2 and 3 of The Conservation Authorities Act. 

Conservation Authorities are formed on the basis of the watershed or 
drainage area of a stream or group of streams. The first step in the formation 
is for two or more municipalities within the watershed, or area being considered 
for a Conservation Authority, to petition the Minister of Lands and Forests to 
call a meeting for the purpose of ascertaining whether or not it is desirable 
that an Authority be established. Following the receipt of such petitions a 
letter is sent to the clerks of all municipalities either wholly or partly within the 
watershed, informing them of the date, time and place of the meeting. All muni- 
cipalities are entitled to appoint representatives to attend this meeting, the num- 
ber of representatives being determined on the population basis. Two-thirds 
of the representatives must be present to make the meeting legal. If two-thirds 
of those present vote in favour of forming a Conservation Authority, a resolution 
is forwarded to the Minister requesting that an Authority be established. The 
Authority is then made legal by an order-in-council. Under The Conservation 

23 



Authorities Act, the Conservation Authority is a body corporate. It has repre- 
sentatives from all of the municipalities wholly or partly within the watershed, — 
that is, towns, cities, villages and townships, including those municipalities, if 
any, which voted against the establishment of an Authority, 

Thus, from the above, it will be seen that the establishment of a Conserva- 
tion Authority is a simple legal matter. The meeting at which the vote is taken 
to establish a Conservation Authority is presided over by a senior civil servant 
who forwards a report of the meeting, together with the resolution, to the Min- 
ister. Since the passing of the Act, not one request, passed by the necessary 
majority, for the establishment of an Authority has been refused. 

At the end of March, 1962, there were 31 Conservation Authorities cover- 
ing a total area of 20,653 square miles, and involving 455 municipalities. The 
Authorities range in size from the largest, — the Grand Valley Conservation 
Authority, with an area of 2,614 square miles, to the smallest (the Mattagami) 
of 34 square miles. In the 455 municipalities which belong to Conservation 
Authorities, are 20 cities, 74 towns, 80 villages, 280 townships, and the muni- 
cipalitiy of Metropolitan Toronto. These municipalities appoint a total of 623 
representatives, who, together with the three government-appointed representa- 
tives to Authorities, give a total membership of 727. 



Conservation A uthority 
Ausable River 
Big Creek Region 
Catfish Creek 
Central Lake Ontario 
Credit Valley 
Crowe Valley 
Ganaraska Region 
Grand Valley 
Holland Valley 
Junction Creek 
Maitland Valley 
Mattagami Valley 
Metropolitan Toronto 

and Region 
Moira River 
Napanee Valley 
Neebing Valley 
Niagara Peninsula 
North Grey Region 
Nottawasaga Valley 
Otonabee Region 
Otter Creek 
Sauble Valley 
Saugeen Valley 
Sixteen Mile Creek 
South Nation River 
Spencer Creek 
Sydenham Valley 
Lower Thames Valley 
Upper Thames River 
Twelve Mile Creek 
Whitson Valley 



When Established 
July 30, 1946 
September 9, 1948 
February 23, 1950 
July 17, 1958 
May 13, 1954 
November 6, 1958 
October 8, 1946 
February 26, 1948 
September 6, 1951 
December 12, 1957 
September 6, 1951 
November 30, 1961 
February 1, 1957 

July 31, 1947 
November 20, 1947 
July 15, 1954 
April 30, 1959 
June 5, 1957 
May 5, 1960 
July 9, 1959 
August 5, 1954 
July 17, 1958 
March 16, 1950 
December 20, 1956 
May 8, 1947 
May 8, 1958 
January 12, 1961 
February 2, 1961 
September 18, 1947 
June 12, 1958 
September 3, 1959 



665 

610 
189 
242 
391 
775 
229 
2,614 
232 
125 
984 
34 
968 



Area 

sq. miles 

sq. miles 

sq. miles 

sq. miles 

sq. miles 

sq. miles 

sq. miles 

sq. miles 

sq. miles 

sq. miles 

sq. miles 

sq. miles 

sq. miles 



1,056 sq. 

307 sq. 
86 sq. 

950 sq. 

655 sq. 
1,210 sq. 

603 sq. 

323 sq. 

521 sq. 
1,619 sq. 

159 sq. 
1,512 sq. 

101 sq. 
1,052 sq. 

869 sq. 
1,325 sq. 

124 sq. 

123 sq. 



miles 
miles 
miles 
miles 
miles 
miles 
miles 
miles 
miles 
miles 
miles 
miles 
miles 
miles 
miles 
miles 
miles 
miles 



24 



Conservation Surveys and Reports 

Newly established Conservation Authorities are not equipped to carry out 
examination of the conservation problems in their watersheds. Consequently, 
the Conservation Branch undertook to carry out, at no expense to the Authority, 
preliminarv investigations on the resources of the watersheds concerned. These 
surveys are usually the first service rendered to a new Authority. Data gathered 
in the surveys become the basis of the conservation report to the Authority. 
These reoorts treat the conservation problems of the watershed under six head- 
ings; history, land use, forestry, water, wildlife and recreation. 

The conservation reports deal with the use and development of the re- 
sources of watersheds on an integrated basis. Water problems are related to use 
of the land for agriculture and forestry. Recommended forest areas are related 
to the agricultural capability of the land. Recommendations for wildlife and 
recreation projects are made in the light of suggestions for water control pro- 
jects and improved forestry. 

While most of the early Conservation Authorities were brought into being 
because of flooding, all were aware of the necessity of carrying out such supple- 
mentary measures as improved land use methods, reforestation and good wood- 
lot management, prevention of pollution, investigation of water control measures, 
fish and wildlife studies and recreation projects. 

Conservation surveys deal with all these subjects. The reports from the 
surveys become a working plan for the Authority to follow, if it wishes. The 
scooe of the studies made in each section of the survey varies with the condi- 
tions in the areas under investigation. 

History 

A certain amount of historical matter is used in each report as a starting 
point for the study. An attempt is made to get as true and localized a picture 
of past conditions as possible. Experience has shown that this historical ap- 
proach covering settlement, changes in population and the pattern of develop- 
ment is of great value and interest to the people in the regions dealt with. This 
information helps to promote an interest in conservation among people who 
would otherwise very often, be disinterested. 

Measures of conservation must inevitably be aimed at setting right the 
conditions which have caused waste and destruction in the past. To find methods 
of correction and cure, it is necessary to get a true story of how these evils 
came about. This involves a careful study of developments in the past. Former 
conditions of climate; the records of former floods; the spread of settlement and 
the cutting of forests which these involved; the retreat of wildlife as the clearing 
spreads; the development of milling on the rivers; the rise and decay of the 
village settlements; the steady growth of large urban centres; the decline of 
rural populations; and the phases of agricultural development must all be studied 
in detail. The various general factors which influenced these developments must 
also be taken into account. 

The movement from the farms and the disappearance of small industries, 
for example, are not always due solely to the cutting of forests and exhaustion 
of the soil. Changed markets and methods, improvements in transportation, the 
opening of new areas, the concentration of industry, must all be considered in 
connection with their effect on the use of natural resources. 

The history of the development of the resources in the watershed thus forms 
a starting point for each separate division of the conservation study. 

25 



Water 

Water is of vital importance to the people of Ontario. Water control is of 
major interest to all of the Conservation Authorities in Ontario. The study of the 
water problems of the watershed begins in the Branch office with the careful 
examination of all available data. Hydrometric and meteorological records kept 
over the years are checked and tabulated and all available flood records are in- 
vestigated and related to the gauge records of the river in question. If there is 
a flooding problem, the number, size and location of reservoirs required to 
control flood waters is determined. All small lakes, community ponds and old 
mill dams are mapped and examined. 

Analyses of flood problems require careful examination of all pertinent 
available data and field surveys followed with detailed computations. To provide 
needed data on flood levels and extent of damages incurred, accounts of floods 
dating back over the last two hundred years are catalogued by the history section 
of the Conservation Authorities Branch. From this catalogue it may be noted 
that for the year 1947 alone, which was one of the worst on record for floods 
in Ontario, over 80 serious floods occurred on 54 of the Province's rivers. 

Since the inception of the Branch, its technical personnel have been dis- 
patched to the scene of most major floods in the Province to observe, photo- 
graph, measure and report on conditions, peak stages and flows and prepare 
estimates of damages. 

Topographic maps of the watershed are examined for possible dam and 
reservoir sites, and tributary areas are defined. Aerial photographs are examined 
stereoscopically, and the extent of channel improvements, dikes or diversions 
needed is estimated. Additional control data are determined by detailed field 
surveys. After the completion of field surveys, much detailed analysis is required 
for the preparation of a comprehensive water control plan and report. 

In order to provide accurate records of runoff and stream flows, the gaug- 
ing of streams is necessary. This was started in Ontario in 1912 by the Hydro- 
Electric Power Commission, and later taken over by the Federal Government. 
Since the Conservation Authorities Branch was established in 1944, the number 
of gauges has been increased from 9 to over 120. During the past six years, 
some 28 of the existing manually-read gauges have been replaced with recording 
stream gauges which will provide reliable, continuous records. This program is 
continuing, and eventually most of the gauges will be of the recording type. In 
addition, accurate records of precipitation on the various watersheds are re- 
quired. The tabulation of precipitation data is administered by the Federal De- 
partment of Transport, but as in the case of the stream gauges, the network of 
rain gauges is constantly being increased. 

Land Use 

Land use surveys must carefully consider the relation between soils, ag- 
riculture, forestry and water. All existing data, of which there is a considerable 
amount, are drawn upon in preparing a report. Basic to all land use surveys 
are the reports of the soil surveys carried out over the last 24 years by the 
Soils Department of the Ontario Agricultural College in co-operation with the 
Canada Department of Agriculture. 

Since the establishment of the Branch, over 40 land use surveys have been 
conducted in the watersheds of 24 Conservation Authorities. These surveys have 
been concerned with the examination of the conditions of the land, and with 
the factors contributing to its well-being or its misuse. Such conditions as drain- 

26 



age, erosion, topography and stoniness are observed and mapped. The present 
use of the land is also recorded. 

These surveys vary in detail and to some degree in objectives, depending 
on such factors as the area to be examined, the availability of staff and time. 
Some watersheds have been surveyed on a reconnaissance scale with a very 
generalized survey. Others have been surveyed in detail with intensive field 
examination. 

Aerial photographs and topographic maps form the basis for recording the 
field survey data. Such information as drainage conditions, erosion, degree of 
slope, and the present use of the land, are mapped on aerial photographs. This 
information forms the basis for maps of land conditions for a watershed, and 
for compiling data on these conditions. 

One end result of most of the surveys is the "land use capability classifica- 
tion" for the area surveyed. This system is based on the one originally developed 
by the Soil Conservation Service of the United States Department of Agriculture 
and adapted to Ontario conditions by the Ontario Agricultural College. 

Because of different areas and problems, land use surveys have varied both 
in detail and purpose. About one-third of the area of watersheds now within 
the Conservation Authorities has been examined for land conditions and soil 
problems. Some eleven per cent of this area has been examined in detail, and 
the remainder on a reconnaissance basis. 

In some watersheds, detailed surveys have been carried out on the drainage 
area of one tributary of the main watershed. Such surveys are called "little 
valley" surveys. In addition, studies have been made of several areas which have 
special uses. Thedford Marsh in the Ausable watershed, several of the marshes 
in the South Nation watershed, and a part of Holland Marsh have been so ex- 
amined. In 1960, a detailed study was made of the soil and water, forest, wild- 
life and plant resources of a 2,000-acre Cavan bog area in the County of 
Durham. 

In the conservation report concerning land, the Authority gets an assess- 
ment of the physical problems of the land in its area, together with recommenda- 
tions for better management of the soil and land resources. These reports are 
of interest not only to the Authority members, but also to the staffs of other 
Government departments and organizations as well. 

Forestry 

The forestry report provides information regarding the condition and ex- 
tent of the original forest, the sequence of wood-using industries, forest products 
and their yields, and conservation measures in progress on the watershed at the 
time of the survey, together with recommendations for future forest conservation. 

To date, some 15,000 square miles of watersheds, organized into Conserva- 
tion Authorities, have been surveyed. This is approximately half the area of 
Southern Ontario, but includes as well, two Authorities in the Sudbury basin, one 
at the Lakehead, and one in the Timmins area. During the survey, all the wood- 
lots are classified as to their species, age, regeneration, forest condition and 
stocking. Scrublands, or those areas producing no useful tree species, and 
areas suitable for, and requiring reforestation, are also mapped. 

When all the survey data are summarized for each watershed, a detailed 
program for forest improvement is drawn up for each Authority, designed to fit 
that Authority's individual land problems. Where problem areas are too small 
for large-scale forestry operation, methods of small woodlot improvement or 
small-scale reforestation are recommended, so that the Authority can promote 

27 



all forms of woodlot improvement among individual property owners. 

Where large scale or block forestry operations are desirable, a Conservation 
Authority forest program is designed for the watershed. This is a recommenda- 
tion for the acquisition of areas of existing woodlots and areas requiring reforesta- 
tion. Authorities may then purchase land for a Conservation Authority forest, and 
the forest may or may not be placed under agreement with the Department of 
Lands and Forests for management. 

Wildlife 

Wildlife surveys include general inventories of all species of wildlife, both 
game and non-game. Special emphasis is laid on vanishing or threatened species. 
Streams are classified as to their condition and suitability for particular species 
of fish. 

Wildlife surveys within Conservation Authorities have concentrated on the 
environment for fish, particularly in rivers and streams. Stream temperature, 
(frequently a critical factor), permanence of flow, fish cover and pollution of 
streams are given special emphasis. Surveys have been made of nearly every 
stream in most of the Conservation Authorities for the purpose of classifying 
the environment as suitable for one species of fish or another. The chief method 
is the collection of the bottom fauna of streams, since research has shown that 
certain insects are extremely sound indicators of the permanence of flow and 
maximum temperatures which will be encountered in an average summer. Col- 
lections of fish by gill nets, minnow seines, and electric fish shockers, along with 
records of continuous recording thermometers, have supplemented and supported 
the above data. Maps showing the biological data of more than 5,000 miles 
of stream courses have been made from these surveys. 

Where the control of lake levels has a double function of improving condi- 
tions for cottage owners as well as maintaining good spawning conditions for 
such species as muskellunge, the surveys inc'ude the basic data on water quality, 
depths, vegetation and bottom conditions. 

The value of wetlands is assessed, based on the amount of water and the 
quality of the vegetation. In some watersheds, detailed surveys of the small mam- 
mal populations have been made, and the habitats where they may be expected, 
since a few species can radically affect young forest plantations. 

Areas containing rare or spectacular species are recommended for acquisi- 
tion, and where there is a possible interest in nature trails, suitable sites for 
these are also outlined. 

Recreation 

Recreation surveys include estimates of the present and future population 
of the areas, descriptions of the present use of all recreation facilities by local 
and outside residents, rating of all recreation facilities — publicly or privately 
owned — and recommendations for new recreation areas for both urban and rural 
populations of the watershed. 

In order to fully appreciate the Conservation Authorities' place in the field 
of recreation, the intent of The Conservation Authorities Act, (R.S.O. 1960, 
Chapter 62) must be understood. Lands acquired by Conservation Authorities 
must, in the first instance, be capable of performing a use relative to conserva- 
tion. For example, flood plain lands, valley slopes, stream source areas, reforesta- 
tion land, woodland and wetland, may be desirable for Authority purchase. If 
these lands can, in the second instance, be used for recreation without seriously 
interfering with their primary function, then they should be so used. 

28 



The first requirement for a recreation program by a Conservation Authority 
is the extensive survey in which the needs are examined with the present and 
future population in mind. These needs are balanced against the available recrea- 
tion lands on which various conservation practices can be carried out. Spectacular 
land forms and the locations of rare geological formations or of unusual flora 
or fauna are noted. Good access from first-class highways is essential. 

Authorify Administration 

The conservation reports are presented to the Authorities for their guidance 
in developing a broad conservation program. The Authority must assume the 
initiative for carrying out any of the recommendations made in the report. Usually 
the Authority decides which measures are most urgent, and these are undertaken 
first. 

If any Authority expects to receive financial or technical assistance from the 
Province for a scheme (and most projects receive such assistance) it must re- 
quest the assistance of the appropriate government department. If, for example, 
a scheme undertaken by an Authority has to do with land use, it receives ap- 
proval from the Ontario Department of Agriculture. If the scheme involves for- 
estry or wildlife problems, then the appropriate branch of the Department of 
Lands and Forests must be contacted. In the case of flood control, the Authority 
must engage a consulting engineer to do the engineering and design work up to 
the point of calling for tenders, and to carry the work through to the construc- 
tion stage. Similarly, where an Authority acquires large conservation areas which 
may include parks and recreation, it may be necessary to employ men especially 
trained in this work to design the areas. 

Financing 

Three classes of financing are mentioned in The Conservation Authorities 
Act. The first is for capital expenses such as dams, reservoirs, reforestation land 
and conservation areas. The au*' 'y's share of payment for these must be 
borne by the member municipaliiies which benefit from the scheme. The second 
is maintenance of capital works, and this is paid entirely by the Authority in the 
same way. The third is called "administration costs" and includes all those 
activities to whch an Authority might be expected to engage in except capital 
and maintenance costs. Such charges as salaries and travelling expenses, ofiice 
rent and equipment, tree planting machines, exhibits, visual equipment, printed 
material, farm ponds, the investigation of reforestation lands, and all other 
small conservation projects, are described as administrative costs. 

Grants are made by the Provincial Government to all types of conservation 
schemes except for maintenance. Grants are a matter of policy and may change 
from year to year. At the present time, grants for flood control schemes are fifty 
per cent; for large scale reforestation schemes, grants are fifty per cent for land 
purchases, and one hundred i>er cent for management. For conservation areas 
in which parks are situated, the acquisition of flood plain lands, and all items 
included in administrative costs, the grants are also 50 per cent. 

For large flood control schemes, the Government of Canada, under The 
Canada Water Conservation Assistance Act, may contribute on the basis of 
371/2 per cent. A similar grant from the Province of Ontario leaves 25 per cent 
of such large flood control schemes to be raised by the Authority. 

Administration 

Each city, town, village or township located wholly or partly within a 

29 



Conservation Authority watershed must appoint a representative to the Authority. 
These representatives are appointed on the basis of the municipality's population. 
Where the population is less than ten thousand there is one representative; ten 
to fifty thousand, two representatives; fifty to one hundred thousand, three repre- 
sentatives; one hundred thousand to two hundred and fifty thousand, four repre- 
sentatives; and over two hundred and fifty thousand, five representatives. A 
special section of the Act deals with the representation from the Municipality 
of Metropolitan Toronto. The persons appointed by the member municipalities 
make up the membership of the Conservation Authority. 

Most large Authorities have an executive committee which carries out the 
routine work. All important decisions however, must be made by the whole 
Authority and this ibody meets several times a year. Under the Act, provision is 
made for appointing advisory boards. As the membership of these boards is not 
limited to that of the Authority, it provides an opportunity for assistancce and 
advice from other persons in the area who are particularly interested in con- 
servation. While the final decisions must be made by the accredited members 
appointed by the municipalities to the Authority, nevertheless, through the opera- 
tion of advisory boards, a wide variety of opinions is brought to the attention 
of the Conservation Authority in water control, public relations, reforestation, 
land use, parks, recreation and history. 

When the Authority has shown sufficient initiative, it has been the policy 
of the Government of Ontario, at the request of the Authority, to appoint a 
field officer to direct and co-ordinate the work in that watershed. It is difficult 
for a large Authority to make progress if its members, who must engage in the 
day to day business of making a living, must find time to plan and carry out, 
even to a limited degree, the broad program of conservation which the whole 
watershed demands. At the present time, fourteen field officers serve some of 
the needs of the 31 Conservation Authorities in the Province. 

A number of the larger and more active Authorities, in addition to having 
the services of a field officer supplied by the Department, have hired their own 
staff. These may be technical people, engaged in the administration of the 
Authority's program, or they may be superintendents and outside workmen 
concerned with the development of conservation areas, the carrying out of flood 
control projects, or any other Authority work. 

AUTHORITY PROGRAMS 
Water Control 

A number of Conservation Authorities have been established with the major 
objective of controlHng floods which have long been a problem in many parts 
of Ontario. Search of records indicates that from 1850 to 1960, floods causing 
property damage occurred in 103 of the 110 years. 

Floods in Ontario are caused by one or more of the following situations; 
rapid melting of a heavy snow pack with or without accompanying rainfall; 
severe local thunderstorms; hurricane-type storms; an abrupt change in the 
river section alignment or slope; ice jams and man-made encroachments on the 
river. 

The most devastating flood in Ontario in recent years was the "Hazel" 
storm of October 1954, when 86 lives were lost, and over twenty million dol- 
lars damage was caused in the Toronto area alone. 

While good forestry and land use practices will serve in some measure to 
reduce floods, flood control is really accomplished in most instances through 
control by engineering structures. 

30 



The construction of channel improvements and by-pass channels has been 
undertaken on several rivers. Such channelization may consist of widening, 
deepening and straightening the existing channel, or it may involve a diversion 
capable of carrying the entire flood flow of a river through a hazardous area. 
Examples of channel improvement may be seen in the work of the Metropolitan 
Toronto and Region Conservation Authority on the Humber River at Weston, 
on Black Creek near Jane Street, and on the Don River at Hoggs' Hollow. 
Channel improvement work on the Thames River has been carried out at 
Mitchell and Ingersoll by the Upper Thames River Conservation Authority. 

A channel diversion was made at Brampton where the Etobicoke Creek 
formerly passed under the main street of that town through a covered channel. 
The original channel with its limited capacity, was unable to handle the heavy 
spring flows through the business section of the town which was frequently 
severely damaged. The construction of the diversion in 1949 and 1950, by the 
former Etobicoke-Mimico Conservation Authority (now part of the Metropolitan 
Toronto and Region Conservation Authority) cost $976,000. This channel car- 
ries flood water safely around the low-lying centre of the Town, and it has 
already saved more than its cost on at least two occasions. The channel is 
concrete-lined, 3,100 feet in length, with a 30-foot bottom width, and is de- 
signed to carry 3,500 cubic feet per second, although it safely discharged much 
more than this at the time of Hurricane "Hazel" in 1954. 

Dikes and flood walls are additional man-made encroachments on a flood 
plain which, while giving protection, tend to further increase peak flow stages. 
Their construction is only recommended when valuable property is concentrated 
in a flood hazard area. Among the many municipalities which have parts pro- 
tected by dikes are: London, Brantford, Paris, Walkerton, Bridgeport, Chatham, 
Ingersoll and St. Mary's. 

Channel improvements, channel diversions, dikes and flood walls provide 
a degree of flood control, but such measures do not conserve water. They do 
not reduce the size of a flood, but merely ensure that water is safely passed 
through any given locality. 

The Water Section of the conservation reports prepared for a number of 
Conservation Authorities recommends the construction of a widespread system 
of dams and reservoirs. Several of these dams have already been constructed 
and a further number are now in the planning stages. 

Recommendations to Authorities with respect to flood control problems 
usually include some or all of the following measures: 

( 1 ) reduction of peak stage by channel improvements 

(2) diversion of flood water through by-pass channels 

(3) confinement of the flow within dikes or flood walls 

(4) reduction of peak flow by reservoir 

(5) zoning or acquiring flood plains so that only low hazard uses are 
permitted 

(6) flood forecasting coupled with a system to warn of impending danger 
in sufficient time for protection or evacuation of the people and 
valuable property 

The Fanshawe Dam and Reservoir is located on the north branch of the 
Thames River a few miles upstream from the City of London. The reservoir, 
completed in 1953, was built primarily for flood control and recreation. It re- 
tains flows in excess of the channel capacity through the City of London, and 
when the danger of flood is passed, the reservoir is lowered to its "recreation 

31 



pool level". The Fanshawe Reservoir has also become a valuable source of 
water supply for London. Fanshawe is the largest of six units required to give 
adequate flood protection and water conservation storage in the upper portion 
of the Thames watershed. Construction on two more units will start this year, 
and the whole system is expected to be completed by 1970. 

Fanshawe Dam is 77 feet high and 2,050 feet long, with rolled earth em- 
bankments and a crest-gated concrete overflow spillway. The lake, at its maxi- 
mum level, has a storage capacity of 38,880 acre-feet, and is over seven miles 
long. At its "recreational pool level" the lake contains 10,000 acre-feet and has 
a surface area of 650 acres. The total cost of the project, including the reservoir, 
property, roads and bridges, was $5,315,000. Of this sum, the Government of 
Canada paid 37 1/2 per cent, the Government of Ontario the same amount, and 
the Upper Thames River Conservation Authority the remaining 25 per cent. 

Three large multi-purpose reservoirs have been established on the Grand 
River watershed. These are the Shand Dam, four miles upstream from Fergus, 
and the first large conservation reservoir built in Ontario, the Conestogo Dam 
and Reservoir near Glen Allen and the Luther Marsh Dam and Reservoir, 
located on the head waters of the river near Monticello. These three reservoirs 
were constructed by the Grand River Conservation Commission. Like those on 
the Thames River, they were financed jointly by the Government of Canada 
(3714 per cent), the Government of Ontario (37 14 per cent) and the participa- 
ting municipalities (25 per cent). 

In addition to the large multi-purpose dams and reservoirs, several Con- 
servation Authorities have undertaken projects involving the building of smaller 
dams for such purposes as irrigation water supply, municipal water supply, and 
the improvement of summer flow. The Ausable River Construction Authority 
constructed the Morrison Dam and Reservoir near the Town of Exeter to pro- 
vide water to that Town and adjacent municipalities. The Napanee Valley Con- 
servation Authority constructed a dam to enlarge the usable storage of Second 
Depot Lake to 7,000 acre-feet. Water is discharged during low flow periods to 
augment the flow in the Napanee River on which the Town of Napanee relies 
for domestic and industrial water suppUes. Similarly, Morrison Dam, which is 
near the head waters of the Ausable River, conserves water which would other- 
wise be wasted. 

The Sixteen Mile Creek Conservation Authority recently completed the 
construction of the Kelso Dam and Reservoir located on the Sixteen Mile Creek 
adjacent to Highway 401. The main purpose of this reservoir is to release water 
during periods of low flow in the lower reaches of the stream. 

Community Ponds 

Several Conservation Authorities have established community ponds. These 
ponds, often created by the construction of a small dam, have value for recrea- 
tion, fire protection, and as a habitat for various forms of wildlife. In addition, 
they have considerable aesthetic value which cannot easily be measured in dol- 
lars and cents. Some gravel pits, quarries and old mill ponds have been con- 
verted for use as community ponds. 

The largest unit of this type is the Guelph Dam and Pond on the Speed 
River in that City. This dam raises the water 11 feet, creating a large pond 
which forms the nucleus of a riverside park. In order to allow the unrestricted 
discharge of high spring runoffs, the dam is fitted with three electrically operated 
large steel gates, each gate being 32 feet wide by 11 feet high. 

Other community ponds have been created, either by the building of new 

32 



dams, or the reconstruction of old ones in the Ganaraska Authority at Garden 
Hill, by the Holland Authority in Newmarket, by the South Nation Authority at 
Casselman, by the Big Creek Region Authority at Simcoe. A complete list of 
these community projects is included in a subsequent section of this report. 

Hydrometeorology 

Variations in meteorological conditions have a pronounced effect on the 
flow pattern of the streams and rivers of Southern Ontario. Problems concern- 
ing the relationship between meteorology and hydrology must be considered in 
detail before controls can be established on a river. Hydrometeorological anal- 
yses are therefore an important part of the water studies of this Branch. 

These analyses, which require data from an extensive network of precipita- 
tion and stream gauge stations, relate rainfall, snowmelt and soil moisture con- 
ditions to runoff in the streams. Such studies establish the characteristic of the 
stream under a variety of meteorological conditions. The results are used to 
establish the capacity of reservoirs, the size and type of dam structures or chan- 
nel improvements and the availability of water for urban use, irrigation, pollu- 
tion control, recreation and power supply. 

Besides giving attention to hydrometeorological analyses this Branch is also 
concerned with research in the water balance of different regions of the Province. 
To this end, the Conservation Authorities Branch, in co-operation with the 
Upper Thames River Conservation Authority, has established at Fullarton, a 
hydrologic research station. Certain instruments, which are set up at this small 
station, aid in examining the rainfall runoff relationship on a small agricultural 
watershed. - « 

Flood Warning 

The responsibility for flood warning in Ontario rests with the Hydro- 
meteorological Section of the Conservation Authorities Branch. The need for 
such a warning system was made abundantly clear following the devastation and 
loss of life caused by Hurricane Hazel. 

A basic feature of the flood warning system is the close co-operation 
between the Federal Government Department responsible for weather forecasts 
and the Provincial Government Department responsible for river control. The 
Meteorological Branch, Canada Department of Transport, is responsible for all 
weather forecasting in Canada. That Branch, therefore, issues the necessary 
weather data, weather forecasts and warnings of severe weather conditions, 
while the Conservation Authorities Branch applies this weather information to 
conditions existing on the watersheds and issues flood forecasts based on the re- 
sults of the correlation of these two types of information. 

In 1955, the Meteorological Branch seconded a meteorologist to the Con- 
servation Authorities Branch to head up the flood warning system. In this posi- 
tion, which is designated as Hydrometeorologist, he is responsible for maintain- 
ing a watch of river conditions, issuing flood forecasts, supervising the operation 
of flood control reservoirs, and establishing meteorological design criteria for 
river control structures. 

Ontario's flood warning system is at the present time unique in Canada. 

This system is designed to: 

1. Alert the general public to the danger of floods by indicating where 
and when they will occur. 

2. Alert flood assistance agencies such as Emergency Measures Organiza- 

33 



tion, the Red Cross, and others, to the regions to which they may be 
required. 

3. Advise in the operation of flood control dams and reservoirs in order 
to obtain the most advantageous use of the works and structures. 

The attention of the Flood Warning System is directed primarily to the more 
heavily populated section of the Province, or an area of some 30,000 square 
miles. 

A variety of weather forecasts is issued by the Meteorological Branch, and 
is available to the Flood Warning System. A general forecast, covering a two- 
day period, is issued at six-hourly intervals, and is generally adequate for 
maintaining a normal river watch. Special warnings are issued whenever heav>' 
rains of one inch or more are expected. These warnings indicate the amount, 
location and time of the rain, along with the speed and direction of motion of 
the storm. These warnings are issued up to 24 hours before the occurrence of 
the rain. 

Weather forecasts and advisories are correlated by the hydrometeorologist 
with current data on soil moisture and river flow conditions with stream flow 
characteristics. 

An extensive program has been undertaken with the installation of recording 
stream gauges on the rivers of Southern Ontario. As information from these 
gauges becomes available, it is used to prepare graphs and other data necessary 
to assess stream flow characteristics. All major storms and many minor ones 
are analyzed in order to obtain as much detailed information as possible on 
stream flow conditions. 

Detailed and up-to-date information on the prevailing river stage, flood 
storage available in reservoirs and soil conditions, is on hand at all times for the 
river forecaster. 

For forecasting purposes, soil conditions are translated into runoff rates 
through calculation of the antecedent precipitation index. The method used is 
similar to that developed by the United States Weather Bureau. 

Measurements of the depth of snow and its water content are taken over 
the region at regular intervals throughout the winter. These are particularly 
important in assessing the flood potential of the spring runoff or the development 
of floods as a result of winter rains. 

From such data and calculations, the river forecaster in the Branch issues 
weekly advisories to the Field Officers who are responsible for watershed manage- 
ment in their particular region. These advisories indicate the amount of runoff 
to be expected with varying amount of rainfall under the prevailing soil moisture 
conditions. The extended period weather forecasts are also issued along with 
these advisories. By this means the men in the field are kept advised of the 
prevailing conditions as they affect their particular river, and are alerted to the 
possibility of adverse weather conditions. They are expected to keep a watch 
on short period forecasts as a supplement to the weekly advisories. 

Flood forecasts and activities during actual flood conditions are issued at 
the discretion of the Hydrometeorologist whenever he feels they are warranted. 
Once a river forecast has been issued, advisories are given on the development of 
flood conditions until such time as a final message is issued indicating the end of 
a flood alert. 

In order to obtain direct information of rainfall amounts and intensity which 
may result in flooding, a network of special rainfall observers has been established 
to assist the flood forecast system. These observers send a telephone call to the 
river forecaster whenever they receive an inch or more of rain within 24 hours. 

34 



They also take extra readings on request. These observers are all on a voluntary 
basis. 

Weather radar is also used to assist the flood forecaster in locating the 
rainfall centres and the extent and movement of the storm. This has proven to 
be a very valuable tool. At present there is only one installation in Toronto, 
about the centre of the forecast area. 

Information on river stage is obtained from the gauge readers at the obser- 
vation stations. However, in those regions where flooding is a recurrent problem, 
particularly during spring runoff, a corps of observers is organized. These persons 
are located at strategic points along the river and supply regular readings of the 
river stage during floods. 

Flood forecasts are issued to commercial radio and television stations for 
broadcast on receipt. The forecasts are also telephoned directly to the Field 
Officers in the region affected, and to the local police and other organizations 
directly associated with protection. In several towns and cities flood organiza- 
tions have been established which include the police departments, fire departments, 
Red Cross, Emergency Measures Organization, welfare agencies and private 
citizens. 

During severe flood conditions, units of the Canadian Army are placed on 
stand-by on receipt of a flood forecast in order to be of assistance should the 
local agency be unable to handle the emergency. 

The effectiveness of the Ontario Flood Warning System is maintained by the 
Conservation Authorities Branch primarily through co-operation with the Meteor- 
ological Branch, Canada Department of Transport, which is the agency 
responsible for issuing weather forecasts. The Conservation Authorities Branch 
is the agency responsible for watershed management in the Province of Ontario. 

Water Control Projects in the Late Planning Stage 

Several Conservation Authorities have water control projects for multiple 
purposes in the final planning stages and on which initial construction is expected 
to start during 1962. These include the Upper Thames River Conservation 
Authority, the Metropolitan Toronto and Region Conservation Authority and 
the Ausable River Conservation Authority. These three Authorities have signed 
agreements with the Government of Ontario to carry out water control projects 
in their watersheds, and also receive Federal financial assistance under The 
Canada Water Conservation Act, These agreements are similar to those under 
which dams were constructed on the Grand and Thames Rivers. Cost of most 
of the projects will be borne by the Government of Canada, the Province of 
Ontario, and the Authorities, on a 37 1/2, 37 1/2, 25 per cent basis. 

The Metropolitan Toronto and Region Conservation Authority drew up an 
over-all plan for water conservation and flood control on the watersheds under 
its jurisdiction. In 1959 and 1960, the plan was approved first by the 23 
member municipalities within the Authority, and then by the Provincial Govern- 
ment. The plan was submitted to the Federal Government and, in June 1961. 
an agreement was signed between the Authority and the Province of Ontario, 
and another agreement between Ontario and the Government of Canada for carry- 
ing out this Authority's ten-year plan for the control of water. The Federal Gov- 
ernment will share 37 1/2 per cent of the cost of acquiring reservoir sites, construc- 
tion of the major dams, and channel improvements. This cost-sharing arrangement 
is available on an estimated expenditure of $24,000,000, Other aspects of the plan 
in which the Government of Canada does not participate include flood land 
acquisition, several smaller reservoirs, and extension of the flood warning system. 

35 



These aspects will cost approximately $14,000,000 and will be financed by the 
Authority and the Province of Ontario on a 50-50 basis. 

The major features of this plan include the construction of 15 multiple- 
purpose dams and reservoirs, the construction of associated channel improvements 
in vulnerable areas, the acquisition of 7,458 flood plain lands within seven of the 
watersheds, and the extension of the existing flood warning system. 

In addition to these measures, certain other ancillary measures will also be 
carried out. These ancillary measures involve reforestation, wildlife management, 
soil conservation projects, and the development of recreation and nature 
facilities. 

The agreements call for this $38,000,000 scheme to be carried out over a 
ten-year period. 

Prior to the signing of this agreement, certain work was carried out, 
particularly on a tributary of the Humber River known as "Black Creek" in North 
York Township. This involved channel improvement measures and the building 
of a low flood retardation dam. Some channel improvement work has also been 
carried out on the lower portion of the Humber River. Over 1,300 acres of 
flood plain lands have been acquired by this Authority prior to the signing of the 
agreement. 

The Upper Thames River Conservation Authority signed a similar agreement 
in 1961 to carry out flood prevention and water control measures in the upper 
portion of that watershed. These measures were called for in the Upper Thames 
River Conservation Report of 1952 and the Fanshawe Dam was the first step 
in the carrying out of a complete flood control plan for that watershed. At an 
estimated cost of $9,640,000, the scheme for the Thames River Valley involves 
the building of five dams and channel improvement measures at Mitchell, 
Woodstock and St. Mary's. In 1962 the Minister of Lands and Forests and the 
Federal Minister of Northern Affairs and National Resources approved the 
inclusion of the Stratford scheme on the Avon River under the agreement at 
an estimated cost of $435,000. This agreement is also to be carried out over 
a ten-year period. 

The A usable River Conservation Authority is the third Authority to have 
signed an agreement with the Government of Canada and the Province of Ontario 
to carry out flood control and water conservation measures. Their agreement 
signed in 1961 calls for the construction of a dam near Parkhill at a cost of 
$1,000,000. Construction is expected to get underway in 1963. 

Soil Conservation and Land Use 

Authority projects in soil conservation are an important part of the over-all 
conservation program. By their very nature, however, these projects are often 
less spectacular than the building of dams for flood control or the development 
of conservation lands for recreation. 

In Ontario, the use and management of the soil is primarily the concern 
of the landowner. His management program is dictated by his interest in farming, 
experience, and by economics. The major government responsibility for advancing 
programs in agriculture is vested in the Department of Agriculture. 

The place of Conservation Authorities in soil conservation programs is largely 
that of publicizing the need for and the value of proper soil management. In 
their programs, the Authorities work in close liaison with the Department of 
Agriculture and with the Ontario Agricultural College. The county agricultural 

36 



representatives are usually members of the land use advisory boards of the various 
Authorities. 

In co-operation with the Department of Agriculture, and with other agri- 
cultural organizations, Ontario's Conservation Authorities have undertaken a 
variety of projects in the field of land use and soil conservation. Highlights of 
some of these projects are: 

Farm Ponds 

Some two-thirds of the 31 Conservation Authorities have programs to assist 
in the building of farm ponds. Both financial and technical assistance is given. 
Financial assistance is in the form of a grant ranging between $50 and $300 per 
pond, depending on the size. By the end of 1962 some 2,500 ponds will have 
been constructed under assistance programs of the various Conservation Authorities. 

Farm Drainage 

One Conservation Authority, the Metropolitan Toronto and Region, gives 
financial assistance towards the drainage of farm land. Upon completion of the 
drainage work to the satisfaction of the Department of Agriculture, the Authority 
pays a subsidy of 2 cents per tile. 

The Ausable River Conservation Authority has adopted an assistance policy 
through which it gives technical and financial assistance towards the building 
of proper outlets for farm tile drainage systems. 

Grassed Waterways 

Two Conservation Authorities extend financial assistance in the form of a 
subsidy to landowners to build an approved grassed waterway on their farms. 
The maximum amount payable is $200 per farm. 

Stream Bank Erosion Control Projects 

Five Conservation Authorities have carried out projects to control cutting 
and erosion of river banks along stream courses. These projects have been of 
benefit in protecting not only farm land but also urban land, buildings and 
services such as roads and sewers. In some cases they have been specific control 
projects; in others they have been demonstrations of what one can do to control 
stream bank erosion often with quite small expenditures and with fairly simple 
control measures. 

Demonstrations 

One of the most effective ways of arousing interest in conservation farming 
and improved land use practices is by demonstration. Conservation Authorities 
carry out land use demonstrations in several ways. 

One method is to purchase land and establish on it demonstrations of 
approved land management. The Grand Valley Conservation Authority has one 
such property on 50 acres on which they have carried out control of gullies, built 
a farm pond, and done reforestation and pasture improvement work. 

Twelve Conservation Authorities have established demonstrations of such 
conservation measures as pasture management, reforestation, gully control, stream 
bank erosion control and contouring and strip-cropping on Authority-owned 
properties. These demonstrations of land management are there for all visitors, 
both rural and urban, to see. These demonstrations have been quite an effective 
means of informing the public of the value of conservation measures. 

Authority assistance is extended to private landowners in carrying out 

37 



specific land use projects on their own land. In return for Authority financial 
and technical help, the landowner must agree to the use of the project as a 
demonstration. Often such projects have been used as a feature of a "Conservation 
Day" in which the Department of Agriculture and local farm organizations 
co-operate with the Authority in publicizing the event. A dozen Authorities have 
held a number of such events which have been attended by about ten thousand 
people. 

The Saugeen Valley Conservation Authority has established a demonstration 
pasture farm on land that tends towards the marginal for most farming purposes. 
This demonstration shows the possibilities of various types of pasture management 
and seed mixtures for this class of land. The demonstration has attracted wide 
interest. 

Land Judging Competitions 

A project becoming increasingly popular in recent years is the land judging 
competitions. First sponsored in 1955 by an Authority in the Toronto region, 
in 1961 about 20 such competitions were held across Ontario. Many of them 
were sponsored jointly by Conservation Authorities, the Ontario Agricultural 
College, and the Department of Agriculture. 

Primarily designed to interest and educate rural young people in soil and 
its management problems, the competitions have also attracted adult interest. 
The usual procedure is to have instruction in the morning of the event with 
the actual competition in the afternoon. Soils are judged according to such factors 
as erosion, stoniness, drainage, slope and suitability for various crops. Contestants 
fill out judging cards and score points for their answer, and usually the winners 
are given prizes. 

Forest Conservation Programs 

Good forestry practice is predicated on the assumption that it will produce 
wood products at a profit. Aside from this fact, however, forests have an 
important and sometimes intangible part to play in a watershed management 
program. They are the natural covering for headwater areas such as swamps and 
gravel moraines which give rise to many small tributary streams, and are the 
only crop which can be grown on extensive, rocky lands. Forests embrace other 
factors included in the conservation scheme such as surface or underground water 
storage, wildlife management and recreation. 

The Conservation Survey of the watershed carried out by the Conservation 
Authorities Branch indicates to the Authority concerned the forestry needs of the 
watershed in question. The conservation report indicates to the Authority which 
portions of the watershed, on land submarginal for agriculture, should be under 
forest cover for better land management and for watershed protection and 
conservation values. 

Most conservation reports recommend the establishment of an Authority 
forest. Authority forests may consist of existing woodlands plus areas of land 
that must be reforested. The primary functions of an Authority forest in a 
watershed conservation project are: 

( 1 ) the protection of source water areas 

(2) the control and prevention of erosion 

(3) the improvement of timber production and timber quality in 
natural woodlots 

(4) the return of abandoned and open lands suitable only for 
reforestation, to forest 

38 



(5) the change of unproductive scrublands to productive forest 
lands 

(6) the insurance of proper care and harvesting techniques in the 
forest area. 

To date, 973,182 acres have been recommended for acquisition by Authorities 
for Authority forest programs. Of this land, 494,871 acres are covered with 
natural woods, 391,710 acres are clear, and 86,285 acres consist ol scrubland 
both wet and dry. 

In March 1961, 15 Conservation Authorities had purchased over 55,000 
acres of land which now constitute Authority forests. In those Authorities that 
have established Authority forests, just under 8 per cent of the area recommended 
for forest has been acquired. 

The Ganaraska River Conservation Authority, one of the oldest Authorities 
in Ontario, has, in the past thirteen years, purchased over 40 per cent of the area 
recommended for an Authority forest. The Ontario Government provides a 50 
per cent subsidy for land so purchased. 

Reforestation Assistance 

Various types of assistance are given by Conservation Authorities to private 
landowners in order to promote better land use in areas outside Authority forests. 
Examples of these are: 

( 1 ) direct subsidization of private planting 

(2) provision of planting machinery and planting crews. 

(3) provision of delivery service and stock being supplied to 
property owners from the Department's tree nurseries 

(4) provision of an inspection service to ensure proper care of 
planted stock 

(5) trees for reforestation are obtained from the eleven nurseries 
operated by the Department. 

In addition, three organizations, the Grand River Conservation Commission, 
the Upper Thames River Conservation Authority, and the Metropolitan Toronto 
and Region Conservation Authority have nurseries of their own, growing shrubs 
and tree stock for erosion control and wildlife purposes. 

Other Methods 

In addition to these two direct methods. Conservation Authorities are 
promoting reforestation and good woodland management in other ways as well. 
Authorities help promote the passing of county diameter limit bylaws and their 
enforcement. Authorities have used education and pubUc relations as a tool in 
interesting the public in good woodland management. Tree planting days for 
youth groups such as school children, boy scouts and 4H clubs, and conducted 
tours over well-organized conservation trails help to interest people, particularly 
the younger people. Authorities have also co-operated with the Department and 
other organizations interested in woodland management in the promotion of 
special field days. 

Wildlife 

Conservation Authorities are much concerned with the place of wildlife 
resources in their watershed programs. This concern has two aspects, the first 
being to retain for the citizen the opportunity to fish and hunt within the law in 
an attractive environment and, secondly, to retain for every citizen the oppor- 

39 



tunity to see and enjoy the varied forms of birds, mammals, and other wildlife 
in many regions in the greatest possible variety. 

Land well adapted for wildlife should produce or harbour a permanent 
population of interesting species and an annual crop of game with no adverse 
eflfeot on farming or forestry practices. The control of harmful species and the 
maintenance of all other animal populations at a desirable level is a natural 
branch of good land use. 

Many of the Conservation Authorities have set up fish and wildlife advisory 
boards. These are composed of members of the Authority, local district biologists, 
and invited competent members of the general public. The wide scope of 
Conservation Authorities programs provide many opportunities for fish and 
wildlife management projects. 

A major project in several Conservation Authorities is the acquisition of 
flood plain lands. Such properties make stretches of streams available for fisher- 
men. These purchases have contained both warm water fish and trout habitat. 
In those areas where fishing pressure occurs, arrangements have been made with 
the Department of Lands and Forests to stock yearling trout annually. Severe 
flooding, characteristic of this particular type of purchase, prohibits conventional 
stream improvement measures in many cases. However, as a substitute, several 
removable dams have been constructed. 

Purchases of land by several Conservation Authorities for conservation 
purposes have included properties with lakes or ponds. Many Authorities have 
developed such properties for fishing as well as swimming and picnicking. The 
Heart Lake Conservation Area within the Metropolitan Toronto and Region 
Conservation Authority is one example of such a property. In this lake, the 
coarse fish were eradicated and a combination of large-mouth bass and Kamloops 
trout stocked. Many of the 2,500 farm p^onds which the Conservation Authorities 
have helped to build are now used for fishing or for wildlife production. "Put 
and take" management may accommodate large numbers of anglers. At the 
Glen Haffy Conservation Area in the Metropolitan Region Authority, two public 
fishing ponds were stocked at frequent intervals throughout the fishing season. 
About 7,000 anglers visit the ponds each year and harvest close to 3,000 speckled 
trout. 

Authorities are now being encouraged to draw plans for fish and wildlife 
programs along with their preliminary engineering for flood control structures. 
Authorities are beginning to appreciate the value of tail-water fishing (particularly 
where a bottom discharge can provide trout habitat) and, therefore, to plan 
below a reservoir as well as above. An example is the rainbow trout fishing now 
available below Bellwood Lake in the Grand watershed. The excellent waterfowl 
hunting at the Luther Reservoir is a by-product of the flood control program of 
the Grand River Conservation Commission. 

The Authorities are also being encouraged to introduce some variety of "edge" 
into the forest plantations which are now common to our landscape. With new 
changes in reforestation procedure and with an added investment in stream 
improvement, ponds and shrub plantings, these tracts can now lend themselves 
to low-intensity public use. In fact, two Conservation Authorities produce shrubs 
for wildlife habitat improvement, and most of these shrubs find their way to 
reforestation plantings in the conservation areas. Many are used in stream bank 
and gully plantings. The Metropolitan Toronto and Region Conservation 
Authority and the Upper Thames River Conservation Authority have such 
nurseries. 

Several lakes, formerly ditched and drained, now have controlled levels 

40 



through the building of small dams by Conservation Authorities. The North 
Grey Region Conservation Authority constructed a fish ladder in connection with 
the improvement of a dam in the City of Owen Sound on the Sydenham River. 
The river now receives an excellent run of rainbow trout from Georgian Bay. 
Many Conservation Authorities have discovered that nature trails constructed 
in the conservation areas are an excellent means of providing public education 
as well as public enjoyment. Most of the Conservation Authorities have constructed 
nature trails in their major conservation areas. 

Research 

One Authority in particular, the Metropolitan Toronto and Region, has 
undertaken a quite extensive program in the field of research, particularly into 
the control of acquatic plants and algae in farm ponds. The Authority is also 
doing research into the construction features of farm ponds with relation to good 
fish habitat. They have also undertaken the experimental planting of plots of 
various species of plants and shrubs which have value as wildlife habitat. This 
type of research work by this Authority is being watched with great interest by 
other Conservation Authorities in Ontario. 



Recreation 

Since many types of recreation facilities involve use of the land, recom- 
mendations for the proper use and development of recreation resources are a 
normal part of any land use plan. The conservation report made to the Authority 
contains a section dealing with recreational resources of the watershed and includes 
recommendations for the development of some of these areas. Such recommenda- 
tions for the development of land for recreation use is made in conjunction with 
other recommendations for the conservation use of land — such as those dealing 
with the construction of reservoirs and with reforestation. 

The type of facility which, from the conservation point of view, has been 
largely ignored and is greatly needed, is a public area within a drive of one or 
two miles, at most, from the agricultural or urban worker's home. In the past, 
the planning of recreation facilities in Ontario has been chiefly directed towards 
two ends — facilities such as parks and playgrounds, within the tx>undaries of cities 
and towns, and facilities for long and comparatively expensive vacations in 
wilderness regions far from the agricultural and industrial areas of the Province. 
The areas which are of greatest interest to Conservation Authorities are usually 
those which lie in the zone of 20 to 50 miles from the centre of large urban areas. 
These areas are beyond the interest of municipal park authorities and yet, in 
many cases, are too close to urban areas for development as Provincial parks. 

The Authorities' place in the field of recreation, it must be emphasized, is 
not a direct one. Recreational use of any site is developed in conjunction with, 
and ancillary to, its other conservation needs. For example, flood plain lands, 
valley slopes, source areas, reforestation land, woodland and wetland, are, in 
many cases, suitable for the development of recreation as well as for other 
conservation uses. 

Lands acquired for conservation purposes, parts of which are used for 
recreation, are known as conservation areas. These areas are developed with such 
recreation facilities as picnic tables, picnic shelters, fireplaces, swimming areas 
and beaches. Facilities for camping and boating, fishing and hunting, skating, 
skiing and nature study are also important. All of these facilities to a greater or 
lesser degree are provided in the conservation areas. 

41 



Conservation Authorities feel that their recreation areas should also have 
educational value. For instance, erosion control demonstrations and other examples 
of good land practices and good forestry foster general public interest as do also 
historic sites. Demonstrations of good land use and forestry practices are an 
integral part of the plan of development of most of the major conservation areas. 

The creation of conservation areas, with their attendant recreation facilities 
included, has been one of the most spectacular developments in Ontario in the 
years since the first Conservation Authority was established. The fact that there 
has been such spectacular growth in conservation areas indicates, first, the need 
for such facilities and, second, the fact that these facilities can be developed as 
an adjunct to other conservation programs as required under The Conservation 
Authorities Act. 

Parts of many conservation areas have already been developed for intensive 
public use. Some other conservation areas have been acquired and are now being 
held until either the need for their use increases, or the funds become available 
for more intensive development. Some lands are attractive for recreation without 
any development at all. 

The Metropolitan Toronto and Region Conservation Authority, as a part 
of its ten-year water control plan already referred to in the Water Section of this 
report, is planning extensive recreational development around some of the reser- 
voirs. The Authority has already acquired over one thousand acres of flood plain 
and river valley land. Where these lands lie within the boundary of the Corpora- 
tion of Metropolitan Toronto, the Authority and that Municipality have entered 
into an agreement Whereby such lands are developed and managed by the 
Metropolitan Toronto Parks Department. Approval of all developments on 
Authority-acquired valley land by the Parks Department must be given by the 
Authority. All other conservation areas acquired outside Metropolitan Toronto 
are developed directly by the Authority. 

The acquisition and development of land for conservation areas usually 
receives a grant of 50 per cent from the Province. Maintenance costs, however, 
are borne entirely by the Authority. To meet these costs, most Authorities charge 
an admission fee to the major areas. Authorities are free to set such admission 
fees as they see fit — a charge levied by many Authorities is 50 cents per car. 

Public Relations 

Public relations are an important and, sometimes, delicate problem in the 
work of Conservation Authorities. Much good work is being done by many public 
and private agencies to put before the public the case for conservation in its own 
particular field. The fact, however, that each group is working separately in the 
field of forestry or recreation or wildlife conservation tends to result in some 
confusion and, sometimes, over-emphasis on particular aspects of the problem. 
The section of the public that had become aware of the need for action was 
often inclined to regard conservation as involved only with one or two fields of 
activity and so affecting only those directly concerned with these fields. 

A major problem of the Conservation Authorities in their public relations 
program has been to convince the public of the need for a co-ordinated approach 
to the development of the resources of a watershed. Conservation Authorities face 
the task of telling people why the Authority was formed, What its objectives are, 
and how these Objectives can be met. There is also the necessity of overcoming 
the natural resistance of many people to a course of action which involves the 
spending of public money at a municipal level. The need of the people to 

42 



abandon some old customs in favour of new has to be pointed out. The 
geographical nature of conservation problems and the need for co-operation 
among a number of different governing bodies has also to be explained and 
accepted by the people concerned. To do this, it is necessary to take advantage 
of every means that may become available. Lectures, articles, films, displays 
and field demonstrations can all be used to keep the idea of conservation before 
people of the country and explain its meaning to them. 

A great deal has been accomplished in the field of public relations and 
education in the field of conservation during the past sixteen years, but a great 
deal still remains to be done. Each new Conservation Authority constitutes a fresh 
problem in public relations, and the demand and need for public information will 
continue. 

With the actual beginning of conservation work in any area, the importance 
of public relations increases and the character of the work changes. It is of vital 
importance to secure the willing support and co-operation of those individuals 
directly affected by the schemes proposed. Without this, not only may local 
proposals be delayed, but the future growth of the whole conservation movement 
in that watershed may be endangered. Although arbitrary powers to enforce 
co-operation are a necessary part of any Conservation Authority, it is the policy 
of all Conservation Authorities to leave these powers in abeyance and carry out 
the work as far as possible with the willing consent of all people concerned. The 
delicate negotiations and personal diplomacy needed to bring this about are an 
important part of the public relations program of all Conservation Authorities. 
This public relations program is carried out by the Authority members themselves, 
by the field officers assigned to the Authorities by this Branch, and by the staff 
of the Authority. 

To achieve the necessary ends, the Authorities do not limit themselves to 
the standard public relations channels of the press, television and radio. Their 
representatives frequently lecture to service clubs and other public-spirited bodies. 
They set up exhibits at major exhibitions and county and district fairs. Authorities 
inaugurate and help carry out soil-judging competitions. In the spring they hold 
tree-planting days and competitions for school children and boy scout and girl 
guide organizations. During the school year they organize conservation scrap- 
book competitions, birdhouse building competitions, and leaf collections. 

Conservation Authorities have an extensive library of black and white slides 
showing conservation problems and conservation projects in their watersheds. 
Several Conservation Authorities have made movies of their watershed and their 
conservation projects. Notable among these films are the Metropolitan Toronto 
and Region Conservation Authority's "A Town and Its River", "Legacy of the 
Valley" and "Pioneer Village". A number of Authorities have published for 
public distribution summaries of their activities, either annually or on a longer 
term. 

History 

The first conservation reports on watersheds contained, among their pages, 
sections dealing with the history of the area. These reports were being issued 
at a time when there was a revived interest in local history. These history 
sections proved of interest to many readers because they approached the subject 
from a somewhat different angle than the majority of the local histories then 
available. 

Ten years or so ago, no government agencies were interesting themselves 
in historical conservation. The efforts of private individuals or groups were 

43 



achieving only a limited success. It was felt that this form of conservation might 
be a suitable activity for Conservation Authorities. Authorities sometimes obtain 
control of historic sites or buildings in connection with their purchases of land 
for conservation purposes. It was felt that the former might be marked and the 
latter preserved if possible, or even restored and made accessible to the public. 

Early buildings worthy of preservation were often found on sites that could 
not be included in a conservation area. The desire to preserve these has lead 
some Authorities to undertake or assist in the setting up of outdoor museum areas. 
These outdoor museums are included in several conservation areas. At first a 
share of the cost was contributed by the Provincial Government, but later the 
policy with regard to grants for historical schemes was changed and government 
contributions were discontinued. The Authorities were permitted to continue 
historical conservation out of the general revenue collected from the member 
municipalities. The several Authorities that had embarked on historical conser- 
vation projects have continued them on this basis. 

The first example of historical conservation was the acquisition of the O'Hara 
Conservation Area near Madoc, Hastings County, by the Moira River Conserva- 
tion Authority. This contained the sawmill built in 1846-47 and operated until 
1908. The upright saw of the Muley type, and most of the machinery of the mill 
were intact and are the only examples of their kind in Ontario still in their 
original location. The mill and pond have been carefully restored and, with the 
surrounding area, were officially opened to the public in 1958. Another example 
of an historic mill was the Backus Grist Mill acquired by the Big Creek Region 
Conservation Authority. This mill, in Walsingham Township, was built in 1798, 
and operated by the family until sold to the Authority, with the surrounding 
estate, in 1955. 

More ambitious projects are the "Pioneer Villages" established by several 
Authorities. The Metropolitan Toronto and Region Conservation Authority,' the 
Upper Thames River Conservation Authority, and the Grand Valley Conserva- 
tion Authority have undertaken such projects. The first two Authorities have 
undertaken the actual development of pioneer villages while the latter has con- 
fined itself to providing a site to a local historical society. 

The largest of these is the one located in the Black Creek Conservation 
Area in the north-west comer of Metropolitan Toronto. This Pioneer Village 
is a development of the Metropolitan Toronto and Region Conservation Au- 
thority. The project started with the acquisition by the former Humber Valley 
Conservation Authority (now part of the Metropolitan Toronto and Region 
Conservation Authority) of a large dressed-log barn, with the Pennsylvania- 
type of overhang, built in 1808. This bam was restored to house collections of 
pioneer objects made available to the Authority and was opened in 1954 as a 
summer museum. In 1957 the Metropolitan Toronto and Region Conservation 
Authority acquired, through Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation, a 
property on Black Creek at Jane Street and Steele's Avenue, which contained 
the buildings of the Stojig family homestead. These consisted of a dressed-log 
cabin of 1816, a larger house about 1830, a bam of the same type as the 
Dalziel bam and some other farm buildings. The Stong buildings were restored, 
two frame houses, a smithy and a village store were added before the Black 
Creek Conservation Area was opened and the Pioneer Village dedicated by the 
Lieutenant-Governor of Ontario, in 1960. The frame church, a brick school- 
house, and a small cider mill have since been moved to the village. It is planned 
to add a number of other buildings before the Confederation Centenary of 1967, 

44 



when it is hoped to complete the building as a fully representative picture of life 
in York County prior to 1867. 

The Upper Thames River Conservation Authority formally opened its 
Pioneer Village in Fanshawe Park near London, in 1959, and this Pioneer 
Village represents a village of the 1830's. 

In respect to the Doon Pioneer Village, the Grand Valley Conservation 
Authority provided a site of 50 acres, a part of the Doon Conservation Area. 
The Ontario Pioneer Community Foundation which is financed and directed by 
individuals in municipalities in Waterloo County, is responsible for the acquisi- 
tion and the development of the Pioneer Village on this particular site. 

These Pioneer Villages have gained a large share of attention from the 
public. In their development, the use and abuse of natural resources is empha- 
sized. The conservation lessons to be learned from visits to these villages by 
both children and adults, emphasize the obvious dependence of the pioneer on 
his natural resources and the less obvious dependence of modern man. Just 
under 100,000 people visited the Pioneer Village in the Black Creek Conserva- 
tion Area in 1961. Of this number, over 12,000 were school children. The other 
villages have also been host to many visitors. 

The Grand River Conservation Commission 

The Grand River Conservation Commission was established in 1938, under 
The Grand River Conservation Act. The Commission is composed of twelve 
members representing eight urban municipahties. These municipalities are the 
cities of Brantford, Gait, Kitchener, Waterloo, and the towns of Paris, Preston, 
Flora and Fergus. 

Being established eight years before the passing of The Conservation Author- 
ities Act, the Grand River Conservation Commission was charged under its 
special Act with the responsibility of dealing with water problems on the Grand 
River. It is empowered to erect works and create reservoirs by the construction 
of dams or otherwise. 

The Commission has carried out three major projects. The first of these 
was the Shand Dam and Reservoir on the Upper Grand River near Fergus. 
This dam was completed in 1942 at a cost of $2,056,490. The second project 
of the Commission was the Luther Marsh Dam and Reservoir at the head- 
waters of the Grand River which was completed in 1953 at a cost of $233,800. 
The most recent project has been the Conestogo Dam and Reservoir completed 
in 1957 at a cost of $4,800,000. This dam is an earth-fill and concrete structure. 
It is 80 feet high above the bed of the river, is 1,790 feet long, and is crossed 
by a 24-foot roadway. The reservoir is a V-shaped lake with a maximum depth 
at the dam of 74 feet, and a surface area of 1,816 acres. 

All of these projects were built primarily for flood control on the Grand 
River and the reservoirs have assisted materially in reducing the flood threat in 
municipalities downstream. The three projects were financed jointly by the 
Government of Canada (37i/2 per cent) the Government of Ontario (37i/2 per 
cent) and the benefiting municipalities (25 per cent). 

The Parks Assistance Act 

The Parks Assistance Act, which was passed in 1960, provides grants to 
municipalities on a matching dollar for dollar basis up to a maximum grant of 
$50,000 for the acquisition, planning and development of parks that are con- 
sidered to be complementary to Provincial Parks. The principal requirements 

45 



for these parks are that they provide for overnight camping and trailer camping, 
picnic facilities, drinking water and sanitary facilities. This Act applies directly 
to municipalities and does not have any connecton with the development of 
Conservation Areas by the Conservation Authorities. It makes available much 
needed assistance to smaller urban and rural municipalities, helping them to ac- 
quire and develop land for camping and picnic purposes. Up to the end of 
March 31, 1962, 180 enquiries for information concerning the Act have been 
received, nine parks were approved, and grants totalling $208,315 have been 
authorized. 




A recording rain gauge which provides a continuous rainfall record in the lower 

Grand watershed. 



46 



WATER CONTROL PROJECTS COMPLETED AS OF MARCH 31. 1962 







Year 




Authority 


Project 


Completed 


Cost 




Large Dams and Reservoirs 




$ 


Upper Thames 


Fanshawe 


1953 


4,912,443* 


Grand Comm. 


Shand 


1942 


2,056,487=* 




Luther March 


1953 


233,985* 




Conestogo 


1959 


4,900,000* 




12,602,915 




Channel Improvement 






Ausable 


Grand Bend 


1958 


25,260 


Grand 


Bridgeport 




22,531 




Speed River — Guelph 


1961 


778,934 




Phase I and II Paris 


1961 


13,000 


Credit 


Erindale 


1962 


85,000 


Maitland 


Listowel 


1958 


11,863 




Listowel 


1960 


5,490 


Metro Toronto 


Long Branch — Etobicoke 


1949 


226,665 


and Region 


Channel and piers 








Don — York Mills 




160,000 




Don — Lower, Dredging 




69,436 




Lambton 


1960 


306,680 




Black Creek Lawrence Ave. 


1961 


46,600 




Lower Humber-Bloor-Dundas 


1959 


207,336 




Lambton 


1959 


73,750 




Scarlett Road 


1960 


580,430 




Weston 


1960 


118,000 


North Grey 


Peasmarsh (Indian Road) 


1960 


1,000 


Saugeen 


Walkerton 




13,531 


Upper Thames 


Ingersoll 


1950 


1,002,992 




Mitchell, Phase I 


1960 


35,000 




River Diversions 






Ausable 


Port Franks 


1950 


158,802 


Metro Toronto 


Brampton — Etobicoke Rd. 


1952 


976,600 


and Region 


Don — West Branch ; 


1956 


9,701 




4,928,601 




Small Dams and Community Ponds 






Ausable 


Morrison at Exeter^ 


1957 


199,198 


Big Creek Region 


Sutton at Simcoe^ 


1960 


15,000 


Credit 


Orangeville — land purchase only 


to date 


30,082 


Crowe 


Marmora- 


1960 


29,000 




Allan's Mills^ 


1960 


2,000 


Ganaraska 


Garden Hill Dam^ 


1960 


8,700 


Grand 


Queen St. — Galt^ 


1957 


3,574 




Grand Valley^ 


1957 


15,468 




Wellesley^ 


1958 


41,808 




Breslau^ 


1961 


24,166 




Rockwood^ 


1961 


18,036 


Metro Toronto 


Black Creek Dam^ 


1960 


198,000 


Holland 


Fairey Lake^ 


1955 


36,914 




Fairey Lake^ 


1962 


20,000 




Whitchurch^ 


1958 


3,450 


Metro Toronto 


Albion Hillsi 


1959 


76,000 




Boltoni 


1960 


12,500 




Black Creek — North York^ 




392,000 




Oakbank — ThornhilP 


1956 


2,527 




Boydi 


1958 


14,000 



^Federal Government — 37 ^^ per cent, Ontario 37^/^ per cent, Authority 25 per cent. 
1. New Structure 2. Repair Existing Structure 



47 



Small Dams and Community Ponds (continued) 



Authority- 



Project 



Year 
Completed 



Cost 



Moira 

Napanee 
North Grey 
Sauble 



Sixteen 
South Nation 
Upper Thames 



Grand 

Maitland 
Metro Toronto 
Sauble 
Saugeen 
Upper Thames 



Metro Toronto 



Big Creek Region 

Catfish 

Metro Toronto 



Deloro^ 

Lingham Lake^ 
Second Depot Lake^ 
Sydenham — Owen Sound^ 
McNab Lake2 
Parkhead Dam^ 
Rankin River ^ 
Shallow Lake Dam^ 
Kelso Dam^ 
Casselman Dam^ 
Dorchester Pond^ 
Harrington Pond^ 
Shakespeare Pond^ 
Kirkton Pond^ 
Centreville Pond^ 



Streambank Erosion Control 

Whiteman Creek — Burford 

Bridgeport — Gabions 

Listowel 

Toronto — Don River at Queen St, 

Zion 

Saugeen — Several Points 

Thames River — General 

Western University 

Stream Improvements — 

Ingersoll, Thamesford, St. Mary's 



Mapping & Acquisition of Flood Plain Lands 

Flood Plain Mapping 

Toronto Area 

York Mills 

H umber 

Etobicoke 

Rouge 

Duffin 



1953 


51,621 


1960 


8,400 


1957 


193,418 


1959 


32,000 


1959 


1,045 


1960 


497 


1961 


21,850 


1961 


1,300 


1962 


430,000 


1958 


35,936 


1959 


10,868 


1953 


32,758 


1954 


32,730 


1954 


3,500 


1955 


12,000 




2,010,646 


1959 


6,000 


1957 


18,600 


1958 


11,863 


1956 


69,805 


1959 


800 


1959 


7,050 


1960 


9,450 


1960 


26,160 


1960 


460 




150,188 


Lands 


56,500 




77,900 



Miscellaneous Projects 

Erosion Control 

Houghton Township 

Aylmer — Ground Water Recharge 

Flood Control — Goodwood 

Flood Warning System 



1960 



134,400 



5,000 



1960 


30,000 


1958 


33,000 


1960 


9,500 


1961 


14,175 



91,675 



1. New Structure 



2. Repair Existing Structure 
48 



AUTHORITY FORESTS 

Fifteen Conservation Authorities have agreements with the Department of Lands 
and Forests for management of their authority forest areas. 







Acres Acquired 


Authority 


Date of Agreement 


(March 1962) 


Ausable 


1951 


3,867 


Big Creek 


1954 


2,118 


Ganaraska 


1947, 1950 


7,823 


Grand 


1952 


4,645 


Metropolitan Toronto and Region 


1951 (Humber) 


1,467 


Maitland 


1955 


466 


Moira 


1951 


10,488 


Napanee 


1954 


5,063 


Neebing 


1958 


1,665 


North Bay 


1958 


3,394 


Otter 


1957 


1,044 


Sauble 


1959 


1,580 


Saugeen 


1952 


8,668 


South Nation 


1961 


187 


Upper Thames 


1951 


3,225 


Fifteen Authorities 




55,700 



AUTHORITY REFORESTATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS 

The following Authorities have programs to assist in planting of private lands. 
The type and amount of assistance varies, but generally includes making available 
men and machinery for planting, at a nominal rental and some direct subsidy payment. 



Ausable 

Big Creek 

Central Lake Ontario 

Credit 

Grand 

Holland 

Metro Toronto and Region 

Moira 



Niagara Peninsula 
North Grey 
Otter Creek 
Sauble 
Saug'een 
Spencer 
Sydenham 
Upper Thames 



AUTHORITY LAND USE PROGRAMS » SUMMARY 



Program 

Farm Ponds Assistance 



Permanent Pasture Demonstrations 



Authority 

Big Creek 

Niagara 

Grand 

Upper Thames " 

Lower Thames 

Sydenham 

Maitland 

Saugeen 

North Grey 

Nottawasaga 

Metropolitan Toronto & Region 

Credit 

Holland 

Twelve Mile 

Sixteen Mile 

Ganaraska 

Moira 

Bell's Lake (Saugeen) 

Albion Hills (MTRCA) 

Elora (Grand) 

Smeltzer (Grand ) 



49 



Authority Land Use Programs — Summary (Conl.) 



Gully Control 



Streambank Erosion Control 



Land Judging Competitions 
(one or more competitions 
annually given some assistance 
by the following Authorities) 



Big Creek 

Credit 

Grand 

Metro Toronto 

Credit 

Grand 

Saugeen 

Maitland 

Upper Thames 

Sauble 

Sixteen Mile 

Ausable 

Big Creek 

Ganaraska 

Grand 

Metro Toronto 

Moira 

North Grey 

Sauble 

Otonabee 

Sixteen Mile 

Upper Thames 

Twelve Mile 



CONSERVATION AREAS AND PARK FACILITIES DEVELOPED OR 
PLANNED BY CONSERVATION AUTHORITIES 







TOTAL 


DEVELOPED 


AUTHORITY 


CONSERVATION AREA 


ACREAGE 


PARK ACREAGE 


Ausable 


Exeter 


3 






Lucan 


9 






Morrison Dam 


77 






Port Franks 


314 


20 




Rock Glen 


17 


12 




Thedford 


20 








(440) 


(32) 


Big Creek 


Abigail Becker 


12 






Backus 


80 


20 




Black Creek 


21 


6 




Kelvin 


12 






Quance 


8 






Sutton 


12 






Teeterville 


50 


5 




Vanessa 


30 






Vittoria 


35 


5 




Waterford 


213 


120 






(473) 


(156) 


Credit 


Belfountain 


22 






Erindale 


135 


35 




Forest Conservation Areas 


190 






Mono 


170 






Orangeville 


520 






Terra Cotta 


310 


lOO 




Wilcox 


102 








(1,449) 


(135) 


Ganaraska 


Cold Springs 


30 


5 




Garden Hill 


56 


25 




Sylvan Glen 


5 


5 






(91) 


(35) 



50 







TOTAL 


DEVELOPED 


AUTHORITY 


CONSERVATION AREA 


ACREAGE 


PARK ACREAGE 


Grand Authority 


Byng 


144 


60 




Doon 


58 


15 




Elora Gorge 


307 


225 




Hamilton 


200 






Pinehurst 


105 


90 




Rockwood 


197 








(1,011) 


(390) 


Grand Commission 


Conestogo 


5,292 


700 




Luther Marsh 


4,900 






Shand 


3,200 


400 






(13,392) 


(1,100) 


Holland 


Holland Landing 


20 


10 






(20) 


(10) 


Junction 


Garson 


3 


3 






(3) 


(3) 


Maitland 


Ethel 


28 








(28) 


(— ) 


Metropolitan 


Albion Hills 


651 


150 


Toronto & Region 


Bolton 


20 






Boyd 


883 


150 




Cedar Mills 


2 


2 




Claremont 


400 






Cold Creek 


353 






Dingle 


150 






Edgeley-Dalziel (Black Creek) 


117 


10 




Glen Haffy 


341 


50 




Glen Major 


67 






Greenwood 


597 


50 




Heart Lake 


247 


50 




Humber Trails 


50 


20 




Humber Valley 


148 






Oakbank 


6 


6 




Palgrave Forest 


400 






Uxbridge 


93 






Woodbridge 


35 


15 






(4,560) 


(503) 


Moira 


Black River 


50 






Deloro 


95 






O'Hara 


35 


15 




Plainfield 


30 






Prince 


13 


6 




Vanderwater 


415 


150 






(638) 


(171) 


Napanee 


Second Depot Lake 


800 








(800) 


(— ) 


Niagara 


Ball's Falls 


127 






Long Beach 


142 


42 






(269) 


(42) 


North Grey 


Bognor 


75 






Inglis Falls 


68 






Peasmarsh 


38 






Pottawatomi 


29 








(210) 


(-) 


Otter 


Edison 


10 






Lake Joseph 


21 






Norwich 


14 






Port Burwell 


21 


10 






(66) 


(10) 



51 









TOTAL 


DEVELOPED 


AUTHORl'l'Y 


CONSERVATION AREA 


ACREAGE 


PARK ACREAGE 


Sauble 


Colpoy Range 
Rankin River 




4 
178 
(182) 


4 

(4) 


Saugeen 


Bell's Lake 




100 






Brucedale 




12 


8 




Durham 




35 






Mildmay 




10 


7 




Mount Forest 




12 


4 




Southampton 




6 






Varney 




12 
(187) 


8 
(27) 


Sixteen Mile 


Chisholm (Sixteen 
Escarpment 
Esquesing 
Kelso 


Valley) 


70 

82 

70 

361 

(583) 


(— ) 


Spencer Creek 


Beverly 
Valens 




50 
257 

(307) 


50 
(50) 


Upper Thames 


Centreville 




6 


3 




Dingman's Creek 




18 


5 




Dorchester 




18 


9 




Embro 




14 


8 




Fullarton 




81 


10 




Harmony 




27 






Harringrton 




13 


8 




J. Cameron Wilson 


(Fanshawe) 


2,455 


450 




Kirkton 




5 


5 




Murray Forest 




73 


10 




Shakespeare 




32 


20 




Wilton Grove 




20 






Woodham 




74 
(2,836) 


(528) 


Twelve Mile 


Carlisle 
Mount Nemo 
Rattlesnake P9int 




10 

87 

90 

(187) 


(-) 



ATTENDANCE AT CONSERVATION AUTHORITY PARKS 



AUTHORITY 

Metropolitan Toronto and Region 

Upper Thames 

Grand 

Credit 

Big Creek __ 

Niagara Peninsula 

All others 



1959 



1960 



1961 



TOTAL 



736,000 


773,000 


850,000 


119,300 


88,000 


103,000 


187,000 


178,000 


185,000 


100,000 


96,300 


88,130 


17,000 


36,000 


125,000 


— 


48,000 


58,000 


215,700 


243,700 


262,870 



1,375,000 1,463,000 1,672,000 



52 



CONSERVATION AUTHORITY PROJECTS AFFECTING 
FISH AND WILDLIFE 



AUTHORITY 



Ausable 



Big Creek 
Credit Valley 
Metropolitan Toronto 
and Region 

Moira 



Napanee 
Sauble 



Upper Thames 

Ausable 

Big Creek 

Metropolitan Toronto 
and Region 

Sixteen Mile 

Upper Thames 



Metropolitan Toronto 
and Region 

Upper Thames 

Metropolitan Toronto 
and Region 

Grand 



North Grey 

Metropolitan Toronto 
and Region 

Upper Thames 

Metropolitan Toronto 
and Region 



Upper Thames 
Saugeen 



PROJECT 

New, Reclaimed or Con- 
trolled Waters for Im- 
proved Fish and Wildlife 



LOCATION 

Morrison Reservoir 



Backus Pond 
Terra Cotta Ponds 

Glen Haffy Ponds 

Lingham Lake 
O'Hara Mill Pond 

Second Depot Lake 

McNab Lake 
Shallow Lake 
Boat Lake 
Isaac Lake 
Sky Lake 
Berford Lake 

" " " " Fanshawe Lake 

Shakespeare Pond 
Harrington Pond 

Fish Management Projects Morrison Reservoir 

" " " " Waterford Lakes 



Heart Lake 

Esquesing Pond 

Harrington Pond 
Shakespeare Pond 
Fanshawe Lake 



Rearing Ponds 



Fish Hatchery 

Wildfowl Improvement 
Projects 



Nuseries Producing Shrubs 
for Wildlife 



Nature Trails 



Upland Game Introduction 



Glen Haffy Ponds 
Fanshawe Borrow Pit 

Glen Haify Ponds 

Luther Marsh 

Bognor Conservation Area 

Boyd Conservation Area 
Fanshawe Park 

Albion Hills Conservation 

Area 
Boyd Conservation Area 
Greenwood Conservation 

Area 

Fanshawe Park 

Hungarian Partridges at 
Paisley, 1959 

(a successful introduction 
as of 1961) 



53 




Lifting pickerel Into carrying tubs in a tagging operation at Gamebridge, Lake 

Simcoe District. 




Measuring sturgeon at junction of Ashweig and Winisk Rivers in Sioux Lookout District. 

54 




Removing a wing fronn every duck brought In by hunters at Waterfowl Management 
Unit, Long Point Bay, Lake Erie District. 




Fur buyer and Conservation Officer examining pelts in the fur warehouse at North Bay. 

55 



FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH 



Chief: C. H. D. Clarke 








WILDLIFE SECTION 

Supervisor: D. N. Omand 

Game Management 

Fur Management 

Field Services 










FISHERIES SECTION 
Supervisor: H. H. MacKay 

Game Fish and Hatcheries 
Commercial Fisheries 










SPECIAL STAFF 

Chief's Qerical Staff 

Departmental Consultant 

Accounts and Staff Records 

Reports, Publications and Laboratory 





56 



FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH 

The Annual Report of the Fish and Wildlife Branch provides a continuous 
record of activities that have gone on from year to year, and becomes a valuable 
reference on that account. It also is a record of change, and changes are not 
always recognized when they happen. Nevertheless they do show up, and broad 
patterns are very plain. 

There was a period when the chief emphasis was on commercial fisheries, 
and the reports became the earliest and for a while the only reference work 
on the fishes of the province. Again it became preoccupied with the develop- 
ment of fish hatcheries and fish stocking. At another stage emphasis was on 
building up the ranch fur industry and the longest sections were scientific reports 
from the Kirkfield experimental fur farm. 

For recent years a future reader will detect a preoccupation with the 
growth of our human population and the pressure of more and more sportsmen 
on dwindling open areas and waters. We have seen more than a dozen townships 
over which hunters once moved freely disappear into the conurbation, to be- 
come dormitories for hunters who wander still farther afield. This year we made 
our first moves towards managed public hunting. Limited as they were they 
were successful, so that we can be sure that there is more to come and public 
fishing may appear in next year's record. 



WILDLIFE SECTION 

OFEN SEASONS 
Moose 

Schedule 1 — Residents and Non-residents — September 30 to December 23, 
1961. 

Commencing at the intersection of the boundary between Ontario and 
Quebec with the southerly shore of James Bay; thence southerly along that 
boundary to its intersection with the centre line of the right-of-way of the most 
northerly east-west line of the Canadian National Railways; thence westerly 
along that centre line to its intersection with the easterly boundary of the geo- 
graphic Township of Shackleton in the Territorial District of Cochrane; thence 
southerly along the easterly boundaries of the geographic townships of Shackle- 
ton, Carmichael, Ford, Oke, Aitken, Fortune and Enid, to the southeasterly 
comer of the last-mentioned geographic township; thence southerly along the 
easterly boundaries of the geographic townships of Frey, Sewell, and Kenogaming, 
in the Territorial District of Sudbury, to the southwesterly comer of the geo- 
graphic Township of Pharand in the Territorial District of Timiskaming; thence 
easterly along the southerly boundaries of the geographic townships of Pharand, 
Childerhose, Doyle, Musgrove, Bartlett, and Geikie, to the southeasterly corner 
of the last-mentioned geographic township; thence southerly along the westerly 
boundaries of the geographic townships of Hincks, Montrose, Midlothian, Ray- 
mond, Knight, Turrell, Leonard, North Williams, and Dufl'erin, to the south- 
westerly corner of the last-mentioned geographic township; thence westerly along 

57 



the southerly boundaries of the geographic townships of Browning, Amyot, 
Moflfat, Hennessy, and Inverness, in the Territorial District of Sudbury, to the 
southwesterly corner of the last-mentioned geographic township; thence south- 
erly along the westerly boundaries of the geographic townships of Brebeuf, 
Baynes, Dublin, and Muldrew, to the southwesterly corner of the last-mentioned 
geographic township; thence westerly along the southerly boundaries of the geo- 
graphic townships of Athlone, LaFleche, Alton, Jasper, Durban, Ethel, and 
Comox, to the southwesterly corner of the last-mentioned geographic township; 
thence northerly along the westerly boundaries of the geographic townships of 
Comox, Fulton, and Iris, to the northwesterly corner of the last-mentioned 
geographic township; thence westerly along the southerly boundaries of geo- 
graphic townships 8Z, 8 A, SB, 8C, 8D, 8E, 8F, 8G, 8H, 22 Range 15, and 23 
Range 15, to the southwesterly corner of the last-mentioned geographic township; 
thence northerly along the easterly boundaries of geographic Township 24 in 
Ranges 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 and 21, to the northeasterly corner of the last- 
mentioned geographic township; thence westerly along the northerly boundaries 
of geographic townships 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, and 31, in Range 21, to the 
shore of Lake Superior; thence northerly and westerly along the shore of Lake 
Superior to the boundary between the territorial districts of Algoma and Thunder 
Bay; thence southerly along that boundary to the boundary between Canada 
and United States; thence in a general westerly direction along the last- 
mentioned boundary to its intersection with the boundary between the territorial 
districts of Rainy River and Thunder Bay; thence northerly along the last- 
mentioned boundary to the third Base Line; thence westerly along that Boundary 
and that base line to the 6th Meridian surveyed by Ontario Land Surveyor Niven 
in 1894; thence northerly along that meridian to the 24th mile post, being the 
boundary between the territorial districts of Kenora and Rainy River; thence 
westerly along the boundary between the territorial districts of Kenora and Rainy 
River to its intersection with the 7th Meridian; thence northerly along that 
meridian to the south boundary of the geographical Township of MacNicol; 
thence easterly along the south boundaries of the geographic townships of Mac- 
Nicol, Tustin and Bridges to the southwest corner of the geographic Township 
of Docker; thence northerly along the west boundaries of the geographic town- 
ships of Docker and Smellie and the northerly production of the last-mentioned 
boundary to the centre line of the most northerly east-west line of the Canadian 
National Railways; thence westerly along that centre line to the boundary between 
Ontario and Manitoba; thence northerly and northeasterly along that boundary 
to the shore of Hudson Bay; thence easterly, southerly, southeasterly and easterly 
along the shores of that Bay and James Bay to the point of commencement. 

Schedule 2 — Residents only — September 30 to December 23, 196 L 

Commencing at the intersection of the centre line of the right-of-way of 
the most northerly east-west line of the Canadian National Railways with the 
boundary between Ontario and Manitoba; thence easterly along that centre line 
to the northerly production of the west boundary of the geographic Township 
of Smellie; thence southerly along that production and the west boundaries of 
the geographic townships of Smellie and Docker to the southeast corner of the 
geographic Township of Bridges; thence westerly along the south boundaries of 
the geographic townships of Bridges, Tustin and MacNicol to the 7th Meridian; 
then southerly along that meridian to the boundary between the territorial dis- 
tricts of Kenora and Rainy River; thence west and westerly along that boundary 
to the boundary between Canada and United States; thence north-westerly along 

58 



that boundary to the boundary between Ontario and Manitoba; thence northerly 
along that boundary to the point of commencement. 

Schedule 3 — Residents only — October 14 to December 23, 1961, 
— Non-residents — October 14 to November 15, 1961, 

Commencing at the intersection of the centre line of the right-of-way of 
the most northerly east-west line of the Canadian National Railways with the 
boundary between Ontario and Quebec; thence westerly along that centre line 
to its intersection with the easterly boundary of the geographic Township of 
Shackleton in the Territorial District of Cochrane; thence southerly along the 
easterly boundaries of the geographic townships of Shackleton, Carmichael, 
Ford, Oke, Aitken, Fortune, and Enid, to the southeasterly comer of the last- 
mentioned geographic township; thence southerly along the easterly boundaries 
of the geographic townships of Frey, Sewell, and Kenogaming, in the Territorial 
District of Sudbury, to the southwesterly corner of the geographic Township of 
Pharand in the Territorial District of Timiskaming; thence easterly along the 
southerly boundaries of the geographic townships of Pharand, Childerhose, 
Doyle, Musgrove, Bartlett, and Geikie, to the southeasterly comer of the last- 
mentioned geographic township; thence southerly along the westerly boundaries 
of the geographic townships of Hincks, Montrose, Midlothian, Raymond, Knight, 
Tyrrell, Leonard, North Williams, and Duflferin, to the southwesterly comer of 
the last-mentioned geographic township; thence westerly along the southerly 
boundaries of the geographic townships of Browning, Amyot, Moffat, Hennessy, 
and Inverness, in the Territorial District of Sudbury, to the southwesterly comer 
of the last-mentioned geographic township; thence southerly along the westerly 
boundaries of the geographic townships of Brebeuf, Baynes, Dublin, and Mul- 
drew, to the southwesterly corner of the last-mentioned geographic township; 
thence westerly along the southerly boundaries of the geographic townships of 
Athlone, LaFleche, Alton, Jasper, Durban, Ethel, and Comox, to the south- 
westerly corner of the last-mentioned geographic township; thence northerly 
along the westerly boundaries of the geographic townships of Comox, Fulton, 
and Iris, to the northwesterly corner of the last-mentioned geographic township; 
thence westerly along the southerly boundaries of geographic townships 8Z, 8A, 
SB, 8C, 8D, 8E, 8F, 8G, 8H, 22 Range 15, and 23 Range 15, to the south- 
westerly corner of the last-mentioned geographic township; thence northerly 
along the easterly boundaries of geographic Township 24 in Ranges 15, 16, 17, 
18, 19, 20, and 21, to the northeasterly corner of the last-mentioned geographic 
township; thence westerly along the northerly boundaries of geographic town- 
ships 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, and 31, in Range 21 to the shore of Lake 
Superior; thence northerly and westerly along the shore of Lake Superior to the 
boundary between the territorial districts of Algoma and Thunder Bay; thence 
southerly along that boundary to the boundary between Canada and the United 
States of America; thence southeasterly along that boundary through Lake 
Superior and the St. Mary River to a point in that boundary due south of the 
intersection of the boundary between the geographic townships of Parke and 
Awenge, in the Territorial District of Algoma, with the northerly shore of the 
St, Mary River; thence due north to the northerly shore of the St, Mary River; 
thence in a general easterly direction following the mainland of the northerly 
shores of the St, Mary River and expansions thereof and the North Channel 
of Lake Huron to the southwesterly corner of the geographic Township of 
Spragge, and the northerly shores of the Serpent River and Serpent Lake to 
the easterly boundary of the Serpent River Indian Reserve; thence southerly 
following that boundary I1/2 miles, more or less, to its intersection with the 

59 



northerly limit of that part of the King's Highway known as No. 17; thence in 
a general easterly direction following that northerly limit to the easterly bound- 
ary of the geographic Township of Hagar in the Territorial District of Sudbury; 
thence northerly along the easterly boundaries of the geographic townships of 
Hagar, Loughrin, Davis, Kelly, and McCarthy, to the northeasterly comer of 
the last-mentioned geographic township; thence westerly along the northerly 
boundary of the geographic Township of McCarthy to the northwesterly comer 
thereof; thence northerly along the easterly boundaries of the geographic town- 
ships of McConnell and DeMorest to the northeasterly comer of the last- 
mentioned geographic township; thence westerly along the northerly boundary 
of the geographic Township of DeMorest to the northwesterly comer thereof; 
thence northerly along the westerly boundary of the geographic Township of 
Turner to the northwesterly comer thereof; thence easterly along the northerly 
boundary of the Township of Turner to the southwesterly comer of the geo- 
graphic Township of Dundee; thence northerly along the westerly boundaries 
of the geographic townships of Dundee and Parker to the northwesterly comer 
of the last-mentioned geographic township; thence easterly along the northerly 
boundary of the geographic Township of Parker to the southeasterly corner of 
the geographic Township of Gamble in the Territorial District of Timiskaming; 
thence northerly along the easterly boundaries of the geographic townships of 
Gamble and Brewster to the northeasterly corner of the last-mentioned geo- 
graphic township; thence easterly along the northerly boundaries of the geo- 
graphic townships of Trethewey, Whitson, van Nostrand, Klock, Barr, First- 
brook, and Bucke, to the shore of Lake Timiskaming; thence northeasterly, 
southeasterly, northerly, and easterly, along the shore of that lake to the bound- 
ary between Ontario and Quebec; thence northerly along that boundary to the 
place of commencement. 

Schedule 8 — Residents only — November 1 to November 7, 1961. 

Commencing at the southwest comer of the geographic Township of -Har- 
row in the Territorial District of Sudbury; thence easterly following the mainland 
of the northerly shore of the North Channel and Georgian Bay of Lake Huron 
to the intersection with the boundary between the geographic Township of 
Humboldt in the Territorial District of Manitoulin, and the geographic Town- 
ship of Travers in the Territorial District of Sudbury; thence in a general easterly 
direction along the southerly boundaries of the geographic townships of Travers, 
Stmthers, Allen, Bigwood, and Mason to the southeasterly comer of the geo- 
graphic Township of Mason; thence northerly along the easterly boundaries of 
the geographic townships of Mason, Cosby, Cherriman and Jennings to the 
northeasterly corner of the geographic Township of Jennings; thence easterly 
along the southerly boundary of the geographic Township of Appleby to the 
southeasterly comer of that geographic township; thence northerly along the 
easterly boundary of that geographic township and the geographic Township of 
Hagar to the intersection with the southerly limit of that part of the King's 
Highway known as No. 17; thence in a general westerly direction following that 
southerly limit to the west boundary of the geographic Township of May in the 
Territorial District of Sudbury; thence southerly along that boundary and the 
west boundary of the geographic Township of Harrow to the point of com- 
mencement. 

Schedule 9 — Residents only — September 30 to December 23, 1961. 

Commencing at the northeasterly corner of the Territorial District of Rainy 
River; thence westerly along the northerly boundary of that territorial district 
to the water's edge on the easterly shore of Esox Lake; thence in a general 

60 



southwesterly and southerly direction following the water's edge on the easterly 
shores of Esox Lake, Manitou River, Sphene Lake, the watercourse connecting 
Sphene Lake and Manitou Sound of Rainy Lake, and Manitou Sound, and 
continuing in a general southerly and southwesterly direction along the water's 
edge on the easterly shore of Rainy Lake to the intersection with the westerly 
limit of that part of the King's Highway known as No. 120; thence southwesterly 
and westerly along the westerly and northerly limit of that part of that King's 
Highway to the intersection with the water's edge on the westerly shore of Rainy 
Lake; thence in a general southerly, southwesterly and southerly direction follow- 
ing the water's edge on the westerly shore of Rainy Lake to the confluence with 
the water's edge on the northerly shore of Rainy River; thence east astronomically 
to the intersection with the International Boundary between Canada and the 
United States of America; thence in a general southeasterly and northeasterly 
direction following that boundary to the southeasterly corner of the Territorial 
District of Rainy River; thence northerly along the easterly boundary of that 
territorial district to the point of commencement. 

Schedule 10 — Residents only — October 14 to November 25, 1961. 

Commencing at the intersection of the northerly boundary of the geographic 
Township of Bucke, in the Territorial District of Timiskaming, with the westerly 
shore of Lake Timiskaming; thence southerly along the westerly shore of Lake 
Timiskaming and the Ottawa River to its confluence with the northerly shore 
of the Mattawa River, being the southeasterly corner of the Township of Matta- 
wan, in the Territorial District of Nipissing; thence in a general westerly direc- 
tion following the southerly boundaries of the geographic townships of 
Mattawan, Olrig, Phelps and Widdifield, to the easterly shore of Lake Nipissing; 
thence southerly along that shore to the southerly boundary of the Territorial 
District of Nipissing; thence westerly along that boundary to the intersection 
with a line drawn east astronomically from the northeasterly corner of the geo- 
graphic Township of ScoUard in the Territorial District of Sudbury; thence west 
astronomically to the north easterly corner of the geographic Township of 
Scollard; thence in a general westerly direction along the southerly boundary 
of that geographic township to the southeasterly comer of the geographic Town- 
ship of Mason; thence northerly along the easterly boundaries of the geographic 
townships of Mason, Cosby, Cherriman and Jennings, to the northeasterly comer 
of the geographic Township of Jennings; thence easterly along the southerly 
boundary of the geographic Township of Appleby to the southeasterly comer 
of that geographic township; thence northerly along the easterly boundaries of 
the geographic townships of Appleby, Hagar, Loughrin, Davis, Kelly and Mc- 
Carthy, to the northeasterly corner of the last-mentioned geographic township; 
thence westerly along the northerly boundary of the geographic Township of 
McCarthy, to the northwesterly comer thereof; thence northerly along the easterly 
boundaries of the geographic townships of McConnell and DeMorest to the 
northeasterly corner of the last-mentioned geographic township; thence westerly 
along the northerly boundary of the geographic Township of DeMorest to the 
northwesterly corner thereof; thence northerly along the westerly boundary of 
the geographic Township of Tumer to the northwesterly comer thereof; thence 
easterly along the northerly boundary of the geographic Township of Turner to 
the southwesterly corner of the geographic Township of Dundee; thence northerly 
along the westerly boundaries of the geographic townships of Dundee and 
Parker, to the northwesterly comer of the last-mentioned geographic township; 
thence easterly along the northerly boundary of the geographic Township of 

61 



Parker to the southeasterly corner of the geographic Township of Gamble in 
the Territorial District of Timiskaming; thence northerly along the easterly 
boundaries of the geographic townships of Gamble and Brewster, to the north- 
easterly corner of the last-mentioned geographic township; thence easterly along 
the northerly boundaries of the geographic townships of Trethewey, Whitson, 
van Nostrand, Klock, Barr, Firstbrook and Bucke, to the westerly shore of 
Lake Timiskaming, being the place of commencement. 

Schedule 12 — Residents only — November 6 to November 18, 1961. 

1. The Territorial District of Parry Sound except the Dokis Indian Re- 
serve number Nine. 

2. The Territorial District of Muskoka except those parts of the geographic 
townships of Medora and Wood lying east of the centre line of the right-of-way 
of the Canadian National Railways and north of the line between concessions 
XV and XVI in the geographic Township of Wood. 

3. The Territorial District of Nipissing lying south of the northerly bound- 
ary of the geographic Township of West Ferris, Trout Lake and the Mattawa 
River. 

4. The Provisional County of Haliburton. 

5. The County of Lanark. 

6. The County of Renfrew. 

7. That part of the Township of North Crosby in the County of Leeds, 
lying north and east of the Mass Road from the west boundary of the County 
of Leeds through Westport to and along the north shore of Upper Rideau Lake 

8. The counties of Hastings, Lennox and Addington and Peterborough 
lying north of that part of the King's Highway known as No. 7. 

9. That part of the County of Frontenac, 

(a) lying north of that part of the King's Highway known as No. 7, 
and 

(b) lying south of that part of the King's Highway known as No. 7, 
east of that part of the King's Highway known as No. 38 and north 
of the County Road known as No. 8 and the connecting road from 
it to Godfrey. 

10. The Township of Somerville and those parts of the townships of Lax- 
ton, Digby and Longford, and Dalton lying north of the Monk Road in the 
County of Victoria. 

11. The Townships of Mara and Rama in the County of Ontario. 
Schedule 13 — Residents only — November 20 to November 25, 1961. 
The geographic townships of Hilton, Jocelyn and St. Joseph in the Terri- 
torial District of Algoma. 

Deer 

Schedule 4 — October 21 to November 25, 1961. 

The Territorial District of Rainy River. 

Schedule 5 — September 30 to November 25, 1961. 

That portion of Ontario lying north of a line described as follows: 

Commencing at the intersection of the Ontario and Quebec Boundary with 
the most northerly east-west line of the Canadian National Railways; thence 
westerly along that railway to its intersection with the boundary between the 

62 



territorial districts of Thunder Bay and Kenora; thence south along the boundary 
between the territorial districts of Thunder Bay and Kenora to its intersection 
with the boundary between the territorial districts of Kenora and Rainy River; 
thence westerly along the boundary between the territorial districts of Kenora 
and Rainy River to the boundary between Canada and the United States of 
America; thence northwesterly along that boundary to the boundary between 
Ontario and Manitoba. 

Schedule 6 — October 14 to November 25, 1961. 

Commencing at the intersection of the most northerly east-west line of the 
Canadian National Railways with the west boundary of the Territorial District 
of Thunder Bay; thence in a general easterly direction along that railway to 
the boundary between Ontario and Quebec; thence southerly along the last- 
mentioned boundary to the northerly shore of Lake Timiskaming; thence southerly 
and westerly along the northerly shore of that lake to the southerly boundary of 
the geographic Township of Dymond in the Territorial Disitrict of Timiskaming; 
thence westerly along the southerly boundaries of the geographic townships of 
Dymond, Hudson, Lundy, Auld, Speight, Banks and Wallis, to the southwesterly 
comer of the last-mentioned township; thence southerly along the easterly 
boundaries of the geographic townships of Brewster and Gamble to the south- 
easterly corner of the lastHmentioned geographic township; thence westerly along 
the southerly boundaries of the geographic townships of Gamble, Corley, Leckie 
and Dufferin, to the southwesterly comer of the last-mentioned geographic town- 
ship; thence northerly along the westerly boundaries of the geographic townships 
of Dufferin, North Williams, Leonard and Tyrrell, to the intersection with the 
centre line of the highway known as the Elk Lake-Westree Road; thence south- 
westerly along the centre line to Westree Station on the Canadian National Rail- 
ways; thence southerly along the centre line of the Canadian National Railways 
to the southerly boundary of the geographic Township of Henessy in the 
Territorial District of Sudbury; thence westerly along the southerly boundaries of 
the geographic townships of Hennessy and Inverness to the southwesterly corner 
of the last-mentioned geographic township; thence southerly along the easterly 
boundary of the geographic townships of Paudash, Marquette, Battersby, Athlone 
and Morse, to the southeasterly comer of the last-mentioned geographic town- 
ship; thence westerly along the southerly boundaries of the geographic townships 
of Morse and Dennie, and geographic townships D, H, L, P, T and X, in the 
Territorial District of Algoma, to the southwesterly corner of the last-mentioned 
geographic township; thence northerly along the westerly boundaries of the geo- 
graphic townships of X, Y, Z and 7Z, to the northwesterly corner of the last- 
mentioned geographic township; thence westerly along the southerly boundaries 
of geographic townships 8 A, 8B, 8C, 8D, 8E, 8F, 8G, 8H, 22 Range 15 and 23 
Range 15, in the Territorial District of Sudbury, to the southwesterly comer of 
the last-mentioned geographic township; thence southerly along the easterly 
boundary of geographic Township 24, Range 15, in the Territorial District of 
Algoma, to the southeasterly corner thereof; thence westerly and along the south- 
erly boundaries of geographic townships 24, 25, and 26, in Range 15, Home, 28 
and 29, in Range 15, and the production of the southerly boundary of the last- 
mentioned geographic township to its intersection with the southerly production 
of the boundary between the territorial districts of Algoma and Thunder Bay; 
thence southerly along the southerly production of the boundary between the 
territorial districts of Algoma and Thunder Bay to the boundary between Canada 
and the United States of America; thence in a general northerly and westerly 
direction along that boundary to its intersection with the southerly production 

63 



of the boundary between the territorial districts of Thunder Bay and Rainy River; 
thence northerly on the production of the boundary between the territorial dis- 
tricts of Thunder Bay and Rainy River and along the west boundary of the 
Territorial District of Thunder Bay to the point of commencement. 

Schedule 7 — November 1 to November 25, 1961. 

Commencing at the intersection of the southerly boundary of the geographic 
Township of Dymond, in the Territorial District of Timiskaming, with the westerly 
shore of Lake Timiskaming; thence westerly along the southerly boundaries of the 
geographic townships of Dymond, Hudson, Lundy, Auld, Speight, Banks and 
Wallis, to the southwesterly corner of the last-mentioned geographic township; 
thence southerly along the easterly boundaries of the geographic townships of 
Brewster and Gamble to the southeasterly corner of the last-mentioned geo- 
graphic township; thence westerly along the southerly boundaries of the geo- 
graphic townships of Gamble, Corley, Leckie and Dufferin, to the southwesterly 
corner of the last-mentioned geographic township; thence northerly along the 
westerly boundaries of the geographic townships of Dufferin, North Williams, 
Leonard and Tyrrell, to its intersection with the centre line of the highway known 
as the Elk Lake-Westree Road; thence southwesterly along that centre line to 
Westree Station on the Canadian National Railways; thence southerly along the 
Canadian National Railways to the southerly boundary of the geographic Town- 
ship of Hennessy in the Territorial District of Sudbury; thence westerly along the 
southerly boundary of the geographic townships of Hennessy and Inverness to 
the south-westerly corner of the last-mentioned geographic township; thence 
southerly along the easterly boundary of the geographic townships of Paudash, 
Marquette, Battersby, Athlone and Morse, to the southeasterly corner of the last- 
mentioned geographic township; thence westerly along the southerly boundaries 
of the geographic townships of Morse and Dennie, and geographic township>s D, 
H, L, P, T and X, to the southwesterly corner of the last-mentioned geographic 
township; thence northerly along the westerly boundaries of geographic townships 
X, Y, Z and 7Z, to the northwesterly corner of the last-mentioned geographic 
township; thence westerly along the southerly boundaries of geographic townships 
8 A, 8B, 8C, 8D, 8E, 8F, 8G, 8H, 22 Range 15 and 23 Range 15, to the south- 
westerly corner of the last-mentioned geographic township; thence southerly 
along the easterly boundary of the geographic Township 24, Range 15, to the 
southeasterly corner thereof; thence westerly and along the southerly boundary 
of geographic townships 24, 25, 26, in Range 15, Home, 28 and 29, in Range 
15, and the production of the southerly boundary of geographic Township 29, 
Range 15 to its intersection with the boundary between the territorial districts 
of Algoma and Thunder Bay; thence southerly along that boundary to the bound- 
ary between Canada and the United States of America; thence in a general 
southeasterly direction along the last-mentioned boundary through Lake Superior 
and the St. Mary River to a point in that boundary due south of the intersection 
of the boundary between the geographic townships of Parke and Awenge, in the 
Territorial District of Algoma, with the northerly shore of the St. Mary River; 
thence due north to the northerly shore of the St. Mary River; thence in a general 
easterly direction following the mainland of the northerly shores of the St. Mary 
River and expansions thereof and the North Channel and Georgian Bay of 
Lake Huron to the intersection with the boundary between the geographic Town- 
ship of Humbolt in the Territorial District of Manitoulin, and the geographic 
Township of Travers in the Territorial District of Sudbury; thence in a general 
easterly direction along the southerly boundaries of the geographic townships of 

64 



Travers, Struthers, Allen, Bigwood and Mason, and along the southerly and 
easterly boundaries of the geographic Township of Scollard, in the Territorial 
District of Sudbury, to the southerly boundary of the geographic Township of 
Latchford in the Territorial District of Nipissing; thence due east to the southerly 
boundary of the Territorial District of Nipissing; thence easterly along that 
boundary to the northerly boundary of the geographic Township of West Ferris 
in the Territorial District of Nipissing; thence easterly along the northerly bound- 
aries of the geographic Township of West Ferris, Trout Lake and the Mattawa 
River to its confluence with the Ottawa River; thence northerly along the westerly 
shores of the Ottawa River and Lake Timiskaming to the place of commencement. 

The islands named Cockburn and Philip Edward in the Territorial District 
of Manitoulin. 

Schedule 11 — October 19 to November 14, 1961 (bows and arrows 
only). 
November 15 to November 25, 1961. 

The islands in the Territorial District of Manitoulin excepting therefrom 
those islands known as Cockburn and Philip Edward. 

Schedule 12 — November 6 to November 18, 1961. 

1. The Territorial District of Parry Sound except the Dokis Indian Reserve 
number Nine. 

2. The Territorial District of Muskoka except those parts of the geographic 
townships of Medora and Wood lying east of the centre line of the right-of-way 
of the Canadian National Railways and north of the line between concessions 
XV and XVI in the geographic Township of Wood. 

3. The Territorial District of Nipissing lying south of the northerly bound- 
ary of the geographic Township of West Ferris, Trout Lake and the Mattawa 
River. 

4. The Provisional County of Haliburton. 

5. The County of Lanark. 

6. The County of Renfrew. 

7. That part of the Township of North Crosby in the County of Leeds, 
lying north and east of the Mass Road from the west boundary of the County 
of Leeds through Westport to and along the north shore of Upper Rideau Lake. 

8. The counties of Hastings, Lennox and Addington and Peterborough 
lying north of that part of the King's Highway known as No. 7. 

9. That part of the County of Frontenac, 

(a) lying north of that part of the King's Highway known as No. 7; 
and 

(b) lying south of that part of the King's Highway known as No. 7, 
east of that part of the King's Highway known as No. 38 and 
north of the County Road known as No. 8 and the connecting 
road from it to Godfrey. 

10. The Township of Somerville and those parts of the townships of Lax- 
ton, Digby and Longford, and Dalton lying north of the Monk Road in the 
County of Victoria. 

11. The townships of Mara and Rama in the County of Ontario. 
Schedule 13 — November 6 to November 11, 1961. 

The geographic townships of Hilton, Jocelyn and St. Joseph in the Territorial 
District of Algoma. 

65 



Schedule 14 — November 6 to November 9, 1961. 

1. That part of the County of Carleton lying east of the Rideau River. 

2. The counties of Grenville, Prescott and Russell. 

3. That part of the County of Leeds lying east of that part of the King's 
Highway known as No. 32 from the Town of Gananoque to its intersection with 
that part of the King's Highway known as No. 15, east of that part of the King's 
Highway known as No. 15 from its intersection with that part of the King's 
Highway known as No. 32 to its intersection with that part of the King's Highway 
known as No. 42 at the community known as Crosby and east of that part of the 
King's Highway known as No. 42 from its intersection with that part of the King's 
Highway known as No. 15 at the community known as Crosby to the Village 
of Westport and lying south of the waters of the Upper Rideau Lake. 

4. The United Counties of Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry, 

5. That part of the Township of Matchedash in the County of Simcoe, 
composed of, 

(a) lots 20 to 23, both inclusive, in Concession II; 

(b) lots 19 to 27, both inclusive, in Concession III; 

(c) lots 15 to 27, both inclusive, in Concession IV; 

(d) lots 17 to 27, both inclusive, in Concession V; 

(e) lots 15 to 26, both inclusive, in Concession VI; 

(f) lots 9 to 21, both inclusive, in Concession VII; 

(g) lots 3 to 18, both inclusive, in Concession VIII; 
(h) lots 1 to 16, both inclusive, in Concession IX; 
(i) lots 1 to 11, both inclusive, in Concession X; 
(j) lots 1 to 10, both inclusive, in Concession XI; 

(k) lots 1 to 8, both inclusive, in Concession XII; and 
(1) lots 1 to 4, both inclusive, in Concession XIII. 

6. Concessions XVI to XX, both inclusive, in the geographic Township 
of Wood in the Territorial District of Muskoka. 

Schedule 15 — November 6 to November 11, 1961. 

1. The Township of St. Edmunds in the County of Bruce. 

2. The townships of Albermarle, Eastnor and Lindsay in the County of 
Bruce. 

3. That part of the County of Carleton lying west of the Rideau River, 

4. Those parts of the County of Frontenac lying north of that part of the 
King's Highway known as No. 2 and described as follows: 

(i) lying south of that part of the King's Highway known as No. 7 and 
west of that part of the King's Highway known as No. 38, and 

(ii) lying east of that part of the King's Highway known as No. 38 
and south of the County Road known as No. 8 and the connecting 
road from that county road to the community known as Godfrey. 

5. Those parts of the counties of Hastings and Lennox and Addington lying 
between that part of the King's Highway known as No. 7 and that part of the 
King's Highway known as No. 2. 

6. That part of the County of Leeds lying west of that part of the King's 
Highway known as No. 32 from the Town of Gananoque to its intersection with 
that part of the King's Highway known as No. 15, west of that part of the King's 
Highway known as No. 15 from its intersection with that part of the King's High- 
way known as No. 32 to its intersection with that part of the King's Highway 

66 



known as No. 42 at the community known as Crosby, west of that part of the 
King's Highway known as No. 42 from its intersection with that part of the 
King's Highway known as No. 15 at the community known as Crosby to the 
Village of Westport and south of the Mass Road from the Village of Westport 
to the west boundary of the County of Leeds. 

7. That part of the County of Peterborough lying south of that part of the 
King's Highway known as No. 7. 

Schedule 16 — November 1 to November 25, 1961. 
That part of the Territorial District of Parry Sound known as the Dokis 
Indian Reserve Number Nine. 

Caribou 

No open season. 

Bear 

Throughout Ontario — September 1, 1961 to June 30, 1962. 

Hungarian Partridge 

In the Counties of Elgin, Essex, Haldimand, Kent, Lambton, Lincoln, 
Middlesex, Norfolk and Welland — October 7 to November 18, 1961. 

In any other part of Ontario — September 23 to November 18, 1961. Bag 
Limits — 8 per day. Possession Limits — 16. 

Pheasants 

1. Township of Pelee in the County of Essex — October 25 and 26, 1961. 
Bag Limits — 8 cocks, 2 hens. 

2. Counties of Brant, Bruce, Dufferin, Grey, Halton, Huron, Oxford, Peel, 
Perth, Simcoe, Waterloo, Wellington and Wentworth except the Township of 
Saltfleet; and in the townships of Georgina and North Gwillimbury in the County 
of York— October 11 to October 28, 1961. 

3. Townships of East Gwillimbury, King, Markham, Vaughan and Whit- 
church in the County of York; and the Townships of East Whitby, Pickering 
and Whitby in the County of Ontario — ^October 18 to October 28, 1961. 

4. Counties of Elgin, Haldimand, Kent, Lambton, Lincoln, Middlesex, 
Norfolk, Welland, and Saltfleet Township in the County of Wentworth — October 
28 to November 11, 1961. 

5. Essex County, except Pelee Island — October 25 to October 28, 1961. 

6. All other parts of Ontario — October 7 to October 28, 1961. Bag Limit 
for Areas in items 2 to 6 above — 3 per day, not more than one of which shall 
be a hen. 

Ruffed Grouse. Sharptailed Grouse, Spruce Partridge 

1. Throughout the area north and west of Highway 17 from Mattawa to 
Sault Ste. Marie — September 15 to November 25, 1961. 

2. South of Highway 17, and north and east of a line defined by the 
northerly boundary of Freeman Township in the District of Muskoka, Highways 
69 and 12 in the Townships of Rama, Mara, Thorah, Brock and Reach in Ontario 

67 



County, and north of the northerly boundaries of Whitby and East Whitby 
Townships in Ontario County and of Dariington Township in Durham County, 
and the north and east boundary of Clarke Township in Durham County — 
September 23 to November 18, 1961. 

3. Townships of Clarke and Darlington in Durham County — October 7 
to October 28, 1961. 

4. The Townships of East Gwillimbury, King, Markham, Vaughan and 
Whitchurch in the County of York, and the Townships of East Whitby, Pick- 
ering and Whitby in the County of Ontario — October 18 to October 28, 1961. 

5. Throughout the remainder of the Province — October 7 to November 
18, 1961. Bag Limits — 5 per day in aggregate. Possession Limit — Aggregate 
total of 20. 

Ptarmigan 

Throughout Ontario — September 1 to April 2, 1961. Bag Limits — 5 per 
day. Possession Limit — Total of 15. 

Bob white Quail 

In the Township of Raleigh, in the County of Kent — ^November 8, 1961. 
Bag Limit and Possession Limit — 5 quail. 

Rabbit 

1. Townships of Qarke and Darlington in the County of Durham — October 
7, 1961 to February 28, 1962. 

2. (a) Counties of Brant, Halton, Oxford, Peel and Went worth, with the 
exception of Saltflleet Township, 

(b) Townships of Adjala, Tecumseth, and West Gwillimbury in the 
County of Simcoe, 

(c) Township of Wihnot in the County of Waterloo, and 

(d) Township of Puslinch in the County of Wellington — October 11, 
1961 to February 28, 1962. 

3. (a) Townships of East Gwillimbury, King, Markham, Vaughan and 
Whitchurch in the County of York, 

(b) Townships of Whitby, East Whitby and Pickering in the County 
of Ontario — October 18, 1961 to February 28, 1962. 

4. County of Essex, except Township of Pelee — October 25, 1961 to 
February 28, 1962. 

5. Township of Pelee, in the County of Essex — October 27, 1961 to Feb- 
ruary 28, 1962. 

6. The Counties of Elgin, Haldimand, Kent, Lambton, Lincoln, Middlesex, 
Norfolk, Welland, and Saltfleet Township in Wentworth County — October 28, 
1961 to February 28, 1962. 

7. All other parts of Ontario — September 1, 1961 to October 31, 1962. 
Limit on Cottontail Rabbits only — 6 per day. 

Squirrel (Black, Grey, Fox) 

Essex County — October 25 to November 30, 1961. 

All other parts of Ontario — September 30 to November 30, 1961. Bag 
Limit — 10 per day. Possession Limit — 10. 

68 



Raccoon and Fox 

Throughout Ontario — September 1, 1961 to August 31, 1962. 

Migratory Birds 

Ducks, Geese, Rails, Coots, Gallinules, Woodcock and Wilson's Snipe 

In the Northern District — September 15 to December 15, 1961. 

In the Central District — September 23 to December 15, 1961. 

In the Southern District — 12 noon (local time) October 7 to December 
15, 1961. 

In Essex County for Geese only — 12 noon (local time) October 7 to 
December 31, 1961. 

The Northern District comprises the Territorial Districts of Kenora, Patricia, 
Rainy River, Thunder Bay, Cochrane and Timiskaming, and those portions of 
Algoma, Sudbury and Nipissing lying northerly of Highway 17 between Mat- 
tawa and Sault Ste. Marie and northerly of the International Boundary between 
Sault Ste. Marie and Lake Superior. 

The Southern District comprises those parts of Muskoka District and Simcoe 
County lying west of Highway 69; in Ontario County those parts of the Town- 
ships of Rama, Mara, Thorah, Brock, and Reach lying west of Highways 69 
and 12, and the Townships of Scott, Uxbridge, Pickering, Whitby, and East 
Whitby; in Durham County, the Townships of Darlington and Clarke; and the 
counties of Brant, Bruce, Dufferin, Elgin, Essex, Grey, Haldimand, Halton, 
Huron, Kent, Lambton, Lincoln, Middlesex, Norfolk, Oxford, Peel, Perth, 
Waterloo, Welland, Wellington, Wentworth, and York; and 

The Central District comprises all that part of the Province which is not 
included in the Northern District or the Southern District. 
Bag Limits — 

Ducks — (in the aggregate) — 5 per day, 10 in possession, of which not more 
than one may be a canvasback or a redhead, and not more than two 
may be wood ducks. Mergansers are not included in the bag or possession 
limits. 
Geese — (in the aggregate) — 5 per day, 10 in possession. 
Rails, Coots and Gallinules — (in the aggregate) — 5 per day, 10 in jx>ssession. 
Wilson's Snipe — 8 per day, 16 in possession. 
Woodcock — 8 per day, 16 in possession. 

Persons resident more than 25 miles from James Bay may not kill more 
than 15 geese within 25 miles of James Bay during the 1961 season. 

Beaver 

1. Beaver may be trapped, hunted or possessed in the localities described in, 

(a) Schedule 1, except 

(i) that area in the unsurveyed part of the Territorial District of 
Kenora, Patricia Portion, shown outlined in red on a map filed in the 
office of the Registrar of Regulations at Toronto as No. 314, and 
(ii) those parts of the territorial districts of Cochrane and Kenora de- 
scribed in clause b, 

from the 15th day of October, 1961, to the 15th day of April, 1962, both 

inclusive; 

(b) those parts of the territorial districts of Cochrane and Kenora adjoining 
the southerly shore of Hudson Bay and the southerly and westerly shores of 

69 



James Bay and shown outlined in red on a map filed in the office of the 
Registrar of Regulations at Toronto as No. 309, from the 15th day of 
October, 1961 to the 15th day of May, 1962, both inclusive; 

(c) Schedule 2 from the 15th day of October, 1961 to the 31st day of 
March, 1962, both inclusive; and 

(d) Schedules 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 from the 1st day of November, 1961 to the 
31st day of March, 1962, both inclusive. 

Fisher and Marten 

2. Fisher and marten may be trapped, hunted or possessed in the localities de- 
scribed in, 

(a) Schedule 1 from the 15th day of October, 1961 to the 28th day of 
February, 1962, both inclusive; 

(b) Schedule 2 from the 15th day of October, 1961 to the 21st day of 
January, 1962, both inclusive; and 

(c) Schedules 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 from the 1st day of November, 1961 to the 
21st day of January, 1962, both inclusive. 

Fox 

3. Fox may be trapped, hunted or possessed in any part of Ontario from the 
1st day of September, 1961 to the 31st day of August, 1962, both inclusive. 

feynx 

4. Lynx may be trapped, hunted or possessed in any part of Ontario from the 
1st day of November, 1961 to the 28th day of February, 1962, both inclusive. 

Mink 

5. Mink may be trapped, hunted or possessed in the localities described in, 

(a) Schedule 1 from the 15th day of October, 1961 to the 28th day of 
February, 1962, both inclusive; 

(b) Schedule 2 from the 15th day of October, 1961 to the 21st day of 
January, 1962, both inclusive; 

(c) Schedules 3, 4, 5 and 6 from the 1st day of November, 1961 to the 
21st day of January, 1962, both inclusive; and 

(d) Schedule 7 from the 1st day of November, 1961 to the 28th day of 
February, 1962, both inclusive. 

Muskrat 

6. Muskrat may be trapped, hunted or possessed in the localities described in, 

(a) Schedule 1 from the 15th day of October, 1961 to the 31st day of 
May, 1962, both inclusive; 

(b) Schedule 2 from the 15th day of October, 1961 to the 21st day of May, 
1962, both inclusive; 

(c) Schedule 3 from the 1st day of November, 1961 to the 30th day of 
April, 1962, both inclusive; 

(d) Schedules 4 and 5 from the 1st day of November, 1961 to the 20th 
day of April, 1962, both inclusive; and 

(e) Schedules 6 and 7 from the 1st day of November, 1961 to the 15th day 
of April, 1962, both inclusive. 

70 



otter 

7, Otter may be trapped, hunted or possessed in the localities described in, 

(a) Schedules 1 and 2 from the 15th day of October, 1961 to the 31st day 
of March, 1962, both inclusive; 

(b) Schedules 3 and 4 from the 1st day of November, 1961 to the 31st day 
of March, 1962, both inclusive; and 

(c) in the townships of Albemarle, Amabel, Eastnor, Lindsay and St. Ed- 
munds in the County of Bruce from the 1st day of November, 1961 to the 
31st day of March, 1962, both inclusive. 

Roccoon 

8. Raccoon may be trapped, hunted or possessed in any part of Ontario from 
the 1st day of September, 1961 to the 31st day of August, 1962, both inclusive. 
Schedule 1 — that part of Ontario that is north of a line located as follows: 

Commencing at the intersection of the northerly limit of the right-of-way 
of the transcontinental line of the Canadian National Railways with the westerly 
limit of the geographic Township of Rice in the Territorial District of Kenora; 
thence in an easterly direction following the northerly limit of that right-of-way 
to its intersection with the easterly limit of the geographic Township of Sargeant 
in the Territorial District of Cochrane. 

Schedule 2 — 

1. The territorial districts of Algoma, Manitoulin, Rainy River, Sudbury 
and Timiskaming. 

2. Those parts of the territorial districts of Cochrane, Kenora, and Thunder 
Bay not included in Schedule 1. 

3. That part of the Territorial District of Nipissing which is northerly and 
westerly of a line located as follows: 

Commencing at the northwesterly angle of the geographic Township of 
West Ferris; thence easterly along the northerly boundary of that township to 
the westerly shore of Trout Lake; thence northerly and easterly along the westerly 
and northerly shore of that lake and along the northerly shore of the Mattawa 
River to the boundary between Ontario and Quebec. 

Schedule 3 — 

1. The territorial districts of Muskoka and Parry Sound. 

2. That part of the Territorial District of Nipissing lying southerly and east- 
erly of the line located in paragraph 3 of Schedule 2. 

3. The Provisional County of Haliburton and the County of Renfrew. 

4. Those parts of the counties of Frontenac, Hastings, Lennox and Adding- 
ton, Peterborough, and Victoria lying northerly of the centre line of that part 
of the King's Highway known as No. 7. 

5. That part of the County of Lanark lying northerly and westerly of a 
line located as follows: 

Commencing at a point in the westerly boundary of the County of Lanark 
where it is intersected by the centre line of that part of the King's Highway 
known as No. 7; thence in a general easterly direction along that centre line 
to the intersection of the centre line of that part of the King's Highway known 
as No. 15 in the Township of Drummond; thence in a general northeasterly 
direction along the last-mentioned centre line to the intersection of the centre 
line of that part of the King's Highway known as No. 29 in the Township of 

71 



Beck with; thence in a general northwesterly direction along the last-mentioned 
centre line to its intersection with the boundary between the counties of Carleton 
and Renfrew; thence northerly and easterly along the southerly boundary of the 
last-mentioned county to the boundary between Ontario and Quebec. 

Schedule 4 — 

1. The counties of Carleton, Dundas, Durham, Glengarry, Grenville, Leeds, 
Northumberland, Prescott, Prince Edward, Russell and Stormont. 

2. Those parts of the Counties of Frontenac, Hastings, Lennox and Adding- 
ton, Peterborough and Victoria not included in paragraph 4 of Schedule 3. 

3. That part of the County of Lanark not included in paragraph 5 of 
Schedule 3. 

Schedule 5 — The counties of Dufferin, Ontario, Peel, Simcoe and York. 
Schedule 6 — The counties of Brant, Bruce, Grey, Halton, Huron, Oxford, 
Perth, Waterloo, Wellington and Wentworth. 

Schedule 7 — The counties of Elgin, Essex, Haldimand, Kent, Lambton, Lin- 
coin, Middlesex, Norfolk and Welland. 



GAME AND FUR MANAGEMENT 
YEAR 1961 

The 1961 Deer Hunt In Ontario 

Deer hunter success varied greatly across Ontario in 1961. In nearly every 
case the quality of hunting experienced by hunters could be traced directly to the 
severity of previous winters. Where the winters had been mild, good hunting 
continued. Where several winters of deep snow had reduced deer numbers, hunter 
success was lower as a result. In some sections unfavourable weather during the 
hunting season contributed to the difficulties of hunters. Since it is impossible to 
generalize about such a variable situation, each district is treated in turn. 

In northwestern Ontario, winters for the past few years have been very mild. 
The beneficial effect on deer is clearly shown by the 1961 hunter success figures 
in Table 1. For the first time this year, hunter questionnaires were used through- 
out the western deer districts to obtain hunter success figures. Kenora and Fort 
Frances Districts reported the highest success rates in Ontario. About 60% of 
the hunters contacted in these districts were successful in shooting deer. The 
Sioux Lookout District, being on the edge of the deer range, reported a slightly 
lower success rate at 35.8%, but this was still higher than most districts in southern 
Ontario. These results recommend Kenora and Fort Frances as the best deer 
hunting areas in Ontario. 

In north central Ontario, from Sault Ste. Marie to North Bay, hunter success 
was the lowest in the province for 1961. It was evident that the deer herds 
throughout this whole area were still suffering from the losses occasioned by the 
deep snow of the winters of 1958-59 and 1959-60. Nevertheless, the predicted 
small improvement in hunter success took place in both the Sault Ste. Marie 
and North Bay Districts. On the Sudbury mainland, however, hunter success 
decreased from 14.4% in 1960 to 9.2% in 1961. This was due in large part to 
the very poor hunting weather which prevailed throughout most of the season in 

72 



the Sudbury District. Dry leaves and lack of snow made both stalking and tracking 
impossible. If there had been better hunting weather, they would probably have 
had a small improvement such as was found in the North Bay District, where 
hunter success increased from 7.0% in 1960 to 8.3% in 1961. 

In Sault Ste. Marie District, the hunter success, as indicated by hunter 
questionnaires, rose from 13.3% in 1960 to 17.1% in 1961. These figures are 
not comparable with those presented for the other districts of this area because 
of the different method of collecting data. They are comparable with the hunter 
questionnaires from western Ontario, and it is obvious that the deer herd in the 
Sault Ste. Marie District is still much lower than it is in the west. An additional 
508 hunters, including both residents and non-residents, reported from hunting 
camps in the Sault Ste. Marie District. For some reason they did not show the 
same increase in hunter success as the remainder of the district reports. The 
success reported for hunt camps in 1960 was 34.2, and in 1961 it was 34.4. 

On Manitoulin Island, the Little Current checking station showed a decrease 
in hunter success from the 25.4% reported in 1960 to 21.2% in 1961. This was 
mainly due to the fact that the use of dogs was prohibited on Manitoulin for the 
first time this year. The situation was made worse by the poor hunting weather 
which was nearly as bad as on the mainland. For the first time this year an 
interview survey of hunters who are residents of Manitoulin Island was carried 
out. It indicated that hunter success for residents of the island was 48.8% as 
compared to the 21.2% success for hunters from off the island. It was estimated 
that about 500 deer were shot by residents of Manitoulin this year. When this 
is added to the 524 deer checked through the checking station at Little Current 
we have a total estimate of the deer harvest on Manitoulin at slightly over 1,000 
deer. This is the first time that we have been able to make a total estimate of the 
deer harvested on Manitoulin Island with very much confidence. It should aid 
considerably in understanding and managing the deer herd. 

In Lake Huron District, the hunter success was down from 17.7% in 1960 
to 14.3% in 1961. This is apparently due to factors other than winter weather, 
as no unusually deep snow was recorded in the Lake Huron District for many 
years. 

Hunter success in the Parry Sound District remained almost the same as in 
1960. There was a very slight increase from 23.4 to 23.7%. This low hunter 
success appears to be due mainly to the lingering effects of the bad winters of 
1958-59 and 1959-60. It now seems evident that the winters affected deer not 
only by reducing the survival of fawns from the previous year, but also by reducing 
the survival of fawns during the succeeding spring. This means that three fawn 
crops were affected by the deep snow and the herd has not yet fully recovered. 

Hunting in the Lindsay District improved slightly over 1960. In fact, the 
fairly good hunting weather experienced in Lindsay District brought the best 
hunter success since 1958. On the other hand, Tweed and Pembroke Districts 
both had lower hunter success than in 1960. In Pembroke District this was, 
undoubtedly, due to a combination of bad winters and poor weather during the 
hunting season. It may well have been due to the same causes in northern 
Tweed District. 

Kemptville District maintained the highest hunter success in southern Ontario, 
but it, too, was down from the 1960 hunter success. This was due mostly to 
poor hunting weather. 

Table 2 shows the effects of the severe winters on the distribution of deer 
ages. In order to understand the table, it must be remembered that the greatest 
proportion of deer in a normal herd are the youngest deer. Natural mortality of 

73 



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74 



various kinds quickly reduces deer numbers as they get older. It must also be 
remembered that the fawns are the deer most susceptible to malnutrition during 
severe winters because they are smaller and less able to withstand the rigours 
of cold weather and deep snow. This means that the normal high percentages 
of young deer drop suddenly when there has been heavy winter mortality. 

This effect can be seen in Table 2. In western Ontario, where there have 
been no severe winters in recent years, the percentages of yearlings and two-year- 
old deer are high. This is the normal situation when no unusual winter mortality 
has occurred. The percentage of yearlings is a little lower than we would expect 
in Kenora District for reasons which are not known. Similar high percentages 
of yearlings and two-year-old deer were reported from Manitoulin Island, Tweed 
District and Kemptville District, and, to a lesser extent. Lake Huron District and 
Lake Simcoe District. None of these areas reported winter snows which could be 
classified as extreme in recent years. 

On the other hand, Sudbury, North Bay, Pembroke and Parry Sound Districts 
all reported percentages of yearlings which were much reduced from normal. This 
was because many fawns which were born in the spring of 1960, after the severe 
winter of 1959-60, failed to survive. It is likely that the does were in such jxx)r 
condition after the malnutrition of the previous winter that they were unable to 
take proper care of the fawns. In the same districts the percentages of two-year- 
old deer were also very low. This was because the fawns which were born in 
1959 not only were fewer in number, because their mothers had been through 
the severe winter of 1958-59, but they themselves had to face the deep snows of 
the winter of 1959-60. The fact that the three-and-one-half-year-old deer appear 
more numerous than usual in these districts indicates how severe the mortality 
has been. It is known that these deer suffered heavy mortality as fawns during 
the first severe winter of 1958-59. The fact that they now show up as a high 
percentage of the deer surviving indicates that many of the deer in the younger 
age classes failed to survive. 

The reduction in numbers of deer available to hunters because of the severe 
winters can be seen by comparing the age class distributions for Fort Frances 
District and North Bay District. In Fort Frances District, where no unusual 
winter mortality has occurred in recent years, 67% of the deer shot by hunters 
were either yearlings or two-and-one-half-year-old deer. In North Bay District, 
which was hard hit by two severe winters, only 32.6% of the deer in the fall 
hunt were in the yearling and two-and-one-half-year-old classes. The deer which 
should have made up the bulk of the supply for hunters were, to a large extent, 
missing. 

The Sault Ste. Marie District was affected by the winter of 1958-59, but 
escaped most ot the deep snows of 1960-61. As a result the deer have had 
one more year to recover than they have had in neighbouring districts. The 
recovery is indicated by the high percentage of yearlings which have reappeared 
this year, and evidence that it would continue, granted mild winters, is shown 
by the high percentage of fawns. The high percentage of fawns found in Sudbury 
District this year indicates that the other districts will follow the same course as 
that shown in Sault Ste. Marie, except one year later, because of the second severe 
winter in 1959-60. 

Since we live on the extreme northern edge of the deer range, we will have 
to accept the fact that severe winters will continue to decimate our deer herd 
from time to time. It appears that this may again be the case this year. As long 
as deep snows control deer numbers very little can be done to alleviate the 
situation. The best solution appears to be woods operations designed to improve 

75 



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76 



the habitat in which the deer spend their winters. With the very best of food and 
cover, a higher number of deer should be able to withstand the rigours of our 
northern winters to produce young during the periods when winters are not so 
severe. 



Summary Of 1961 Spring Deer Survey Results 

Some 1961 spring deer surveys were described and compared with previous 
years in Ontario Fish and Wildlife Review, Vol. 1, No. 2, Fall, 1961. Not all 
of the data was used in that rej>ort. For easy reference, Tables 1-4 summarize 
the results of the 1961 surveys. 

Table 1 shows less mortality than was found in the previous years. The 
results of pellet group counts in Table 2 indicate lower deer densities. The per- 
centage of stems browsed in Table 3 is generally lower than it was previously. 
All these changes are to be expected when a mild winter follows two severe ones. 
The mortality obviously should be less. The density of deer will be reduced be- 
cause of previous mortality and because little snow last winter allowed the deer 
to wander further. Since densities are lower, browsing pressure will be less 
intense. 

There are other indications of the changed winter conditions. The follow- 
ing list summarizes the causes of death among the few dead deer found: starva- 
tion 2, predation 26, various causes other than starvation 15, unknown 7. 
Starvation as a cause of mortality decreased from 31% in 1960 to 4% in 
1961. The age of distribution in 1961 was as follows: one year 5, two years 
0, three years 1, four years 2, five years 1, adults 13, unknown 23. Although 
the sample of aged deer is small a comparison of yearlings with all others (except 
"unknown") shows 22.7% yearlings, compared with 36.5% in 1960, (and 56.7% 
in the 1960 aged sample). There is a suggestion here that the percentage of 
fawns in the winter mortality was lower. 

The value of combining dead deer and pellet group counts as in Table 4 
has been clearly shown. Because of the reduction in live deer densities, mortality 
expressed as dead deer per square mile cannot be compared from one year to 
the next. The mortality expressed as a percentage of the living deer can be com- 
pared. This year provided an excellent opportunity to test our methods. If the 
percent mortality had increased over previous years, the methods would not be 
giving figures indicating true field conditions. Since the percent mortality was 
down in most cases, we are encouraged to believe that the methods really indicate 
what is happening. The occasional sampling error, such as that for Kennisis, does 
not invalidate the whole method but indicates local problems which must be found 
and corrected. 

Although the browse surveys have not yet shown a close relationship with 
winter mortality, we are still hoping that with more and better data they will. 
Meanwhile we are learning a lot about deer foods. One of the most striking 
findings has been the rather minor part of the diet made up of cedar. Apparently 
the maples, dogwood and even hazel supply much more food than cedar in 
many areas. 

From the 1961 results, we conclude that the spring surveys show great 
promise. We know more about the deer herds and deer yards than ever before. 
The changing conditions over the past three winters have been faithfully re- 
flected on a general basis. Only in local areas are there serious discrepancies. 
Never again should we go through a deep snow year without the knowledge 
gained from the revealing spring surveys. 

77 



Table No. 1 



DEAD DEER SURVEYS 1961 









No. of 












Dead 




Est. 


District and 


Size of Yard Miles of 


% of Yard 


Deer 


Est. loss 


Total 


Deer Yard 


in sq. mi. Cruise Line 


Searched 


Found 


per sq. mi. 


Loss 



Lake Simcoe 

Wood Twp. __ 

Lindsay 

Red Pine 

Kennisis L. _ 
Haliburton L. 
Harburn 

Tweed 

Norean Lake 

Pembroke 

Aylen Lake _ 

Bonnechere 

Fraser 

Parry Sound 

Christie 

Shawanaga _ 

Stisted 

McConkey 

Squaw Lake _ 

North Bay 

Bertram 

Kibble 

Goward 

Arsenic 

Tetapaga 

Best 

Sudbury 

Massey (1) _ 
Massey (2) _ 



1.0 



4.0 



3.6 


4.1 


2.0 


5.3 


7.0 


11.8 


5.8 


7.9 



9.6 



3.6 



66 


34 


82 


54 


9 


15 


2.2 


7.4 


7.8 


12.5 


2.3 


6.9 


4.0 


7.9 


15.9 


42.2 


4.2 


11.3 


1.7 


5.5 


1.4 


3.2 


1.2 


3.2 


1.3 


3.5 


1.0 


3.0 


1.5 


6.9 


0.75 


2.5 



15.0 





9.5 
6.3 
5.1 



1.4 



1.9 
2.5 
6.2 



12.9 
6.0 

11.0 
7.4 
9.9 



10.0 
12.3 
8.6 
10.0 
10.0 
11.0 



17.3 
12.0 



6.7 



2 

12 

3 









10.5 


21 


2.3 


16 









1.6 


106 


5.9 


484 


5.4 


48 


14.3 


31 


4.3 


34 


3.9 


9 


6.7 


27 


3.8 


60 








4.8 


8 


16.7 


23 








7.7 


10 








15.4 


23 


32.0 


24 



78 



Table No. 2 



PELLET GROUP COUNTS 











Calculated 


Calculated 


Calculated 


District and 


Size of 


No. Plots 


Total Winter 


Deer Days 


Deer per 


Total No. 


Deer Yard 


Yard 


Sampled 


Crotisings 


per sq. mi. 


sq. mi. 


Deer 



Lake Simcoe 














Wood Twp. ___ 


1.0 


64 


87 


6848 


35.1 


35 


Lindsay 














Red Pine 


3.6 


124 


23 


936 


4.8 


17 


Kennisis L. 


2.0 


94 


23 


1233 


6.3 


13 


Haliburton L. _ 


7.0 


191 


159 


4193 


21.5 


151 


Harburn 


5.8 


84 


228 


13678 


70.1 


407 


Tweed 














Norean L. 


9.6 


75 


121 


8130 


45.4 


438 


Pembroke 














Bonnechere 


47.0 


802 


1878 


11800 


68.2 


5592 


Parry Sound 














Christie 


2.2 


102 


129 


6375 


32.7 


70 


Shawanaga 


7.8 


180 


304 


8606 


43.6 


340 


Stisted 


2.3 


99 


190 


9671 


49.6 


116 


McConkey 


4.0 


127 


133 


6276 


25.7 


103 


Squaw Lake 


15.9 


256 


161 


3170 


15.8 


252 


North Bay 














Bertram 


4.2 


131 


238 


9157 


52.3 


219 


Kibble 


1.7 


73 


130 


8975 


49.9 


84 . 


Goward 


1.4 


60 


41 


3442 


19.1 


23 


Arsenic 


1.2 


57 


138 


12200 


67.8 


81 


Tetapaga 


1.3 


67 


154 


11585 


64.4 


85 


Best 


1.0 


73 


13 


897 


5.0 


5.0 


Sudbury 














Massey (1) 


1.5 


118 


196 


8370 


164.1 


246 


Massey (2) 


0.75 


53 


86 


8082 


158.5 


119 


Lake Huron 














Greenock 














Swamp 


9.4 


509 


295 


2923 


14.6 


137 


Johnston Hrbr, 














Willow Creek 


17.0 


899 


1877 


10522 


52.6 


894 



79 



Table No. 3 



BROWSE SURVEYS 1961 



District and 
Deer Yard 



Size of 
Yard 



No. Plots 
Sampled 



Living 

Stems 

per acre 



No. Browsed 

Stems 

per acre 



% 

Stems 

Browsed 



% 
Stems 
Mut. 



% 
Stems 
Killed 



Lake Huron 
















Greenock Swamp 


— 


509 


15213 


463914* 


19.8* 


0.8 


8.0 


Lake Simcoe 
















Johnston Hrbr. — 
















Willow Creek _ 


— 


899 


8075 


352096* 


16.0* 


11.9 


3.0 


Lindsay 
















Red Pine 


3.6 


124 


13631 


520 


3.8 


0.5 


.04 


Kennisis L. 


2.0 


94 


14619 


1334 


9.1 


0.5 


0.57 


Tweed 
















Norean L. 


9.6 


75 


4321 


758 


17.5 


2.3 





Pembroke 
















Bonnechere 


154 


802 


8545 


3458 


40.5 


2.0 


0.2 


North Bay 
















Bertram 





131 


4295 


2267 


52.8 


1.5 


0.87 


Kibble 


— 


73 


4317 


3616 


83.8 


1.9 


1.5 


Goward 


— 


60 


6495 


1584 


24.4 


1.7 


1.6 


Arsenic 


— 


57 


8418 


2461 


29.2 


3.0 


2.5 


Tetapaga 


— 


67 


8028 


2871 


35.8 


0.2 


0.3 


Best 


— 


73 


6392 


285 


4.5 


0.0 


0.0 



* Counts were of twigs browsed. 
Browse units and % twigs browsed are used. 



80 



Table No. 4 



COMPARISON OF SURViYS 






3.8 





10.5 


9.1 





2.3 


— 


10.7 





— 






District and Living Deer Dead Deer % Stems Percent 

Deer Yard per sq. mi. per sq. mi. Browsed Mortality 

Lake Simcoe 

Wood 35.1 6.7 — 19.1 

Lindsay 

Red Pine 4.8 

Kennisis L. 6.3 

Haliburton L. 21.5 

Harburn 70 

Tweed 

Norean 45.4 17.5 

Pembroke 

Aylen Lake — 

Bonnechere 68.2 

Fraser — 

Parry Sound 

Christie 32.7 

Shawanaga 43.6 

Stisted 49.6 

McConkey 25.7 

Squaw L. 15.8 

North Bay 

Bertram 52.3 

Kibble 49.9 

Goward 19.1 

Arsenic 67.8 

Tetapaga 64.4 

Best 5.0 

Sudbury 

Massey (1) 164.1 

Massey (2) 158.5 



1.6 


— 


— 


5.9 


40.5 


8.7 


5.4 


— 


— 


14.3 




43.7 


4.3 


— 


9.8 


3.9 


— 


7.9 


6.7 


— 


13.5 


3.8 


— 


24.0 





52.8 





4.8 


83.8 


9.6 


16.7 


24.4 


87.4 





29.2 





7.7 


35.8 


12.0 





4.5 





15.4 




9.4 


32.0 


— 


20.2 



81 



The 1961 Moose Hunt In Ontario 

Nearly 45,000 moose licences were sold in Ontario in 1961. This was an 
increase of about 24% over the 1960 sales. The moose harvest increased by 
11.6% bringing the total estimated kill to 13,773 moose. There was a slight 
decrease in hunter success from 33.3% in 1960 to 30.1% in 1961. The lower 
hunter success seems to have been due to poor weather conditions for hunting 
throughout the eastern two-thirds of northern Ontario. The rutting season ended 
earlier than usual leaving the hunters only one or two days of moose calling 
before the moose failed to respond. Unusually high water conditions added to 
the problems of hunters by allowing moose to reach the water without coming 
into the open. Despite these difficulties, many more moose could have been 
taken if hunters had been able to get away from the over-crowded roadways into 
the almost completely unhunted interior. 

Table No. 1 

1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 



Residents 


8,958 


13,440 


17,369 


22,688 


26,349 


30,340 


38,977 


Non-residents 


1,141 


1,550 


1,893 


2,362 


3,431 


4,212 


5,775 


Moose-deer 





900 


38 


1,245 





1,608 






10,099 15,890 19,262 26,295 29,780 36,160 44,752 

The number of moose licences sold in Ontario has increased each year for 
the past seven years, as shown in Table No. 1. The increase this year was 23.8%. 
The number of licences sold to residents in 1961 was 38,977, an increase of 
23.2% over 1960. The sale of non-resident licences increased by 37.1% to 5,775. 
The experimental moose-deer licence in southern Ontario was this year discon- 
tinued. The increase in the moose herd south of the French and Mattawa rivers 
warranted the extension of the regular moose licence to cover hunting in the 
south. The experimental moose-deer licence was originally set up as a camp 
licence. Each licence would cover the hunting of seven or eight men. The exten- 
sion of the regular resident licence to southern Ontario meant that each hunter 
was expected to purchase his own licence if he intended to hunt moose. This 
change in ruling, plus the reduction in price from $21.00 to $10.00, brought 
about a 207% increase in the number of licences used in southern Ontario. 

The information about the numbers and percent success of resident hunters 
collected by the Fish and Wildlife staffs in each district, is summarized in Table 
No. 2. Since it was not possible to obtain a complete list of the names and 
addresses of hunters, a correction factor was determined for the 1,157 licencees 
which were not available for sampling. On the assumption that the unsampled 
hunters had the same success as the sampled hunters, an additional 318 moose 
were added to the 9,458 calculated from the samples of resident hunters. This 
gave a total estimate of 9,776 for the number of moose killed in northern Ontario 
by resident hunters. The 7,227 resident hunters from the samples, who returned 
questionnaires indicating that they had hunted in northern Ontario, reported a 
success of 27.5%. This was a slight decrease from the 30.5% success reported 
in 1960. The largest number of resident hunters in one district was reported from 
Port Arthur District where 3,317 hunters killed 834 moose. The Sioux Lookout 
District reported the highest resident hunter success, 67.0%. 

The non-resident hunter success, shown in Table No. 3, remained higher 
than resident hunter success, but it was down from 1960 by about the same 
amount as resident hunter success in northern Ontario. In 1960, the non-resident 
hunter success was 66.1%, but in 1961, it dropped to 57.8%. Kenora District 

82 



reported the most non-resident hunters with 1,008. Sioux Lookout had the high- 
est non-resident hunter success at 85.6%. 

In southern Ontario, the reported high hunter success was not a true indica- 
tion of the hunting quality. The experimental moose-deer licence which had been 
previously in force was regarded as a party licence. With several hunters to flU 
each licence, the reported success was very high. The change this year to indi- 
vidual licences was not completely understood by all hunters. Some continued 
to use the moose licence as a camp licence. There was a decrease from a reported 
success of 47.4% in 1960 to 28.5% in 1961, but even this lower figure was 
an inflated one since it was higher than the reported success in many parts of 
northern Ontario. 

The total harvest of moose in southern Ontario rose by nearly 25%, from 
711 in 1960 to 883 in 1961. Despite the increased kill, reports from Department 
of Lands and Forests staff members who were flying during the past winter, 
indicated that they were seeing more moose than ever before. In some cases 
the numbers of moose seen were likened to those found in northern Ontario. 
There seems to be little cause for concern about over-hunting moose in the south 
at the present time. 

Weather exerted a much greater influence on moose hunter success in 1961 
than it normally does. While the favourable weather in north-western Ontario led 
to a high hunter success, the less favourable conditions throughout the remainder 
of northern Ontario resulted in a lower overall resident hunter success than in 
1960. In Sioux Lookout District, the hunter success increased from 53.0% in 
1960 to 67.0% in 1961. Kenora District reported nearly identical hunter suc- 
cess for both years, 60.5% in 1960 and 60.8% in 1961. Hunter success in the 
Fort Frances District rose from 35.4% in 1960 to 43.5% in 1961. 

To the east of these districts the story was different. In Port Arthur Dis- 
trict, hunter success dropped from 32.0% in 1960 to 25.1% in 1961. There 
was only a slight decrease in Geraldton District, from 36.8% in 1960 to 36.2% 
in 1961, but all other districts in northern Ontario showed substantial declines 
in hunter success. For example, Cochrane reported a resident hunter success 
of 28.8% in 1960, but only 16.5% in 1961. The only exception to this gen- 
eralization was Sault Ste. Marie District, where hunter success was a very low 
18.0% in 1960 and this year increased to 23.2%, which is approximately the 
same as surrounding districts. The weather affected non-resident hunters in a 
similar manner. Non-residents reported high success in Sioux Lookout and 
Kenora Districts, but lower hunter success than in 1960 in all other districts of 
northern Ontario except Gogama and Sudbury. 

Adverse hunting conditions during the first week of the hunting season can 
be particularly effective in reducing the kill of moose. It is in the first week 
that the most hunters are afield and that most moose are killed. Over 34% of 
all resident hunting effort was spent in the first week of the 1961 hunting season. 
These hunters accounted for 38.8% of the total kill of moose by residents in 
northern Ontario. Non-residents favour the first week of hunting even more 
than do resident hunters. Over 60% of the non-resident hunting was concentrated 
in the first week, accounting for 63.1% of the total kill of moose by non- 
residents. With this amount of hunting in the first week, unfavourable hunting 
conditions during that period may cause a significant reduction in the total kill. 

The numbers of moose shot in each district, classified as to sex and age, 
are summarized in Table No. 4. Most districts in northern Ontario reported that 
resident hunters killed a greater number of bulls than cows. In the few districts 
reporting higher numbers of cows than bulls, the differences were not great 

83 









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enough to rule out the possibility of an equal sex ratio. The overall sex ratio 
for adult moose shot by resident hunters in northern Ontario was 58.2% bulls 
to 41.8% cows. A chi-square test revealed that this was significantly different 
from a fifty-fifty sex ratio. It is safe to conclude that resident hunters in northern 
Ontario shot a higher percentage of bulls than cows. 

Non-resident hunters, included in Table No. 4, reported an even greater 
percentage of bulls in the kill. The totals for Ontario indicated that 62.9% of 
the moose shot by non-residents were bulls, while only 37.1% were cows. The 
sex ratio of calves shot by non-residents was 58.4% males to 41.6% females. 
This was nearly identical with the sex ratio of calves shot by residents in north- 
ern Ontario, which was 59.0% males to 41.0% females. It appears that the 
higher proportion of adult bulls killed by non-residents was the result of a 
greater preference for animals with large antlers. 

The sex ratios of moose shot in southern Ontario differ from the moose 
shot by residents or non-residents in northern Ontario. The ratio of 52.0% 
adult bulls to 48.0% adult cows is not significantly different from an even sex 
ratio. Calves, however, were in nearly the same proportion as in northern On- 
tario, 60.3% males to 39.7% females. The reason why hunters shot more adult 
bulls than cows in the north but equal numbers in the south is not clear. It may 
be that bulls are more vulnerable to hunting than are cows. In northern Ontario 
where moose are under-harvested, there might be more bulls available to hunters 
than in southern Ontario, where the heavier hunting in the past would have 
reduced the number of bulls. On the other hand, it might be that the difference 
is entirely due to hunter preference. In northern Ontario there would be a better 
chance for hunters to select the moose they wanted than in southern Ontario, where 
they would probably be glad to take any moose they could get. Whichever ex- 
planation is correct, the difference in sex ratios of adult moose shot in northern 
and southern Ontario seems to reflect the difference in hunting pressure in the 
two parts of the province. 

The hunter success figures for resident hunters included in this report are 
based on questionnaires collected from samples of resident hunters. Non-resident 
hunter success was calculated from all non-residents who would reply, except 
in Kenora District, where a sample of the non-resident hunters was used. Data 
on moose ages were also collected for future analysis. 

RufFed Grouse Studies, 1961 

During the summer of 1961, district staff throughout Ontario again counted 
the number of ruffed grouse young in each brood sighted during the period May 
through August. A total of 579 broods were seen in eighteen districts. In 1959, 
576 broods were counted, and in 1960, 941 broods were counted. The increase 
in 1960 was mainly because more districts participated in the program. However, 
the decrease in 1961 occurred in spite of a further increase in the number of 
districts participating. This certainly indicated a decrease in the grouse population. 

Table No. 1 summarizes the brood count by district and by month. The 
average brood size in June was very similar to that recorded in 1960, as was 
the case in July. However, in August the average brood size was quite different 
than in 1960. Pembroke, Parry Sound, and Sudbury, as well as Gogama, Gerald- 
ton, Port Arthur, Sioux Lookout and Kenora showed substantial increases in 
brood size during August over those recorded in 1960. Sault Ste. Marie, White 
River, and Chapleau showed substantial decreases in brood size reported. Brood 
counts in southwestern Ontario have been difficult to obtain, but in the Erie 

85 









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86 



District breeding success of ruffed grouse must have been good again in 1961 
since there were grouse in many woodlots and hunting success was reported by 
hunters to be as good as in 1960. 

Hunters again co-operated in supplying field staffs with wings and tails of 
grouse shot for age and sex studies. A total of 3,286 wings and tails were re- 
ceived compared with 5,529 in 1960, even though greater efforts were made by 
the districts to collect wings and tails from hunters. With the exception of Kempt- 
ville and Parry Sound districts, the juvenile to adult female ratios were lower 
in 1961 than they were in 1960. In Table No. 3 the hunter success of ruffed 
grouse hunters is recorded for eighteen areas. The birds shot per 100 hours 
varies widely between 8.4 in the Gogama District to 115 in the Kenora Dis- 
trict. A general comparison with 1960 indicates an exceptional increase in the 
Kenora District from 54 birds per 100 hours in 1960 to 115 birds per 100 hours 
in 1961, and minor increases in Lake Erie and Kemptville districts of about 
10% more birds shot per 100 hours. At the same time, in the Pembroke, Parry 
Sound, Sault Ste. Marie, White River, Chapleau, Gogama and Geraldton dis- 
tricts there are some very drastic decreases in the number of birds shot per 100 
hours of hunting in 1961 over that experienced in 1960. This information sub- 
stantiates reports from the hunters that conditions in central Ontario for grouse 
hunting were at a very low ebb. At the same time, hunting in southeastern and 
southwestern Ontario was reasonably good. 

Special Pheasant Project, Lake Simcoe District, 1961 

Since 1948 the Lake Simcoe District has received shipments of over 200,000 
pheasants (chicks, poults and adults) from our provincial hatcheries, or an 
average of some 14,500 a year. They in return have helped supply in the last 
eight years some 8,000 hunters per year, two to sixteen open days of pheasant 
hunting in our sixteen regulated townships. 

Although no records are available for the first few years, reports of low 
survival of pen reared pheasants released into some of the townships were quite 
numerous. Records of hunting success started in the early fifties, showed a poor 
harvest per hunter, but it was not until 1958 that a plan was put into operation 
to show some figures on reproduction of this bird in the District. 

Prior to 1957 field checks produced figures showing a harvest of approx- 
imately .25 or 14 of a pheasant per hunter during the open season. During 1957 
a small experiment in the Township of Whitchurch revealed figures we had 
previously not thought possible. For some years this township was releasing 
some 2,000 pheasants annually with an unusually low success figure in 1956 of 
.18 of a pheasant per hunter. During 1957 they released only 500 pheasants, 
one quarter the number of previous years. When 1957 harvest figures were 
compiled a success figure of .50 or one-half a bird per hunter was shown. At 
the time we attributed this 64% increase to three factors; 1. good natural hatch, 
2. better survival during the spring and summer, 3. a larger check of hunters 
during the open season. Whatever the cause was, it started us thinking along 
the lines of "just how much natural hatch do we have?" 

Method: During the year 1957 the District banded 975 pheasants with 
coloured plastic bands, the results of which were very poor as these plastic 
bands stretched or pulled off the pheasant's leg. In 1958 a total of 1765 pheas- 
ants were leg banded and released in Whitchurch Township. These tags were 
metal and bore the Department's name and number on them. Only 56 pheasants 
of which 20 bore leg bands were recorded shot this year. Although 110 pheasants 
unfortunately were released in Whitchurch without bands that year, we assumed 

87 



Table No. 4 



SEX AND AGE CLASSIFICATIONS Of RESIDENT MOOSE KILL 1961 



Total 

Calculated 

Kill 



Adults Calves 

$ Q $ Q Unspec. 

Sioux Lookout 442 316 113 80 971* 

Kenora 448 304 110 69 3 1048* 

Fort Frances** 141 88 32 24 286* 

Port Arthur 373 364 43 54 834 

Geraldton 490 473 61 80 1104 

Kapuskasing 576 268 71 28 943 

Cochrane 231 173 54 32 490 

Swastika 218 220 63 48 461* 

White River 209 171 19 18 422* 

Sault Ste. Marie 386 228 55 38 715* 

Sudbury 320 208 70 43 641 

North Bay** 174 212 55 22 463 

Northern Ontario Totals 4602 3299 819 583 3 9458 

Southern Ontario 

Parry Sound** 200 170 68 45 

Lindsay** 78 90 35 16 

Tweed** 19 25 7 11 

Pembroke** 51 3 6 19 1 3 ^0_ 

Southern Ontario Totals ~~348 321 1 29 ^85' 0_ 

Ontario Totals ^950 3620 948 668 3 



483 

219 

62 

119 

883" 

10341 



SEX AND AGE CLASSIFICATIONS OF NON-RESIDENT MOOSE KILL 1961 

Total Total 

Adults Calves Reported Estimated 

3 Q 5 $ Unspec. Kill Kill 

Sioux Lookout 442 267 53 35 3 800 835 

Kenora 340 211 37 24 12 624 729 

Port Arthur 121 94 12 16 32 275 275 

Geraldton 175 94 18 11 298 364 

Kapuskasing 86 30 6 4 126 133 

Cochrane 25 8 1 34 40 

Swastika 14 6 20 26 

Gogama 74 41 6 2 123 130 

Chapleau 88 37 5 5 135 143 

White River 130 91 12 6 239 273 

Sault Ste. Marie 67 45 7 5 124 129 

Sudbury 19 10 1 30 37 

Totals 1581 934 157 109 47 2828 3114 

*Extras added from graph of success reported on hunter returns. 
**No non-resident moose season. 



88 



Table No. 1 



RUFFED GROUSE BROOD COUNT 1961 





May 


June 


July 


August 


September 


Brood 


Yg/5 


Brood 


Yg/9 


Brood 


Yg/5 


Brood 


Yg/9 


Brood 


Yg/Q 


Lake Erie 






















Lake Huron 






















Lake Simcoe 






















Lindsay 


3 


8.3 


19 


6.0 


17 


6.0 


3 


6.3 






Tweed 






2 


8.0 














Kemptville 














2 


4.5 






Pembroke 


3 


4.0 


15 


6.4 


24 


5.5 


28 


5.5 






Parry Sound 






32 


5.5 


53 


5.3 


35 


5.1 


3 


— 


North Bay 






5 


7.2 


20 


5.8 


8 


6.1 


3 


5.6 


Sudbury 






4 


9.3 


8 


6.6 


7 


7.1 


1 


4.0 


Sault Ste. Marie 






7 


5.4 


13 


3.9 


3 


4.3 






White River 






4 


7.5 


8 


5.4 


3 


3.0 






Chapleau 






1 


3.0 


5 


4.0 


5 


3.4 






Gogama 






8 


4.8 


4 


3.5 


1 


5.0 


2 


5.5 


Swastika 






9v^ 


6.5 


9 


4.4 


8 


5.4 






Cochrane 






















Kapuskasing 


1 


5.0 


1 


5.7 


1 


5.2 


1 


3.7 






Geraldton 






14 


6.1 


15 


4.9 


10 


5.7 


1 





Port Arthur 


2 


3.5 


7 


7.6 


26 


5.3 


14 


5.6 


6 


5.0 


Fort Frances 






9 


5.5 


13 


4.8 










Kenora 






17 


6.2 


22 


5.2 


10 


7.5 






Sioux Lookout 






5 


5.2 


1 


5.0 


7 


5.1 


7 


6.6 


Manitoulin Island 


1 




3 


8.3 


1 


3.0 


1 


7.0 






Totals per month 


9 




162 




240 




145 




23 





Total 579 



89 






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91 



Pheasants 

Field checks of pheasant hunters in the Lake Erie, Lake Simcoe and Lindsay 
districts have been carried out for a number of years in order to evaluate the 
natural kill of pheasants in their districts, and also some experiments have been 
carried out to evaluate the return of banded birds in these districts. The following 
reports contain statistics from each of the three districts. 



Pheasant Hunting Preserves 



ESSEX COUNTY 
HUNTER SUCCESS PHEASANTS 



















Birds 




















Birds 


Per 


Hours 


Time 




Ne 


1. Hunters 


Hours 


Bae 




Per 


Hunter 


to Bag: 


in the 


Township 


Res. 


N.R. 


Totl. 


Hunted 


Banded 


Unb. 


Hunter 


Hour 


1 Bird 


Field 


Anerdon 






















N. Colchester 


10 


36 


46 


151 


1 


20 


0.46 


0.14 


7.2 


3.3 


S. Colchester 


118 


110 


228 


543.75 




146 


0.64 


0.27 


3.7 


2.4 


N. Gosfield 


61 


123 


184 


519 


1 


104 


0.57 


0.20 


4.9 


2.8 


S. Gosfield 


94 


99 


193 


761 




152 


0.79 


0.20 


5.0 


3.9 


Maidstone 


100 


132 


232 


903 


5 


123 


0.55 


0.14 


7.0 


3.9 


Maiden 






352 


1016.5 




152 


0.43 


0.14 


6.7 


2.9 


Mersea 


49 


93 


142 


387.75 


2. 


72 


0.52 


0.19 


5.2 


2.7 


Rochester 


67 


157 


224 


680 


74 


65 


0.62 


0.21 


4.9 


3.0 


Sandwich E. 






















Sandwich S. 


68 


102 


170 


586 


1 


45 


0.27 


0.08 


12.1 


3.5 


Sandwich W. 






17 


99 




8 


0.47 


0.06 


12.4 


5.8 


Tilbury N. 






















Tilbury W. 






















Totals 


567 


750 


1788 


5603 


84 
971 


887 


0.54 


0.17 


5.8 


3.1 



LINCOLN COUNTY 



Clinton 


19 


60 


79 


260 





40 


0.51 


0.15 


6.5 


3.3 


Gainsboro 





13 


13 


37 





5 


0.38 


0.14 


7.4 


2.8 


N. Grimsby 


21 


40 


61 


146.5 





16 


0.26 


0.11 


9.1 


2.4 


S. Grimsby 


2 


28 


30 


107.5 





9 


0.30 


0.28 


3.6 


3.6 


Louth 


32 


77 


109 


807 





46 


0.42 


0.06 


17.5 


7.4 


Niagara 


40 


59 


99 


450 





70 


0.71 


0.16 


6.43 


4.5 


Totals 


114 


277 


391 


1808 





186 


0.48 


0.103 


9.7 


4.6 








ELGIN COUNTY 












Malahide 





35 


35 


104 





28 


0.80 


0.27 


3.7 


3.0 








Totals for County 













92 



NORFOLK COUNTY 
HUNTER SUCCESS PHEASANTS 



















Birds 




















Birds 


Per 


Hours 


Time 




No 


. Hunters 


Hours 


Bag 




Per 


Hunter 


to Bag 


in the 


Township 


Res. 


N.R. 


Totl. 


Hunted 


Banded 


Unb. 


Hunter 


Hour 


1 Bird 


Field 


Windham 


2 





2 


4 





2 


1.00 


0.50 


2.0 


2.0 


Townsend 


5 


5 


10 


9 





3 


0.30 


0.33 


3.0 


0.9 


Charlotteville 






















Woodhouse 






















Walsingham 


5 


5 


10 


30 





1 


0.10 


0.033 


30.0 


3.0 


Totals 


12 


10 


22 


43 





6 


0.27 


0.14 


7.2 


2.0 



LAMBTON COUNTY 



Bosanquet 
Warwick 



11 


5 


16 


24 





6 0.38 


0.25 


10 


10 


20 


51 





10 0.50 


0.20 



Totals 



21 15 



36 



75 



16 0.44 0.21 



4.7 



2.1 



KENT COUNTY 



Tilbury E. 


17 


13 


30 


30 





29 


0.97 


0.97 


1.03 


1.0 


Romney 





2 


2 


2 





1 


0.50 


0.50 


2.00 


1.0 


Harwich 


1 





1 


2 








0.00 


0.00 




2.0 


Raleigh 


14 


17 


31 


106.5 





13 


0.42 


0.12 


8.2 


3.4 


Totals 


32 


32 


64 


140.5 





43 


0.67 


0.31 


3.3 


2.2 



WELLAND COUNTY 



Pelham 


27 


20 


47 


139 







19 


0.40 


0.14 


7.3 


3.0 


Thorold 


19 


28 


47 


97 







20 


0.43 


0.21 


4.8 


2.1 


Stamford 






403 






124 




0.31 








Bertie 






165 






61 




0.37 








Crowland 






69 






11 




0.16 








Humberstone 






42 






12 




0.29 








Willoughby 






53 






24 




0.45 








Wainfleet 






157 






56 




0.36 








Totals 






983 


3778 




327 




0.33 


0.09 




3.8 



93 



that the entire 36 unhanded shot birds would have some natural hatch among 
them. In 1959 all 1733 birds released in Whitchurch were banded. Out of a 
total of 123 pheasants reported killed, 68 were banded. These figures although 
small indicated 55% of our kill were from wild birds. 

As these figures were for only one township and one in which the upper 
half is considered marginal for pheasants, we decided to branch out southward 
into better pheasant habitat. In 1960 we solicited the help of five townships 
namely Pickering, Markham, Whitchurch, Toronto and Chinguacousy, to enter 
into a district project which we hoped would inform us as to which type of 
plantings, poults or adults, would produce the best harvest to the hunter. Eigh- 
teen hundred pheasants were leg banded with metal bands bearing number and 
planted in these townships, half as poults, half as adults. Out of a known kill 
of 719 pheasants harvested, 217 bore leg bands or close to 70% being from 
natural hatch. This was indeed a surprise, although at the time we felt that 
some human error may have entered into the figures. 

Early in 1961 we laid plans to enlarge the number of participating town- 
ships to seven, Vaughan and King joining. We also included in our plans the 
leg banding of all pheasants to be released in the seven townships. A total of 
9,878 pheasants were banded. Deputy game wardens, interested sportsmen and 
additional conservation officers patrolled the seven townships during the open 
season, checking a total of 2,195 hunters. The results are shown below, plus a 
chart showing completed figures on release, harvest, and percentages for the 
year 1961. 

Figures are taken from compiled figures on our pheasant harvest and band- 
ing reports, 1961. 

7 Regulated townships involved 

9,878 banded birds released 

993 pheasants harvested 

414 pheasants harvested were banded or, 

42% of the total harvest were from banded birds 

58% of the total harvest were from unhanded or natural hatch 

2,195 hunters were questioned 

4,647 township licensed hunters 

4.2% of planted birds harvested by 2195 hunters or, 

.19 of a banded pheasant harvested per hunter day. 

The above table summarizes the known recoveries of released banded 
birds and natural hatch in the seven townships. Percentages of recovered banded 
and unhanded birds are also shown for easy comparison. You will note that 
four of the seven townships show more unhanded birds harvested than banded, 
and that the average of the seven townships presents the same picture. 

Lindsay District Pheasant Hunt. 1961 

PHEASANT KILL 

Percentage of Total Kill 
Cocks Hens Total 

61.9 38.1 100.0 

58.9 41.1 100.0 



Clarke Township 

Resident 
Non-resident 


Number of Birds Shot 
Cocks Hens Total 
135 83 218 

86 60 146 


Combined 


221 


143 364 


Darlington Township 

Resident 
Non-resident 


207 
304 


142 349 
166 470 


Combined 
Grand Totals 


511 
732 


308 819 
451 1183 



60.7 39.3 100.0 

59.3 40.7 100.0 
64.7 35.3 100.0 

62.4 37.6 100.0 



94 



Although the total birds shot is over twice that reported in 1960, the sex 
ratio of 3 cocks to 2 hens remains constant. 



Pheasants Killed Per Hunter 


Resident 


Non-Resident 


Combined 


Clarke Township 


2.25 


2.15 


2.21 


Darlington Township 


1.49 


1.85 


1.68 



In comparison with 1960 combined figures the number of pheasants shot 
per hunter has risen by 0.43 birds in Qarke Township and fallen by 0.47 birds 
in Darlington. Thus the 1961 figure for Darlington is almost the same as the 
1960 figure for Clarke and vice versa. 

Banded Birds Reported Shot If a return showed that at least one bird was 
banded, but did not indicate the exact number of banded birds in the bag, one 
bird was arbitrarily added to the banded total. Sixty-four (64) cards were treated 
in this manner. 

Number of Banded Birds Killed Resident Non-Resident Combined 

Clarke Township 38 (17.4%) 47 (32.2%) 85 (23.4%) 

Darlington Township 113 (32.4%) 111 (23.6%) 224 (27.4%) 



309 (26.19%) 

Year Reported Kill % Reported Banded Return Cards 

1959 482 65.5 given out with licence 

1960 559 47.0 given out with licence 

1961 1,183 26.1 mailed out after hunt 

The decline in the proportion of banded birds in the bag (already noted in 
the 1960 report) appears to be real, although it is probably somewhat less 
marked than the above figures would indicate. 

Estimated Total Hunter Kill Conversion figures given previously are used 
in the following estimates made from reported kills. 



Clarke Township 

Resident 
Non-resident 

Combined 

Darlington Township 

Resident 
Non-resident 

Combined 

Both Townships 

Resident 
Non-resident 

Combined 2,403 633 

The total estimated kill for 1961 is just 45 birds less than the estimate 
for 1960. The estimated banded kill of 633 birds is only 15.8% of the banded 
birds released in 1961. Some of the reported bands were from birds released 
prior to 1961. 

Public Hunting Areas 

During 1961, in addition to the Dariington Provincial Park marsh being 
used as a controlled public shooting area, a 1,700 acre area at Long Point was 

95 



Estimated Total 
Pheasant Kill 


Estimated Total 
Banded 


480 
464 


84 
150 


944 


234 


614 
845 


199 
200 


1,459 


399 


1,094 
1,309 


283 
350 



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96 



used for controlled duck shooting and three other areas, Sibbald's Point Park, 
Presqu'ile Park and 120 acres at Darlington Park were used for controlled 
pheasant shooting. 

The use made of these five areas was not considered to be high, because 
the areas were not advertised; few news releases were issued to explain the ex- 
periment. As a result, many hunters did not take advantage of the areas. The 
use of the pheasant hunting at Darlington was highest since hunters had used 
the area for ducks in the previous year. 

The following are statistics of the hunting, 

1. Darlington Waterfowl Unit. 
247 blind-days of use @ $2.00 
420 hunters 

141 ducks shot 

0.33 birds per hunter 

2. Long Point Waterfowl Unit. 

Controlled Zone Free Zone 

833 blind-days of use @ $4.00 

1,544 hunters 434 hunters 

811 ducks bagged 205 ducks bagged 

164 ducks crippled 15 ducks crippled 

0.58 ducks per hunter 0.54 ducks per hunter 

3. Darlington Pheasant Unit. (12 hunters per day) 
171 permits issued @ $5.00 

408 pheasants released 

318 pheasants killed 

1.9 birds per hunter 

75.5% of pheasants released were bagged. 

4. Presqu'ile Pheasant Unit. 
74 permits issued @ $5.00 
200 pheasants released 
162 pheasant killed 

2.2 birds per hunter 

81% of pheasants released were bagged. 

5. Sibbald's Point Pheasant Unit. 
134 permits issued @ $5.00 
210 pheasants released 

132 pheasants killed 
0.98 birds per hunter 
63% of pheasants released were bagged. 
In addition to the controlled shooting areas, three areas (parks) were used 
as public shooting units where hunters paid an annual fee of $4.00 for water- 
fowl shooting. No limit was placed on the number of hunters per day, nor the 
number of permits issued. The use is indicated by the permits issued as follows: 
Rondeau Park marsh unit — 248 permits 
Holiday Beach — 290 permits 

Presqu'ile Park — 263 permits. 

At Presqu'ile hunters bagged 1.5 ducks per day per hunter. No facilities 
were provided at these latter three areas. 

The results indicate excellent hunting and excellent returns on stocked 
pheasants. It is rarely possible in our pheasant stocking program to account 

97 



for more than 50% of the adult birds stocked or more than 20% of the poults 
released. 

The results also Indicate that our consideration of using older birds in re- 
stricted areas in Ontario is well justified. 

In addition, the controlled waterfowl areas offer a high quality of duck 
hunting (not bag of ducks) and we can expect future improvement in the average 
bag of waterfowl as the units become better established and hunters become 
acquainted with the proper method of hunting. 

The added figures of hunters checked, licences sold and percentages shown 
above indicate that if all licencees hunted pheasants in the townships involved, 
the harvest produced from this year's planting would be considered fair in the 
District. 

Pheasant Hunting Preserves 

The number of licenced preserves in this Province continues to increase 
and has doubled from 22 licenced preserves in 1959 to 44 in operation during 
1961. 

The increase in the total number of hunters on these preserves from 1,777 
on 31 preserves in 1960 to 4,115 hunters on 44 preserves in 1961 is due to a 
variety of factors. The public is becoming increasingly aware that this type of 
hunting is available and as the operators gain experience the type of hunting 
being offered to the public is improving. 

A large factor in the increase of hunters was due to the new non-resident 
hunters licence which is sold solely to allow hunting in private hunting preserves 
at a fee of $5.00. Whereas previously the non-resident was required to purchase 
a non-resident hunting licence at $21.00 and proved to be rather restrictive. 

The following table indicates the activities of the Pheasant Hunting Pre- 
serves operating in the various administrative districts throughout the province: 













Number 


Number of 


Adminis- 




Total Acreage 




Total of 


of birds 


hunters 


trative 


Number of 


under 


Total 


birds 


removed by 


on 


Districts 


Preserves 


Licence 


Purchases 


Released 


Hunters 


Preserve 


Aylmer 


16 


6,071 


7,805 


7,036 


4,486 


1,031 


Hespeler 


9 


4,715 


7,497 


7,902 


4,144 


724 


Maple 


5 


1,378 


5,963 


5,154 


3,302 


1,376 


Lindsay 


6 


1,422 


1,204 


1,922 


1,251 


330 


Parry Sound 


1 


100 


460 


460 


338 


53 


Sudbury 


1 


400 


35 


35 


10 


4 


Tweed 


2 


397 


175 


4,880 


1,305 


170 


Kemptville 


2 


700 


425 


255 


203 


54 


Sault Ste. Marie 2 


558 


345 


1,300 


733 


373 



Totals 



44 



15,741 



23,909 



28,944 



15,772 



4,115 



Stock Birds on 


Hand 


March 31, 1962. 


Aylmer 




1,915 


Hespeler 




716 


Maple 




285 


Lindsay 




355 


Parry Sound 




Nil 


Sudbury 




Nil 


Tweed 




500 


Kemptville 




5 


Sault Ste. Marie 


35 



Total 



3,811 



98 



Location by Counties of Pheasant Hunting Preserves 1961-1962 

Algoma 2 

Brant 2 

Carleton 1 

Durham 2 

Elgin 1 

Essex 1 

Frontenac 1 

Grey 1 

Haldimand 2 

Kent 3 

Lambton 1 

Lanark 1 

Lincoln 1 

Manitoulin 1 

Middlesex 3 

Muskoka 1 

Norfolk 2 

Northumberland 3 

Ontario 2 

Oxford 1 

Peel 1 

Prince Edward 1 

Simcoe 1 

Victoria 1 

Waterloo 3 

Welland 2 

Wellington 1 

Wentworth 1 

York 1 

Total 44 

Commercial Pheasant Farms 

March 31, 1962 completed the sixth year of operations for Commercial 
Pheasant Farms in the Province and the number of these farms has been steadily 
increasing from 30 farms in 1956 to 181 in 1961, 

In 1956, when the regulations were first promulgated all breeding stock 
had to be imported mostly from the United States. In 1961 out of a total pur- 
chase of chicks, poults, and adult birds of 37,545 only 7,660 were imported. 

The fact that 50% more live birds than dressed birds have been sold indi- 
cates that the emphasis on production of dressed birds for the market is moving 
toward a supply of good quality birds for sale to the pheasant hunting preserves. 

The following are the average prices obtained: 

$ $ 

Pheasant hatching eggs during May — 20.00 to 22.00 per hundred 

during June — 18.00 to 20.00 per hundred 
Day old chicks from May to June — 35.00 to 40.00 per hundred 

June to July — 30.00 to 35.00 per hundred 
Poults (7 weeks) — 1.25 to 1.40 each 

Mature pheasants September 1 to November 15 — Cocks 3.00 to 3.35 each 

— Hens 2.60 to 2.95 each 
November 16 to January 31 — Cocks 3.25 to 3.60 each 

— Hens 2.85 to 3.20 each 
February 1 to March 31 — Cocks 3.50 to 3.85 each 

— Hens 3.10 to 3.45 each 
These prices were for top quality birds and the prices being governed by 

the quantity purchased. 

99 



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Location by Counties of Commercial Pheosonts Farms 

Number of Farms 

Algoma 3 

Brant 3 

Bruce 3 

Carleton 1 

Durham 4 

Elgin 6 

Essex 5 

Frontenac 3 

Grey 6 

Haldimand 4 

Halton 5 

Haliburton 1 

Hastings 4 

Huron 6 

Kent 3 

Lambton 4 

Lanark 1 

Leeds 2 

Lennox and Addington 1 

Lincoln 4 

Manitoulin 1 

Middlesex 6 

Muskoka 1 

Norfolk 9 

Northumberland 7 

Ontario 9 

Oxford 10 

Peel 8 

Perth 3 

Prince Edward 2 

Renfrew 2 

Simcoe 6 

Victoria 2 

Waterlooe 12 

Welland 9 

Wellington 8 

Wentworth 9 

York 9 

Total 181 



FUR MANAGEMENT 

Heavy snows on thin ice during the fall season created unusual trapping 
conditions province wide and hazardous and difficult travel for the trapper. As 
the season continued heavy layers of slush ice made trapsetting even more work. 
Trappers were similar in number to previous years and continued interest and 
effort by the trapper resulted in harvested totals comparable to other successful 
years. The total beaver catch of almost 138,000 came within 2,500 of reaching 
Ontario's peak production of 140,000 harvested during the 1957-58 season and 
was higher by about 4% than the previous year's figure. With but a slight de- 
crease in price, beaver remained in good demand. Continued improvement 
through furs seasonably caught and through pelt preparation, held against a 
larger drop in average price paid per pelt. Better prices received for seasonably 
caught well handled fur supported the Department's encouragement to the trapper 
along this line. 

The March 31st closing date was in effect again this year. Due to the 
lateness of the spring thaw in most areas and the trapper's co-operation in taking 
the bulk of his catch by midwinter, consideration is being given to a slightly 
later closing date, possibly April 15th, in the North and Northwestern sections. 
As most trappers have to wait for break-up before further employment, this 

101 



measure should be of some relief as there is a lengthy period of idleness experi- 
enced by them in years of a late break-up. 

The Ontario Trappers' Association Fur Sales Service held five sales at their 
North Bay warehouse with continued success. Sales were December 12th, Jan- 
uary 27th, February 27th, April 9th and June 1st. Further quantities of fur 
arrived at the warehouse after the final sale and with the trappers' consent a 
bulk shipment was made to Winnipeg to be sold at their June 26th sale. Ship- 
ments and pelt volume increased by 35% and dollar volume by only 28% due 
to the slight price decrease on some species. Beaver dominated the sales making 
up over 65% of the volume. Mink and Muskrat accounted for 22% and Otter, 
always popular, 6%. Fisher, Marten, Fox, Lynx, Weasel, Squirrel and Wolf 
amounted to 7%. Strong interest was shown by some of the buyers in the ship- 
ments of castoreum (dried beaver glands). Trappers taking more than average 
quantities of beaver could add tidy sums to their trapping income by salvaging 
castoreum from beaver carcasses. 

Ontario can be proud of its wild furs. Quantities and quality taken each 
year by its trappers are impressive on any fur market. Organized trapping and 
pelting demonstrations have encouraged the trapper to take the bulk of his 
catch at the peak of primeness and present it at its best to receive the full value 
of his product. Further encouragement along this line can improve on the dis- 
tinction now held. 

Raw furs have been tanned for displays in Ontario and overseas. At a fur 
garment fashion show the backdrop display of tanned Ontario wild furs was a 
high point of the event. Similar promotions could increase the interest in the 
beauty of our furs and stimulate our markets. 

Beaver — Continues to retain the prominent position in catch and revenue. 
Yearly catch figures have remained over the one hundred thousand mark since 
1950-51. There is nothing to indicate equal records in the past on such a sus- 
tained basis. 

Mink — Even with the decrease in prices paid and quantities caught it re- 
mains one of our more valuable furs. Though barely similar it has suffered some 
competition from the tremendous quantities of ranch mink produced here and 
in Europe. Production is down approximately 25% from last years figure. Some 
study is contemplated of parasitic infestation and its effect as to population and 
pelt quality. 

Muskrat — ^Nearly 85% of the catch is produced below the line of the 
French and Mattawa Rivers with the greatest numbers being taken by districts 
bordering Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. Muskrat were down in production and 
price for the past three years but an uptrend of 25% was experienced this year 
with a rise of 80% in price. 

Otter — During the years when beaver were scarce the production records 
showed otter down to less than one-half of the present figures. With the return 
of the beaver, otter reached the 7,000 mark and has remained in the neighbour- 
hood with little change for the past twelve years. Prices received have varied 
very little over the same period. 

Fox and Raccoon — ^Neither have been protected as fur-bearers for several 
years and, especially in the case of the raccoon, more are taken by the hunter 
than the trapper. Rabies infection and organized hunts reportedly have reduced 
the fox population to a low point. Both have increased in price with fox at the 
$3.50 mark and raccoon at the $3.00 mark. 

Fisher and Marten — Even though Ontario is the major producer of fisher, 
the numbers produced and value have little bearing on the trapper's economic 

102 



status. Marten production has increased steadily to a point over two thousand 
above the previous record year of 1921-22 when the catch was eight thousand. 
Loss of long fur jwpularity in 1953-54 seriously reduced its value and it re- 
mains in the four to five dollar bracket. 

Lynx — 1926-27 was the previous record catch year with a total of 4,568. 
This years catch adds up to 4,578 and barely estabhshes a new record. Trappers 
received an average of $36.00 then in comparison to today's average of $9.00. 

Weasel, Squirrel and Skunk — ^Numbers of these taken remain quite low 
and combined with poor prices paid are of little importance except to the young 
trapper. 

Restocking — ^Due to the number of fires last year, aircraft was unavailable 
for restocking purposes. Most of the areas previously restocked have had ex- 
cellent recoveries and are now open for trapping. 

FUR FARMING. 1961 

Unlike a year ago, the mink pelt market opened in early December in 
Canada, with active competition among a large attendance of buyers. It was 
obvious that the trade was anxious to acquire merchandise to restock depleted 
inventories and up to 95% of the pelts offered were sold. Notable advances 
in prices were made in the dark and sapphire mink categories with most other 
types holding firm to last year's levels. 

The strong demand at firm prices prevailed throughout the season and 
approximately 90% of the mink crop was sold by early May. This augurs well 
for the 1962/63 season. 

The trimming trade was responsible for consuming about four million of 
the jQfteen million mink pelts which it is estimated were produced in the world 
in 1961. With this strong demand for commercial mink the ranchers who raise 
ordinary to poor quality pelts have been able to realize a profit on their opera- 
tions and temporarily postpone their ultimate doom. The consumption of such 
large quantities of commercial mink by the trimming trade also has been a factor 
in maintaining good prices for the better quality mink. 

In January 1962, Canada Mink Breeders sponsored a special auction sale 
of the rarer types and more delicate shades of mutation mink, in the Queen 
Elizabeth Hotel in Montreal. This sale was unique because for the first time in 
the history of the industry, four major Canadian auction houses co-operated in 
the presentation of this sale. It was a highly successful venture both for the 
ranchers and the 150 buyers that attended from North America, seven European 
countries, United Kingdom and South Africa. The sale realized about $650,000 



TRENDS IN TOTAL SEALED PELTS AND VALUES 

Total Total Average* Average* 

Sealed Sealed % Change Value Value % Change 

1960-61 1961-62 Volume 1960-61 1961-62 Value 

Beaver 132,375 137,609 + 4% 12.65 10.48 —17.1% 

Fisher 3,348 2,728 — 18.5% 11.84 13.57 + 12.7% 

Lynx 4,502 4,578 + 1.6% 10.08 9.02 —10.5% 

Marten 9,325 10,260 + 9.1% 6.00 3.66 —39.0% 

Mink 61,520 47,215 —23.2% 8.64 8.98 + 3.8% 

Otter 7,422 7,456 -|- .4% 27.42 24.40 —11.0% 

♦Average for all grades and sizes throughout season at O.T.A. Fur Sales, North Bay. 



103 



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104 



AVERAGE PRICE AND CATCH RECORDS FOR YEARS 1956-57 TO 1961-62 



1956-57 1957-58 1958-59 1959-60 1960-61 1961-62 



Beaver 

Year's Catch _ 
Ave. Price Pd. 



106738 140371 120566 110615 132375 137609 
11.10 10.50 10.40 13.30 10.70 10.48 



Fisher 

Year's Catch . 
Ave. Price Pd. 



Fox, Coloured 

Year's Catch 

Ave. Price Pd. 



Fox, Arctic 

Year's Catch _ 
Ave. Price Pd. 



Lynx 

Year's Catch . 
Ave. Price Pd. 



Marten 

Year's Catch _ 
Ave. Price Pd. 



Mink 

Year's Catch _ 
Ave. Price Pd. 



2127 
17.40 


3173 
16.30 


2365 
15.95 


3125 
19.20 


3348 
8.00 


2728 
13.57 


1253 
.50 


2031 

.75 


1858 
1.45 


1188 

2.77 


1655 
2.10 


2960 
3.32 


60 
15.00 


128 
14.65 


302 
14.35 


85 
20.00 


98 
20.00 


130 
15.00 


564 
5.80 


1103 
6.75 


2242 
13.40 


4038 
15.10 


4502 
7.70 


4578 
9.02 


4467 
5.25 


6061 

4.75 


4559 
4.95 


6361 
4.75 


9325 
3.45 


10260 
3.66 


36284 
13.30 


49484 
10.50 


44926 
11.40 


47445 
13.25 


61520 
8.35 


47215 
8.98 



Muskrat 

Year's Catch . 
Ave. Price Pd. 



443153 446578 337986 320287 304731 377888 

.95 .75 .84 .81 .54 .98 



Otter 

Year's Catch . 
Ave. Price Pd. 

Raccoon 

Year's Catch _ 
Ave. Price Pd. 

Skunk 

Year's Catch _ 
Ave. Price Pd. 

Weasel 

Year's Catch _ 
Ave. Price Pd. 

Squirrel 

Year's Catch _ 
Ave. Price Pd. 



5727 
26.55 


8519 
22.50 


6698 
22.70 


6040 
25.90 


7422 
23.70 


7456 
24.40 


10551 
1.60 


9596 
1.30 


4200 
1.35 


10580 
2.01 


7433 
1.70 


9543 
3.00 


1105 

.72 


2019 
.82 


572 

.87 


389 
.70 


216 
.45 


264 
.50 


17981 
.67 


16410 
.52 


11626 
.56 


12472 
.60 


12631 
.45 


11143 
.49 


19440 
.14 


14778 
.15 


11330 
.11 


9255 
.10 


12496 
.12 


10099 
.15 



105 



REVENUE RECEIVED FROM EXPORT PERMITS 
JULY Isf. 1961 to JUNE 30th, 1962 



Total Amount Total Amount 

of Pelts of Revenue 



Beaver 135,949 $135,949.00 

Fisher 2,787 2,787.00 

Fox (white) 393 294.75 

Lynx 4,663 699.45 

Marten 10,164 5,082.00 

Mink 46,713 46,713.00 

Muskrat 324,559 16,227.95 

Otter 7,425 9,281.25 

Weasel 16,713 835.65 

Wolverine 

Fox (cross) 211 

Fox (red) 2,060 

Fox (silver, black or blue) 41 

Raccoon 17,421 

Skunk 150 



TOTAL REVENUE $217,870.05 



REVENUE RECEIVED FROM TANNERS PERMITS 
JULY 1st, 1961 to JUNE 30th, 1962 

Total Amount Total Amount 

of Pelts of Revenue 

Beaver 1,685 $ 1,685.00 

Fisher 31 31.00 

Fox (white) 27 20.25 

Lynx 83 12.45 

Marten 589 294.50 

Mink 1,188 1,188.00 

Muskrat 53,804 2,690.20 

Otter 50 62.50 

Weasel 281 14.05 

Wolverine 3 1.20 

Fox (cross) 9 

Fox (red) 52 

Fox (silver, black or blue) 9 

Raccoon 223 

Skunk 



TOTAL REVENUE $5,999.15 

106 



STATEMENT OF WILD PELTS EXPORTED OR TANNED SHOWING NUMBER 

AND VALUE OF PELTS AND ROYALTY RECEIVED FROM 

JULY 1st, 1961 to JUNE 30tli. 1962 

Pelts Pelts Total Value 

Exported Tanned Pelts of Pelts 

Beaver 135,949 

Fisher 2,787 

Fox (white) 393 

Lynx 4,663 

Marten 10,164 

Mink 46,713 

Muskrat 324,559 

Otter 7,425 

Weasel 16,713 

Wolverine 

Fox (cross) 211 

Fox (red) 2,060 

Fox (silver, 

black or blue) 41 

Raccoon 17,421 

Skunk 150 

569,249 58,034 627,283 $2,451,074.57 

Revenue received from Export Permits $ 217,870.05 

Revenue received from Tanners Permits 5,999.15 

TOTAL REVENUE $ 223,869.20 



STATEMENT OF RANCH RAISED PELTS EXPORTED OR TANNED 

SHOWING NUMBER AND VALUE OF PELTS FROM 

JULY 1st, 1961 to JUNE 30th, 1962 



1,685 


137,634 


$1,362,576.60 


31 


2,818 


30,152.60 


27 


420 


4,473.00 


83 


4,746 


36,544.20 


589 


10,753 


41,936.70 


1,188 


47,901 


414,343.65 


53,804 


378,363 


340,526.70 


50 


7,475 


169,682.50 


281 


16,994 


8,497.00 


3 


3 


45.00 


9 


220 


600.60 


52 


2,112 


5,998.08 


9 


50 


154.00 


223 


17,644 


35,464.44 




150 


79.50 





Pelts 
Exported 


Pelts 
Tanned 


Total 
Pelts 


Value 
of Pelts 


Fox (silver, 

black or blue) 

Mink 


159 
.___ 328,103 


153 

57,547 


312 
385,650 


$ 1,560.00 
5,591,925.00 




328,262 


57,700 


385,962 


$5,593,485.00 



for the 19,000 pelts offered. Parts of the sale were televised by the Canadian 
Broadcasting Corporation and the International Wire Services carried stories on 
the auction to Europe. 

It is interesting to note that the value of ranch-raised mink produced on 
the 508 Ontario ranches is more than double the value of all wild furs caught 
in the province. This fact demonstrates the necessity and value of advertising 
the product by the primary producers, which has resulted in mink dominating 
the entire fur market. 

While a number of cases of distemper and enteritis have been reported on 
Ontario ranches this year, they no longer pose as serious problems to the 
ranchers who can control outbreaks and keep losses to a minimum with the 

107 



vaccines produced in Ontario, which are very effective against these diseases. 
However, the most serious disease confronting the ranchers is one first detected 
in the Aleutian mink, commonly called "Aleutian Disease." It is a highly infec- 
tious disease and has been diagnosed on four or five ranches in the province. 
One ranch suffered a 50% loss and pelted the remaining mink with a view to 
stamping out the disease. Pens and equipment were disinfected before new breed- 
ing stock was purchased. Research work on this disease is being conducted in 
three provinces as well as at the Ontario Veterinary College and in the United 
States. 

A total of 513 licences were issued in 1961, 449 were renewals, 59 were 
new and 5 licences were issued with retroactive provisions to legalize the operation 
of unlicenced ranches during the previous year. 

The following table shows the location by County or District of Licenced 
Fur Farms — 1961 — 



County or 




District 


Number 


Brant 


11 


Bruce 


21 


Dufferin 


5 


Durham 


9 


Elgin 


4 


Essex 


11 


Frontenac 


4 


Granville 


1 


Grey 


30 


Haldimand 


9 


Halton 


24 


Huron 


12 


Kenora 


7 


Kent 


14 


Lambton 


4 


Lanark 


5 


Leeds 


2 


Lincoln 


23 


Manitoulin 


6 


Muskoka 


1 


Middlesex 


18 


Nipissing 


2 


Norfolk 


10 


Northumberland 


1 


Ontario 


15 


Oxford 


16 


Parry Sound 


7 


Peel 


5 


Perth 


42 


Peterborough 


1 


Rainy River 


3 


Renfrew 


1 


Simcoe 


29 


Timiskaming 


1 


Thunder Bay 


12 


Victoria 


5 


Waterloo 


19 


Welland 


18 


Wellington 


42 


Wentworth 


28 


York 


30 



TOTAL 508 

108 



SUMMARY OF BREEDING STOCK 



Licenced Fur Farms, Jonuory 1st 



1957 



1958 



1959 



1960 



1961 



Other Animals 

Beaver (Pens) 1 

Beaver (S.C.) 

Fisher 12 

Marten 85 

Muskrat (Pens) 24 

Muskrat (S.C.) 30 

Raccoon 43 

Skunk 5 

Fox 

Blue 56 

Cross 1 

Red 7 

Standard Silver 166 

Platinum 105 

Pearl Platinum 119 

White Marked 6 

Mink 
Standard & 

dark half blood 14812 

Silverblu 24072 

Pastel 42063 

Other Mink 28989 



1 


1 


1 


1 














8 


2 


2 


1 


76 


89 


96 


97 


2 











45 











33 


24 


22 


20 


3 


3 


3 


3 


57 


83 


94 


97 














X12 


X13 


X14 


X9 


//150 


//178 


//292 


//212 


#186 


#232 


#280 


#367 






























































119299 


*130294 


♦142600 


*154626 



X Includes Cross and White Fox 

# Includes Pearl Platinum Fox 
// Includes White Marked Fox 

* Includes All Types of Mink 



109 



Colour Type Of Pelts Taken From Mink During 1961 

DARK AND HALF BLOOD DARK MINK, include Blufrost 59,258 

GREY TYPE such as Silverblu or Platinum, Sage, 

B.O.S., Stewarts & Homos 13,073 

DARK BLUE TYPE such as Aleutian, Blue Iris, 

Steelblu, B.O.S., Stewarts & Homos 20,447 

LIGHT BLUE TYPE such as Sapphire, Winterblue, Eric, 

Violet, B.O.S., Stewarts & Homos 49,898 

BROWN TYPE such as Pastel, Topaz, Ambergold, Buff 

B.O.S., Stewarts & Homos 197,453 

BEIGE TYPE such as Palomino, Pearl, Lavender, Hope, 

B.O.S., Stewarts & Homos 33,898 

WHITE TYPE, include 95% White 14,954 



TOTAL PELTS— 388,981 

The number of breeding mink kept as of January 1, 1961 was an increase 
of 12,026 or 8.4% over the previous year. Accordingly, there was an increase 
this year over last year in the production of all types of mink except the Grey 
type, which showed a 15.7% decrease. While the overall increase was 11.6%, 
the most notable increases were recorded in the Beige and Light Blue types which 
showed 110.5% and 29.1% respectively. The fluctuations in the production 
figures followed closely the market demand for the various types of mink. 

Wolf Bounty, 1961 -1962 

The Wolf and Bear Bounty Act authorizes the payment of a $25 bounty 
on a timber or brush wolf three months of age or over and a $15 bounty on a 
timber or brush wolf under three months of age. 

The whole pelt of the wolf must be presented as evidence, on wolves killed 
in the counties and the Provisional Judicial District of Manitoulin. However, 
the whole unskinned head of a wolf may be presented in lieu of the whole pelt, 
on wolves killed in the provisional judicial districts, excepting Manitoulin. 

The Department pays the whole bounty on wolves killed in the provisional 
judicial districts; whereas on wolves killed in the counties, the Department pays 
40% of the bounty and the respective county pays the remaining 60%. 

The following table shows the number and species of wolves killed and the 
amount of bounty paid during the past five years: 

Period Timber Brush Pups Total Bounty 

For year ending Mar. 31, 1958 

For year ending Mar. 31, 1959 

For year ending Mar. 31, 1960 

For year ending Mar. 31, 1961 

For year ending Mar. 31, 1962 

There were 1,503 claims received in the Department; 14 claims representing 
8 wolves and 6 dogs were refused for various reasons. 

While there was an increase of 15.7% in the wolf kill in the counties and 
a decrease of 9.8% in the districts, there was an overall decrease of 6.5% in 
the wolf kill in this fiscal year as compared to the previous year. 

It is interesting to note that 57 timber, 49 brush and 3 pups for a total of 109 
wolves were killed by being struck by cars or trucks on highways, or on other 
travelled roads. This compares with a total of 75 road-kills for the previous fiscal 
year. 

A report on the Wolf Research Project will be found in the Research 
Branch's section of this Annual Report. 

110 



1,047 


574 


34 


1,655 


$37,255.00 


1,169 


606 


49 


1,824 


$41,589.00 


939 


528 


42 


1,509 


$33,619.00 


1,320 


761 


57 


2,138 


$48,766.00 


1,136 


794 


68 


1,998 


$44,510.00 



The following table shows the number of wolves killed by county and 
district, on which claims for bounty were received. 

County Timber Brush Pups Total 

Bruce 1 19 20 

Carleton 2 2 

Dufferin 1 1 

Durham 14 8 22 

Frontenac 1 11 5 17 

Grey 3 3 

Haldimand 2 2 

Hastings 11 25 1 37 

Huron 2 2 

Kent 4 6 10 

Lambton 4 4 

Lanark 15 16 

Leeds & Grenville 11 11 

Lennox & Addington 5 17 22 

Middlesex 5 5 

Norfolk 1 1 

Northumberland 7 7 

Ontario 3 3 

Peel 1 1 

Perth 2 2 

Peterborough 18 4 22 

Renfrew 42 24 66 

Simcoe 2 26 28 

Stormont 1 1 

Victoria 19 10 

Wentworth 1 1 

York 2 2 

Total for Counties 81 211 25 317~ 

District Timber Brush Pups Total 

Algoma 76 82 12 170 

Cochrane 172 10 182 

Haliburton 20 4 24 

Kenora 210 57 6 273 

Manitoulin 15 132 6 153 

Muskoka 9 27 36 

Nipissing 93 50 143 

Parry Sound 69 31 2 102 

Rainy River 43 92 135 

Sudbury 180 63 2 245 

Timiskaming 21 8 29 

Thunder Bay 147 37 5 189 

Total for Districts 1055 583 43 1681 

Total for Counties 81 211 25 317 

Grand Total 1136 794 68 1998 

Bear Bounty, 1961 -1962 

The payment of bounty on bears was discontinued on July 27, 1961. Prior 
to this date, a $10 bounty was paid on a bear 12 months of age or over and 
a $5 bounty was paid on a bear under 12 months, under authority of the Wolf 
and Bear Bounty Act. 

The Act specified that the bear must be killed between April 15th, and 

November 30th, in a township of which 25% of the total area is devoted to 
agriculture and which is located in a district, or one of the counties prescribed 

by the Regulations. The Act also required that the bear must be killed in defence 

of preservation of livestock or property by a bona-fide resident of the township. 



Ill 



The whole pelt of the bear was required to be presented as evidence within 
three weeks of the date of killing, before a Magistrate, Justice of the Peace, 
Conservation Officer or a duly appointed Bear Bounty Officer. 

The following table shows the number of bears and cubs killed and the 
amount of bounty paid during this fiscal year: 

Period Adults Cubs Bounty 

April 1st to July 

27th, 1961 328 33 $3,405.00 

The Department considered 285 claims for bounty on 328 bears and 33 
cubs which were killed on or before July 27th, 1961. Four claims representing 
four bears were refused for various reasons. 

The following table shows the number of bears killed in each county and 
district on which claims for bounty were received. These figures do not include 
the number of bears killed by sportsmen, on which bounty was not applicable. 



County or 


Bear 


Cubs 


District 


12 Months Or Over 


Under 12 Months 


Algoma 


8 




Bruce 







Cochrane 


116 


13 


Frontenac 


2 




Haliburton 


2 




Hastings 


12 




Kenora 


3 




Lanark 


2 


2 


Lennox & Add. 







Manitoulin 


1 




Muskoka 


4 




Nipissing 


8 


1 


Northumberland 







Parry Sound 


14 




Peterborough 


3 


1 


Rainy River 


29 


6 


Renfrew 


10 


2 


Sudbury 


48 


5 


Timiskaming 


27 


3 


Thunder Bay 


37 




Victoria 


2 




Total 


328 


33 



Hisiory of Bear Bounty in Ontario 

A bounty on bears was first established by Order-In-Council dated August 
19th, 1942. It provided for a $10 bounty to be paid on a bear over 12 months 
of age, which was killed between August 1st, and November 30th, 1942. 

The Regulation which set out the provisions for claiming bounty, specified 
that the bear must be killed in a township of which 25% of the total area was 
devoted to agriculture and which was located in any district, the Provisional 
County of Haliburton or in the counties of Bruce, Frontenac, Hastings, Lennox 
and Addington, Peterborough, Renfrew or Victoria. The bear must be killed 
in defence or preservation of livestock or property by a resident of the township. 

The Regulation, to encourage the destruction of bears, was re-affirmed 
with minor amendments to provide for the payment of bounty on bears killed 
between April 15th, and November 30th, each year until the enactment of the 
Wolf and Bear Bounty Act in 1946. All payments of bounty on bears made 
prior to the enactment of the Act were ratified and confirmed by the Act. 

112 



The Wolf and Bear Bounty Act, in addition to the provisions of the previous 
regulation, provided for a $5 bounty on bears under 12 months of age and the 
Regulations made under the Act provided for a uniform method of marking 
the bear skin, presented as evidence, to prevent its submission again for bounty. 

While the procedures and forms for bear bounty were reorganized in 
1947/48, the provisions of the Act and Regulations pretty well remained un- 
changed to the date on which bounty was discontinued. An exception was the 
addition in 1950, of the County of Lanark to the areas in which bear bounty 
applied. 

In June 1961, the bear was protected under the Game and Fisheries Act 
and provision was made for a Resident Licence to hunt bear as big game. 

It was then decided to revoke the Regulations made under the Wolf and 
Bear Bounty Act which defined the areas of the Province in which bear bounty 
applied, thereby discontinuing the payment of bounty on bears. 

The following table shows the number of bears killed and the amount of 
bounty paid from the inception of Bear Bounty in 1942 to its discontinuation 
in 1961: 

BEAR BOUNTY 





Period 




Bears 


Cubs 


Total Bounty 


For year 


ending March 31 


1943 


386 




$ 


3,640.00 


For year 


ending March 31 


1944 


377 




$ 


3,630.00 


For year 


ending March 31 


1945 


910 




$ 


8,790.00 


For year 


ending March 31 


1946 


1,167 




$ 


11,330.00 


For year 


ending March 31 


1947 


959 


73 


$ 


9,735.00 


For year 


ending March 31 


1948 


509 


17 


$ 


5,095,00 


For year 


ending March 31 


1949 


592 


67 


$ 


6,035.00 


For year 


ending March 31 


1950 


803 


122 


$ 


8,530.00 


For year 


ending March 31 


1951 


453 


47 


$ 


4,645.00 


For year 


ending March 31 


1952 


408 


29 


$ 


4,180.00 


For year 


ending March 31 


1953 


662 


57 


$ 


6,805.00 


For year 


ending March 31 


1954 


947 


145 


$ 


10,000.00 


For year 


ending March 31 


1955 


1,126 


99 


$ 


11,590.00 


For year 


ending March 31 


1956 


614 


50 


$ 


6,210.00 


For year 


ending March 31 


1957 


611 


50 


$ 


6,225.00 


For year 


ending March 31 


1958 


1,568 


300 


$ 


16,930.00 


For year 


ending March 31 


1959 


1,084 


116 


$ 


11,145.00 


For year 


ending March 31 


1960 


697 


139 


$ 


7,590.00 


For year 


ending March 31 


1961 


401 


46 


$ 


4,150.00 


For year 


ending March 31 


1962 


328 


33 


$ 


3,405.00 


TOTAL 




14,602 


1,390 


$1 


49,660.00 











NOTE: 

1. The difference between the number of bears killed and the amount of 
bounty paid is accounted for by the number of claims refused. 

2. These figures do not include the number of bears killed by sportsmen, 
on which bounty was not applicable. 

The following is an excerpt from the Annual Report for the year ending 
March 31, 1958, in which the greatest number of bears were bountied: 

"The bear kill this year represents a 282% increase over the previous year. 
While we are unable to explain this remarkable increase, any more than the 
marked decrease which occurred during the 1955/56 fiscal year, due to the fact 
that no scientific study on bears has been made in Ontario, or any other compar- 
able area, it is obvious that the bounty systems, together with the sportsman- 
hunter, failed to take the surplus bear crop in the preceding two years. 

"It is hoped that, in the future, a scientific study of the bear population, which 
would reveal many of the facts concerning this population that are unknown today, 
may be made. The fact that an inexpUcable increase of 1,000% occurred in one 



113 



of the counties this year, would point up the urgency of such a study." 

Although bounty has been paid on bears for 20 years, very little of a 
scientific nature is known about the species. It is regrettable that a study similar 
to that currently under way on the wolf was not instituted by the Department 
during this period when numerous specimens could have been readily available 
from the bounty system. 

Grateful acknowledgement is made for the valuable co-operation of those 
Magistrates, Justices of the Peace and Bear Bounty Officers who issued claims 
without remuneration from the Department, and to Officials of the Department 
of Agriculture for their assistance in supplying information on the agricultural 
develepoment of the townships which enabled this Department to determine, in 
part, the eligibility of claims. 

FIELD SERVICES 

Revision of The Game ond Fisheries Act 

The management of Ontario's fish and game resources has for many years 
been achieved to a large extent by regulation. During the last 15 years, an inten- 
sive biological inventory and research program has provided a basis from which 
to examine the regulations. During this fiscal year, The Game and Fisheries Act 
was carefully revised. The revision took cognizance not only of new biological 
information, but also of the most up-to-date concept of legal principles and 
drafting. 

The statute, which received third reading in the Legislature on March 30, 
1962, was re-arranged in a more logical order to make it easier to find the 
sections relating to hunting, trapping, fishing or other particular aspects. 

Some sections of the existing Act, which repeated similar sections of The 
Summary Convictions Act or The Ontario Fisheries Regulations, were deleted. 
Certain sections had no place in modern social or game management concepts, 
and these were left out in the new bill, e.g., the proihibition on the coursing of 
greyhounds, and the inspection of tourist outfitting camps by conservation officers 
for sanitation and refuse disposal. 

Certain sections of the existing Act were considered to be discriminatory, 
for example, the prohibition on employees of railways, or of mining, lumbering 
and construction camps to possess firearms in any building connected with the 
operations. It was considered that such employees are subject to the same regula- 
tions concerning open seasons and hunting licences as any other person, and that 
special sections of the statute should not specifically mention this particular group 
of employees. A second consideration was that such legislation is in the nature 
of a support in that it creates an offence of possessing the means to do an unlawful 
act, when it is difficult to obtain evidence that the unlawful act has actually been 
committed. Prohibitions of a supporting nature are undesirable, since they 
presume guilt and tend to lower standards of investigation by enforcement officers. 
It was considered that prohibitions in the game and fish laws should be based 
upon sound bioligical and legal principles, and should, therefore, stand alone. 

The sections on penalties were greatly revised. Through the years, penalties 
had become so carefully detailed that little discretion was left to the judiciary. 
A general penalty has been provided, in which there is no minimum and the 
maximum is $1,000. Specifically, for the offence of careless hunting, provision is 
made for imprisonment in addition to or instead of a fine. 

The drafting of each section was carefully reviewed to achieve simplicity 
and clarity in its wording. After all, The Game and Fish Act, as it is now called, 
is one of the more widely read statutes. 

114 



To make the law more useful in the management of wildlife resources, the 
greatest possible degree of flexibility was sought. This led to considerable 
dependence on regulations made under powers granted by the Act. The Minister 
may make regulations concerning the open season for fur-bearing animals, the 
setting apart of waters as fish sanctuaries, and regulating the use of fish huts. All 
other regulations must be made by the Lieutenant Governor in Council. These 
include, in part, provision of hunting and fishing licences and their conditions, 
setting most of the game seasons, prescribing many of the hunting rules, and 
setting out the hunter safety training program. 

The new statute will come into force on a day to be named by the Lieutenant 
Governor by his proclamation. 

Law Enforcement 

The first responsibility of a law enforcement officer is to prevent violations. 
During the hunting and fishing seasons, conservation officers meet many thousands 
of sportsmen, and it is an essential part of their duties to determine whether or 
not there has been any infraction of the regulations. Indications are that not 
more than two per cent of those checked have committed any offence, although 
it is necessary to warn approximately five per cent of those interviewed, that 
they have come close to difficulties. 

Many sportsmen seem to lack understanding of the hunting and fishing laws. 

The results of actions by enforcement officers are summarized for the past 
three years as follows: 

1959-60 1960-61 1961^62" 

Number of seizures 2,318 2,424 2,050 

Number of convictions 2,192 2,160 2,019 

Cases dismissed 80 126 56 

Convictions reported by the R.C.M.P. 3 47 30 

re Migratory Bird Regulations 

Seized from persons unknown — 139 37 

Licence offences, including hunting, fishing and trapping without a licence, 
or transferring licences continue to be of most frequent occurrence. 

Convictions for licence offences: 

1960-61 % Frequency 1961-62 % Frequency 

Fishing 183 8.5 69 

Hunting 482 22.3 311 15.4 

Trapping 16 0.7 5 0.2 

Total 681 31.5 385 19.0 

Per cent frequency is based upon a comparison with the total of all con- 
victions for the year. While there has been a drop of more than 12 per cent 
since the previous year, conclusions are hardly justified for the data presented. 

The most frequently occurring offences for angling and hunting are recorded 
below. It is very important to realize, however, that comparison with similar 
data presented in earlier Annual Reports is not justified, because of the constant 
revision of fishing and hunting regulations. For example, the very specialized 
fishing regulations which were in effect for many years in the Counties of Durham, 
Northumberland, Peterborough and Victoria have been changed or eliminated 
during the last five years. Offences against these regulations accounted for a 
considerable proportion of all of the fishing offence convictions in the Province. 
Less spectacular, but quite as effective, in rendering comparisons from year to 
year invalid, are the general amendments to both hunting and fishing regulations 
which have been made almost every year. 

115 



Offences against the fishing regulations (other than with respect to Hcences) 
occuring frequently in 1961-62 were: 

1. Possessing an overlimit of fish 125 

2. Taking fish by means other than angling 115 

3. Angling with more than one line 95 

4. Possessing fish in a closed season 82 

5. Taking fish in a closed season 61 

6. Angling in a fish sanctuary 38 

7. Attempting to take fish by set lines 29 

8. Possessing a fish spear within 50 feet of the waters edge, 
during prohibited hours 27 

9. Possessing a net without a licence 18 

10. Transporting fish illegally , 16 

Hunting and trapping offences which happened most frequently were: 

1. (a) Possession of a loaded gun in a vehicle 252 

(b) Possession of a loaded gun in a power boat 66 

2. Hunting or possessing firearms in prohibited hours (Sun- 
days or at night) 230 

3. Hunting during a closed season 83 

4. Possessing game in closed season 55 

5. Hunting with a shotgun, not plugged so as to be incapable 

of holding more than 3 shells 50 

6. Hunting or possessing firearms in a Crown Game Preserve 

or Provincial Park 46 

7. Possessing protected birds 26 

8. Hunting carelessly 19 

9. Attempting to jack-light deer 17 

During the year, 233 full-time conservation officers were on duty. They were 
assisted by some 195 biologists, foresters, forest rangers and other personnel, and 
approximately 1,300 Deputy Game and Fishery Wardens. The Department 
officers, and, to a limited extent, the deputy wardens, participate in all phases of 
the fish and wildlife management program. Ofl&cers of the Ontario Provincial 
Police Force work co-operatively with our conservation officers to enforce The 
Game and Fisheries Act. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police Force is charged 
with enforcing the provisions of the Migratory Bird Convention Act and Regula- 
tions, which is of great assistance to our Department officers. 

When an offence is committed against The Game and Fisheries Act or The 
Ontario Fishery Regulations, all equipment used by the accused is subject to 
seizure and, upon conviction, becomes the property of the Crown. The Minister 
may grant relief from forfeiture to the convicted person, upon conditions he deems 
just. Articles of equipment which are confiscated for having been used in 
connection with serious offences, or for which no request has been made for their 
return, are sold at pubHc auction. During 1961-62, seven auction sales were held 
and a total of $7,431.05 was realized and paid to the Treasurer of Ontario. 

FISHING TACKLE SALES 

Location Date Revenue 

Lindsay April 8 $ 638.25 

Hesipeler April 15 744.55 

Pembroke April 22 578.50 

$1,961.30 
GUN SALES 

Location Date Revenue 

Lindsay September 9 $1,418.14 

Hespeler September 16 1,455.00 

Kenora September 7 1,291.50 

Cochrane September 9 1,305.11 

$5,469.75 

Total Revenue from sales 1961-62 $7,431.05 



116 



The equipment seized and offered on the sales includes guns, fishing tackle, lights, 
boats and many other articles. Generally motor vehicles and larger boats are 
claimed by the owners, although occasionally automobiles are sold at District 
Offices on the basis of tenders. 

Hunter Safety Training Program 

It is gratifying to report that the number of hunting accidents which occurred 
in Ontario declined to 126 from the previous and unfortunate record high of 
154 in the calendar year 1960. Fatalities declined by 14 to 22 deaths, and non- 
fatal accidents were reduced to 104. Negligence, thoughtlessness, or lack of care 
continued to be the most important cause. 

A hunting accident is defined as an accident in which a person is injured 
by a hunting weapon outside of the home, and arising from the activity of hunting, 
including travel to and from the field. This definition excludes such accidents as 
those which happen when children play with firearms. 

The number of accidents which have been recorded during the last three 
years are as follows: 

Year Fatalities IVon-fatalities Total 

1959 ■ 

1960 

1961 



15 


73 


88 


36 


118 


154 


22 


104 


126 



The main causes of accidents are outlined on the following table: 

1959 1960 1961 

Cause of Accidents F NF F NF F NF 

Mistaken for game 3 10 8 8 6 14 

Shooter stumbled and fell 4 8 7 14 3 11 



Victim out of sig'ht of shooter 

Victim covered by shooter swinging on game 
Trigger caught on brush or other object 

Victim moved in line of fire 

"Horseplay" — did not know it was loaded, 

etc. . 

Removing weapon from or placing in veh- 
icle and riding in vehicle with loaded 

firearm 

Defective weapon 

Crossing fence or other obstacle with 

loaded weapon 

Miscellaneous _ 

Loading and unloading 



12 21 2 10 

8 2 14 2 13 

5 3 14 7 

4 2 10 4 5 



10 



9 16 17 

3 4 12 

2 3 6 14 
5 3 2 2 7 

3 2 9 9 



Totals 15 73 36 118 22 104 

It is evident that the total number of accidents is too high. This emphasizes 
the need of intensifying the Hunter Safety Training Program and introducing more 
stringent criteria for granting hunting licences. 

Failure to observe the game laws was associated with 13 per cent of the 
accidents in 1961. Some 31 persons were charged with careless hunting during 
the fiscal year, and 25 convictions were registered. Five cases were dismissed, and 
one case is pending. 

The period in review is the first full year under the regulation whereby it is 
compulsory for all new hunters to complete the course in order to purchase their 
initial hunting licence. Most courses are given by members of conservation clubs 
throughout the province. There are 3,300 certified instructors donating their time 
to this worthy training. During the year, 15,267 students successfully completed 

117 



the course, which now makes a total of 30,913 hunters in the field, trained under 
this program. 

A number of conservation clubs and other organizations have participated 
in the instructional program, as summarized below. 

Ontario Federation of Conservatio;n Clubs Miscellaneous 

Year Anglers & Hunters Clubs outside Federation Organizations 

1960 47% 24% 29% 

1961 41% 22% 37% 

The miscellaneous group includes such organizations as high school cadet corps, 
the Boy Scouts' Association, cadet corps of the Armed Services, service clubs and 
church groups, along with a number of individual instructors. The importance 
of the participation of the miscellaneous groups in providing instruction appears 
to be growing. 

It is too soon to assess the effects of the Hunter Safety Training Program in 
reducing hunting accidents. The major increase in accidents in 1960, as compared 
with 1959, cannot be attributed to better collection of data. It was a particularly 
black year, though the degree of public indignation expressed may well have aided 
materially in achieving the lesser accident toll of 1961. 

FISHERIES SECTION 

Game Fish and Hatcheries Sub-secfion 

Ontario's sport fishing is one of the major industries of the Province. 
Although no precise value can be placed on the worth of the sport fishery to 
the economy of the Province, its importance is recognized as being one of the 
most popular forms of recreation in Ontario as well as being a primary attraction 
to tourist travel in the Province. 

Public interest in sport fishing in Ontario has been increasing annually in 
recent years, and this trend continued in 1961. Field reports received from most 
of the twenty-two forest districts in the Province indicated an increase in the 
number of fishermen and in the amount of fishing pressure exerted on the resource 
during the current year. 

No accurate data are available on the total number of people who participated 
in sport fishing in Ontario in 1961. However, on the basis of results obtained 
from a household survey, which was conducted throughout the Province in 1959, 
and on the reported increase in the number of anglers observed from field oper- 
ations during the interim, it is estimated that the number of resident anglers in 
the Province probably approaches U/2 million people. With the addition of non- 
resident anglers, which numbered about 425,000 in 1961, it may then be 
estimated that a total of some 1,900,000 anglers probably fished in Ontario 
waters in 1961. 

This year a record number of non-resident and Provincial Park licences was 
sold in Ontario for a gross revenue of $2,527,212.49. The total number of 
licences sold increased from 416,755 in 1960 to 434,133 in 1961, an increase of 
27,358 licences, or an increase of more than six per cent over the previous record 
sale in 1960. A complete record of all fishing licence sales for 1961, and for the 
previous three years, is given in Table I. 

Fishing success varied considerably throughout the Province, depending on 
the area and the season of the year. However, in general, most anglers experienced 
reasonably good success on the average. In southern Ontario, fishing pressure 

118 



increased on most of the public waters, despite the extensive development of farm 
ponds in the area, and fishing success may have declined slightly on some of the 
more heavily fished waters. In central and northern Ontario, the number of 
fishermen increased in most districts, but much of this additional pressure was 
dispersed in the extensive areas of new development. 

The fisheries management programme conducted in Ontario varies tremend- 
ously among the twenty-two forest districts. Conditions differ widely from one 
area of the Province to another and, similarly, management practices differed 
accordingly depending on the area and on the local conditions. However, the 
fundamental requirement for all fisheries management is a sound knowledge of 
the environment and of the population of fish contained therein. Consistent with 
this objective, the fisheries programme in Ontario was directed mainly towards the 
survey of lakes and streams, the examination and study of the respective fish 
populations, and the assessment of the existing utilization of the resource. In 
addition to this work, considerable attention was also directed towards the culture 
and distribution of hatchery-reared fish and to the investigation and study of 
specific problems as they occurred. 

Hatcheries 

Twenty-one fish hatcheries were operated by the Department in 1961. These 
included eight trout-rearing stations, eight pond stations (including one sub- 
station at Ingersoll), and five jar or trough hatcheries. 

The number and variety of fish produced and planted from each of these 
various hatcheries in 1961 is described in Table II. A comparison of the total 
number of hatchery-reared fish distributed, by species and by age class, for each 
year during the period 1957 to 1961 inclusive, is also shown in Table III. 

All of the hatcheries, except Chatsworth, Normandale, Mount Pleasant and 
Kingsville, were operated at or near the normal carrying capacity in 1961. 
Production at the Chatsworth and Normandale stations was reduced because of 
reconstruction at these sites. At Mount Pleasant, the production of fish was 
curtailed primarily because of the deterioration in the volume and in the quality 
of the water supply. The Kingsville Hatchery was not operated in 1961. 

The total number of hatchery-reared fish planted in 1961 was some 37 
million fish less than the number distributed in 1960. This decrease was due 
primarily to the reduced production of walleye and whitefish eyed eggs and fry 
and, to a lesser extent, to the curtailment of the production of brown trout and 
largemouth bass fingerlings. The slight decrease in the number of maskinonge 
fry produced at Deer Lake Hatchery was due mainly to normal losses encountered 
in the production of a larger number of older fingerling size fish. 

This year two hundred thousand lake trout eyed eggs were secured from the 
Manitoba Government in exchange for one hundred thousand speckled trout 
eyed eggs and one hundred thousand maskinonge fry. The exchange was of 
mutual benefit to both agencies. The procurement of the lake trout egg stock, 
which was collected from wild fish from Clear Lake, Manitoba, was of particular 
value to Ontario because of the increased demand for this species since the 
inception of the lake trout rehabilitation programme for Lake Superior. The 
supply of speckled trout eyed eggs and maskinonge fry from Dorion and Deer 
Lake Hatcheries, respectively, was equally important to the Manitoba Government, 
which is currently engaged in the hatchery production of these species for 
introductory plantings in that province. 

A variety of experimental studies was undertaken at a number of hatcheries 
in Ontario in 1961. The most important of these included a preliminary study 

119 



initiated at Hill Lake and Tarentorus trout-rearing stations on the effect of water 
hardness on the incubation and culture of various lots of lake trout egg stock 
secured from different natural environments exhibiting different amounts of water 
hardness, and the pond culture of walleye to the fingerling stage at the White 
Lake Hatchery. 

No pertinent information is yet available on the investigations to determine 
the effect of water hardness on the incubation and culture of lake trout eggs. 

Results from the initial attempt to culture walleye fingerlings in hatchery 
ponds in Ontario are most encouraging. Although some difficulty was encountered 
from cannibalism immediately prior to the harvest of the fish, an estimated total 
of 67,000 walleye fingerlings, measuring 1.8 inches in length, were produced from 
three small ponds (total surface area of 2.2 acres) at an approximate cost of 
2.23 cents per fish. 

The lake trout rehabihtation programme for Lake Superior was continued 
in 1961 with the planting of 493,980 marked lake trout yearlings and 60,200 
marked lake trout fingerlings. As in previous years, the stock was produced and 
planted from the Tarentorus and Dorion trout-rearing stations and from the Port 
Arthur Hatchery. An estimated 215,000 lake trout yearlings were marked by the 
removal of the left pectoral and right ventral fins at the Tarentorus station, and 
these fish were planted along the northeast shore of Lake Superior in the vicinity 
of Agawa Bay, Montreal River and Coldwater Creek. Approximately 278,980 
lake trout yearlings produced at the Dorion station were marked by the removal 
of the right and left ventral fins, and they were planted in the vicinity of Rossport. 
The lake trout fingerling stock produced at the Port Arthur Hatchery was marked 
by the removal of the right pectoral and adipose fins, and these fish were planted 
along the west shore of Pie Island located at the entrance to Thunder Bay. 

Private Hatcheries 

Nineteen permits were issued to private hatchery operators by the Depart- 
ment in 1961. These permits, which are currently provided free of charge, 
authorize the sale of game fish species for restocking purposes, if the planting 
is approved by the Department. 

Although nineteen permits were issued in 1961, only eleven of the permittees 
sold any fish. The majority of the sales were made by four of the largest 
producers. 

The following summary shows the number of plantings and the number in 
each age class of fish sold by private hatchery operators in 1961. 

SUMMARY OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF FISH 
FROM PRIVATE COMMERCIAL HATCHERIES, 1961 





Number of 


Number of 




Species 


Plantings 


Fish 


Age Class 


Speckled Trout 


126 


476,150 


Fingerlings 




62 


26,550 


Yearlings 




57 


11,460 


Adults 


Rainbow Trout 


3 


1,400 


Fry 




11 


2,660 


Fingerlings 




42 


8,340 


Yearlings 




17 


1,826 


Adults 


Largemouth Bass 


3 


106 


Yearlings 




8 


289 


Adults 


Bluegills 


6 


470 


Yearlings 



120 



Special Projects 

1. Netting Operations 

Eight special trap netting projects were undertaken by the Department's 
net staff in 1961. These operations were conducted on Mississippi Lake in 
the Kemptville District; Chats Lake, Mississagagon Lake and Baptiste Lake 
in the Tweed District; Pigeon Lake and Sturgeon Lake in the Lindsay District; 
Lake Timagami in the North Bay District; and Lac des Mille Lacs in the Port 
Arthur District. The net staff from the Port Arthur District also worked on 
Rainy Lake in the Fort Frances District instructing and assisting the local 
commercial fishermen with operation of their newly acquired trap net 
equipment. 

2. Patricia Inventory Project 

This project was initiated in 1959 to obtain factual information on the 
fisheries resource in the Patricia area for use in the management of the 
existing commercial and sport fisheries and for planning the future develop- 
ment and utilization of the resource in the area. 

In 1961, fisheries and limnological surveys were conducted on Big Trout 
Lake, Sutton Lake, Hawley Lake, Sandy Lake, Wunnumin Lake and Attawa- 
piskat Lake. Results from these studies indicate that these waters are not 
as productive of fishes as are waters located farther south in Ontario. 
Generally speaking, the growth rate of the fishes in the Patricia area is also 
slower and the annual recruitment is less certain, all of which points to the 
need for controlled development of the resource. 

3. Water Quality Survey 

Because of the excellent results obtained from the water quality survey 
conducted as part of the Patricia Inventory Project, this portion of the 
programme was extended to include approximately 150 of the larger waters 
located throughout the Province in 1961. Determination of water quality of 
a body of water through chemical analysis provides an index of productivity. 
When combined with previously determined physical and biological factors, 
potential productivity in terms of fishes may be determined for any lake. 
Potentially productive areas have been found to coincide with extinct Pleisto- 
cene lake beds or marine submerged areas. The central, undifferentiated 
Shield area of the Province is generally less productive. Further study and 
expansion of this programme is necessary before any final conclusions may be 
obtained from this project. 

4. Rainy Lake Project 

This fisheries programme, which was initiated in 1959 in co-operation 
with the Minnesota Department of Conservation, was continued in 1961, 
Results from chemical analyses of the water revealed a fairly low level of 
potential productivity. Creel census and gill netting indices, however, demon- 
strate that the lake production is in line with the current annual harvest. This 
co-operative programme is expected to be continued for several years as a 
joint effort to study the angling and commercial fishery of Rainy Lake. 

5. Timagami Lake Project 

The Timagami Lake Project was initiated in 1959, and has continued 
through 1961. The primary purpose of the project was to study the composi- 
tion of the various fish populations and to estimate the annual harvest of game 
fishes from the lake. 

121 



Lake Timagami is described as an oligotrop'hic lake, with a low potential 
productivity. However, creel census studies made on both the summer and 
winter angling do not indicate the need for any restriction of the fishery at 
the present time. Lake trout and walleye growth rates are good, while the 
smallmouth bass growth rate is subnormal. 

A total of 6,009 lake trout, walleye and smallmouth bass were marked 
during the period of investigation. Creel census studies will be continued to 
obtain additional information on the distribution and abundance of the sport 
fish populations from the tag returns and to follow the level of harvest by 
anglers. 

6. Nicolston Dam Fishway 

In 1959, the Department undertook the construction of a fishway at the 
Nicolston dam on the Nottawasaga River to permit migrating rainbow trout 
access to the headwaters of the watershed. The fishway was completed and 
placed in operation in time for the spring run of rainbow trout in 1961. 

The results from the first year of operation were most encouraging. A 
cage which was installed in the fishway prior to operation was used to trap 
all migrating fish using the fishway. Fish ascending the fishway entered the 
cage, and from here they were easily collected for examination. Scale samples 
and length and weight measurements were obtained from all of the rainbow 
trout prior to being tagged and released above the dam. 

During the spring of 1961, the fishway was operated continuously from 
April 19th to May 12th. During this time, a total of 574 rainbow trout were 
captured, examined, tagged and released. 

This project is expected to provide much valuable information on the 
rainbow trout in the Nottawasaga River and will be continued in 1962. 

7. Lake St. Lawrence Project 

This project is a fisheries and limnological survey of the recently formed 
Lake St. Lawrence. The purpose of the investigation was to study the hydro- 
graphic conditions of the impoundment, to examine the composition of the 
fish population, and to assess the rate of utilization by angling. 

Initial results are not too conclusive. However, it is evident that the 
impoundment of the St. Lawrence River has had both favourable and 
unfavourable effects on existing fish populations. The growth rates of some 
game fish species, i.e. largemouth bass, have increased significantly following 
impoundment. However, the walleye population has declined steadily, while 
some of the coarse fish species and particularly the carp have increased 
tremendously. 

Regulations 

No major change was made in the Ontario Fishery Regulations in 1961. 
However, two amendments of general interest were as follows: 

1. The Regulation pertaining to the use of shipping coupons for the export of 
fish taken by angling by non-residents was revoked. Non-resident licencees 
are now permitted to export one day's legal possession limit of fish at any 
time during the open season for the species concerned. 

2. Provision was made for the use of one tip-up for fishing through the ice, 
providing that the tip-up is attended. 

122 



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Table No. 3 FISH DISTRIBUTION FROM 1957 TO 1961 

Number Of Fish Planted 

Species of Fish 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 

Black Bass, Largemouth 

Fry 190,000 46,000 45,000 230,550 — 

Fingerling 128,830 62,600 46,500 29,500 25,250 

Yearling and Adult 2,922 1,035 144 20 178 

Black Bass, Smallmouth 

Fry 467,500 130,000 89,000 156,000 230,000 

Fingerling 131,700 132,750 227,200 177,600 270,200 

Yearling and Adult _ 665 4,468 499 510 619 

Char, French Alpine 

Yearling — 2,400 — — — 

Adult — 5,330 — 345 — 

Grayling, Arctic 

Yearling — — 26,500 — — 

Herring 

Eggs 1,840,000 — 1,067,750 — — 

Fry _ _ _ 50,000 — 

Maskinonge 

Fry 2,430,000 2,940,000 4,070,000 3,390,000 2,832,500 

Fingerling 38,575 17,512 50,405 51,405 74,500 

Adult 923 501 — — — 

Ouananiche 

Eggs 10,800 _ _ _ _ 

Adult _ _ _ 660 — 

Salmon, Kokanee 

Yearling — — — 250 — 

Splake 

Fingerling 16,370 — — — — 

Yearling 16,300 207,710 135,047 13,151 97,068 

Adult — — 1,204 — 5,640 

Trout Aurora 

Fingerling — — 2,314 2,000 — 

Yearling — — — — 1,300 

Trout, Brown 

Eggs 8,000 _ _ _ _ 

Fingerling 36,000 21,800 — 1,700 640 

Yearling 169,650 132,926 192,795 85,380 5,000 

Adult — 235 12 79 — 

Trout, Lake 

Eggs — 4,800 _ _ _ 

Fry — — 40,000 — 43,700 

Fingerling 230,230 373,500 274,400 389,125 369,500 

Yearling 39,100 832,409 633,990 653,065 714,670 

Adult — 9,000 — 115 8,278 

Trout, Rainbow 

Eggs 13,000 26,000 20,000 — 3,000 

Fry . — 10,000 _ _ _ 

Fingerling 31,600 15,000 19,517 28,120 101,896 

Yearling 123,060 94,944 95,036 79,090 229,375 

Adult 380 32,297 1,400 122 — 

Trout, Brook 

Eggs 200,000 — 580,000 49,000 30,000 

Pry 90,900 — — 15,000 — 

Fingerling 521,600 788,900 455,160 863,925 763,625 

Yearling 2,677,195 2,079,395 1,807,855 1,615,960 2,051,875 

Adult 10,117 9,586 84,294 76,481 72,562 

Walleye 

Eggs 90,565,000 56,245,000 30,875,000 53,790,000 27,065,000 

Fry — — 3,040,000 3,600,000 — 

Fingerling ___: 3,300 280 — — 66,923 

Adult 93 400 — — — 

Whitefish 

Eggs 13,435,000 30,940,000 1,000,000 12,000,000 13,875,000 

Fry 67,275,000 47,515,000 44,985,000 62,993,000 53,685,000 

Total 180,703,810 142,681,778 89,866,067 140,342,153 102,623,2^9 

NOTE: Figures are compiled on a calendar year. 

125 



The Commercial Fishery 

Ontario commercial fishermen produced 54,953,634 pounds of fish during 
the twelve months of 1961. This is 15.9% greater than the amount taken the 
previous year, and is exceeded only by the record production of nearly sixty 
million pounds of 1956. The 1961 catch is 13.2% above the average production 
of the last ten years. 

Value of the 1961 catch, to the fishermen, was $5,745,882.72. This is an 
increase of 16.4% above the previous year, but 13.0% below the average value 
of production for the past decade . The continuing predominance in the overall 
catch, during the last three years, of yellow perch and smelt, which usually are 
comparatively low in price, and a coincident small proportion of the more 
valuable species such as pickerel and whitefish which were prominent in former 
years, has effected a reduction in average price per pound by about one third. 
Yellow perch, for the fifth year, ranked first in quantity and comprised a third 
of the 1961 production; smelt accounted for a quarter of the catch, and pickerel 
and whitefish combined, one eighth. 

The number of fishermen employed in the Province dropped 10% to 3,059 
men with decreases noted in Lakes Ontario, Erie, Superior and in inland areas. 
The number of men employed in the fishery in Lake Huron increased again in 
1961 due to the continued high production of whitefish and chubs. 

Equipment statistics, of fishing vessels, nets and shore installations used in 
the fishery, show little change from the previous year in either numbers or value. 
Investment in equipment increased slightly to $10,377,304. Excluding bait fish 
licences, the number of commercial fishing licences issued dropped 214% to 
1,784. 

The 15.0% increase in landings for the Province resulted from higher 
production in six of the nine fishing areas. In three areas catches decreased: 
Lake Superior was down by 16.8%; Georgian Bay 7.8%, and Northern Inland 
waters by 3.3% from the previous year. 

Significant increases were reported from Lake Erie, where landings were up 
22.2% from twenty-nine million pounds in 1960 to thirty-five million pounds in 
1961. The value of the catch increased at about the same rate (21.7%). Trawl- 
ing, under permit in Lake Erie, produced nearly ten million pounds of smelt 
along with 400,000 pounds of yellow perch and white bass combined, and small 
quantities of other species making a total of 10,275,000 pounds, worth $307,000. 
The use of trawls appears to be the most satisfactory and economic method for 
taking commercial quantities of smelt throughout the year. Seventy-five per cent 
of the commercial catch of the Province was taken in Lake Erie trawl operations. 

In Lake St. Clair, production was up one third with a value increase of 
42.8%. In Lake Huron, the catch was up by 36.4%, and the value by 
32.6%. Other fishing areas showing increases include: Lake Ontario, up by 
7.7% in production and 11.8% in value; the North Channel of Lake Huron 
by 19.3% and 29.2% respectively; and Southern Inland waters by 27.4% in 
production, and a significant value increase of 49.5%. 

The composition of the catch continued the pattern established in recent 
years. As indicated previously, yellow perch and smelt accounted for a major 
part of the production and showed increases of 46.0% and 12.0% respectively 
over the previous year, principally due to Lake Erie production. Nine other 
species contributed significantly, ranging from just under one million pounds of 
northern pike to nearly four million pounds of whitefish, while fifteen other 
species classifications were reported in lesser quantities. Some other changes of 

126 



special interest include: chubs, up more than a million pounds for a 60.5% 
increase; sturgeon, up nearly 11,000 pounds; and lake trout, down by 105,000 
pounds. Carp, white bass, northern pike and saugers all showed increased 
landings. 

It is of note that lake trout production from Lake Superior was down from 
122,000 pounds to 48,000 pounds, a drop of 60.7%. It would appear that this 
decrease is related to lamprey predation and continues the downward trend 
prevailing in this fishery since 1955. 



COMPARATIVE STATEMENT OF THE YIELD OF THE FISHERIES 
IN THE PROVINCE OF ONTARIO 



BY SPECIES 



1960 
lbs. 



1961 
lbs. 



Increase 
lbs. 



Decrease 
lbs. 



Perch (yellow) 12,747,196 

Smelt 11,666,133 

Whitefish 3,844,949 

White bass 3,304,524 

Yellow pickerel 3,702,420 

Chub & TuUibee 1,864,699 

Lake herring 2,226,973 

Suckers 1,616,021 

Carp 1,124,465 

Sheepshead 1,539,332 

Northern pike 966,353 

Ling 613,992 

Bullhead 467,323 

Sunfish 286,312 

Catfish 321,331 

Sturgeon 183,654 

Lake trout 286,402 

Eels 130,272 

Rock bass & Crappies 127,671 

Saugers 85,306 

Goldeye 32,567 

Menominee 62,841 

White perch 26,613 

Blue pickerel 5,241 

Caviar 1,953 

Alewife; Dogfish; Gar & Shad __ 162,714 

TOTAL 47,397,2"57" 

NET INCREASE 



18,608,783 

13,064,590 

3,907,294 

3,412,916 

3,382,032 

2,992,185 

1,853,238 

1,595,056 

1,312,499 

1,200,668 

989,721 

637,545 

363,115 

271,197 

244,142 

194,638 

181,029 

127,439 

118,712 

105,385 

23,646 

21,833 

18,753 

2,435 

2,135 

322,648 



5,861,587 

1,398,457 

62,345 

108,392 

1,127,486 



188,034 

23,368 
23,553 



10,984 



20,079 



182 
159,934 



320,388 

373,735 
20,965 

338,664 



104,208 
15,115 
77,189 

105,373 
2,833 
8,959 

8,921 

41,008 

7,860 

2,806 



54,953,634 



7,556,377 



127 



COMPARATIVE STATEMENT OF THE NUMBER Of COMMERCIAL PISHING 
LICENCES ISSUED IN THE PROVINCE OF ONTARIO 



Type of Licence 1960 

Gill net 1,089" 

Pound & Trap net 141 

Hoop net - 250 

Coarse fish seine 117 

Baited hook 197 

Dip net 14 

Trolling 20 

TOTAL 1,828 



1961 



Increase Decrease 



1,063 
132 

242 

107 

205 

18 

17 

1,784 



26 
9 
8 

10 



Bait-fish seine, trap & dip 

Bait-fish dealer's 

Bait-fish preserving 


1,853 

419 

76 


2,181 

510 

88 


328 
91 
12 


TOTAL 


2,348 


2,779 




TOTAL, ALL LICENCES 


4,176 


4,563 




NET INCREASE 


_ 




387 



COMPARATIVE STATEMENT OF THE PRODUCTION OF THE FISHERIES 
IN THE PROVINCE OF ONTARIO 

YIELD BY FISHING AREA 



1960 

Fishing Area lbs. 

Lake Ontario 1,958,180 

Lake Erie 29,219,068 

Lake St. Claire 659,021 

Lake Huron 3,488,637 

Georgian Bay 218,503 

North Channel 205,806 

Lake Superior 2,828,395 

Northern Inland 8,234,136 

Southern Inland 585,511 

TOTAL 47,397,257 

NET INCREASE 



1961 
lbs. 



Increase 
lbs. 



Decrease 
lbs. 



2,108,796 


150,616 




35,697,640 


6,478,572 




877,045 


218,024 




4,758,777 


1,270,140 




201,432 




17,071 


245,532 


39,726 




2,353,036 




475,359 


7,965,713 




268,423 


745,663 


160,152 





54,953,634 



7,556,377 



VALUE BY FISHING AREA 



1960 1961 

Fishing Area $ $ $ 

Lake Ontario 354,704.64 396,520.00 41,815.36 

Lake Erie 2,060,121.11 2,506,707.14 446,586.03 

Lake St. Clair 129,053.48 184,239.18 55,185.70 

Lake Huron 908,409.25 1,204,209.52 295,800.27 

Georgian Bay 60,945.37 61,346.28 400.91 

North Channel 56,950.07 73,596.65 16,646.58 

Lake Superior 269,946.41 214,184.07 

Northern Inland 1,034,885.64 1,018,588.54 



Increase Decrease 



55,762.34 
16,297.10 



Southern Inland 


57,837.91 


86,491.34 


28,653.43 


TOTAL 


$4,932,853.88 


$5,745,882.72 




NET INCREASE 






$813,028.84 



128 



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132 



FOREST PROTECTION BRANCH 

FOREWORD 

The Forest Protection Branch is comprised of two Sections, Forest Pro- 
tection with headquarters in Toronto and Air Service with headquarters in Sault 
Ste. Marie. 

The activities of each section for the twelve month period ending March 
31st, 1962 are set forth in the detailed report which follows. 

RESPONSIBILITIES AND FUNCTIONS OF THE BRANCH 

The Forest Protection Section is responsible for forest protection under 
authority of the Forest Fire Prevention Act and for the control of forest pests 
and diseases. 

The Air Service Section operates and maintains a fleet of 44 aircraft to 
meet the flying requirements of the Department and occasional special require- 
ments of other Departments of Government of Ontario. 

Main functions of the Branch are: — 
Fire Control Organization: — Staff distribution, Fire District Boundaries. 
Fire Control Planning: — Development of instructions for preparation of fire 
control plans. 

Fire Prevention: — Travel, fire and work permits. Removal of hazards. Con- 
struction of fire guards. Warnings to the public of existing and impending fire 
danger. 

Fire Detection: — Towers and aircraft patrols. 

Fire Suppression: — Arrangements for emergencies. Movement of resources in- 
cluding aircraft from region to region as required. 
Training: — Staff and co-operating Woods Industries. 

Co-operation with: — Department of Transport, Railway Companies, Indian 
Affairs Branch, Woods Operators, Tourist Camp Operators and other users of 
the forest in preventing, reporting and suppressing fires. 

Agreements with : — Municipalities and Woods Operators on lands under timber 
license and railway lands covering all phases of forest fire prevention and control. 
Pest Control: — Prevention of damage to trees caused by insects, disease and 
small mammals. 

Communications: — Radio, telephone and teletype. 
Transportation : — Aircraft, helicopters, vehicles, watercraft. 
Building and Improvement Projects: — Program for all of the Department. 
Liaison with the Department of Public Works. Permanent records of all De- 
partment establishments. 

Equipment: — Program for all of the Department including vehicle records, 
licensing and insurance. 

Fire Statistics and Reports: — 

Aircraft: — Maintenance and operation of aircraft in compliance with Depart- 
ment of Transport Regulations and to provide the utmost in safety. Selection of 
all technical staff including pilots and engineers. 

133 



FOREST PROTECTION SECTION 

Forest Fire ControS 

The 1961 fire season proved to be one of the most severe seasons in recent 
years. A total of 1,305 fires occurred burning over a total of 1,184,728 acres. 
Fire occurrence for the full season was normal but acreage burned was twelve 
times the average for the previous ten years. 

The region of heaviest fire occurrence and damage was the North-Western 
part of the Province, west of Lake Nipigon to the Manitoba boundary. This 
area was affected by an extreme drought condition which had been developing 
since 1959. Extremely low water levels in watersheds in this area clearly showed 
the lack of moisture. The remainder of the Province experienced below normal 
fire occurrence and damage. 

The most critical period of fire occurrence and spread in the Western Region 
lasted 28 days, between June 15th and July 12th when 244 fires were reported. 
During this period 12 fires occurred in the northern portion of Sioux Lookout 
District which accounted for approximately 95% of the total area burned for the 
entire fire season. This damage accurred in an area accessible only by aircraft and 
in forest which is beyond present economical timber harvesting operations. 

The following is a breakdown of burning index ratings for Sioux Lookout, 
Kenora and Fort Frances districts for the 28 day period June 15th to July 12th 
inclusive: 

District Extreme High Medium Low 

Sioux Lookout 17 10 1 nil 

Kenora 23 5 nil nil 

Fort Frances 26 2 nil nil 

During this period with predominantly extreme burning index ratings, a 
number of severe lightning storms crossed the Western Region with rainfalls that 
in most cases were recorded as a trace or very few tenths of one inch. Low rela- 
tive humidities and high winds were common. On Julv 1st in Sioux Lookout 
district, low relative humidity was 22% and winds were recorded at 30 m.p.h. 
gusting up to 60 m.p.h. 

Fire Frequency by Cause Lightning was responsible for starting 34% of all 
fires reported during the 1961 fire season. This is 12% higher than the decade 
average of 22% for the period of 1950 to 1959 inclusive. 
Prosecutions and Convictions A total of 54 charges were laid under the Forest 
Fires Prevention Act and Regulations resulting in 47 convictions. 
Forest Fire Suppression To meet the fire situation Deoartment personnel and 
equipment were mobilized throughout the Province and there was an orderly 
flow of firefighting resources, based on day-to-dav requirements, into the fire area. 
The movement of assistance from outside the Western Region started on June 
17th with the South-Central "Project Fire Team" of 17 supervisory personnel 
going to Sioux Lookout. Four water dropping DeHavilland Otter aircraft were 
flown into northwestern Ontario to assist the four Otters based in the area. 
Four additional Beaver aircraft from eastern Ontario and all five Department 
helicopters were moved into the region. In addition to the 28 Department aircraft 
operating in the area, the Royal Canadian Air Force provided two large heli- 
copters, Ontario Hydro Electric Power Commission two more, and the Depart- 
ment requisitioned the services of four additional helicopters. A large water- 

134 



dropping Canso flying-boat and up to 31 commercial float-equipped machiiies 
were employed. A total of about 70 aircraft were engaged at varying periods. 

Water dropping was considered a major factor in successful fire attack in 
several instances. During the 1961 season, 843,500 Imperial gallons of water 
were dropped on 104 fires in Ontario. 

During the emergency period, over 200 experienced Department personnel 
from other sections of the Province moved in to reinforce district staffs at Sioux 
Lookout, Kenora and Fort Frances. Over 300 pumping units and a million feet 
of fire hose, handtools, and camping equipment were shipped from caches and 
other districts to supplement the normal complement of equipment located in the 
fire areas. As many as 2,600 extra firefighters were recruited at the peak of the 
fire suppression operations. 

New Developments A system for mapping area seen from lookout towers was 
developed during 1961. Use is made of panoramic photographs, sketches from 
visual observations and a helicopter to make elevation checks. 

A combined steam table-grill was developed for possible use in camps on 
fires. The unit is to be field tested during 1962. 

Water dropping tanks were modified to turn inwardly rather than outwardly. 
This modification results in a single mass of water dropped which reduces loss 
to break-up and evaporation. 

Water dropping tests were carried out with a Vertol H-21 helicopter. The 
aircraft showed considerable potential in this field and is also capable of trans- 
porting fully equipped initial attack crews. 

Forest Insects and Diseases 

Forest insect and disease problems in Ontario are shared co-operatively 
with the Forest Entomology and Pathology Branch of the Canada Department 
of Forestry. The Province is responsible for conducting all control operations 
on lands under its jurisdiction, and the federal government conducts the surveys 
and research work on which control decisions are based. 
Surveys Each year this Department participates to a large extent in the Ontario 
portion of the Canada-wide Forest Insect and Disease Survey of the federal 
Department of Forestry. Detailed information concerning the occurrence and 
distribution of specific forest insects and diseases is contained in the Annual 
Report of the Forest Insect and Disease Survey. 

The major insect infestations during the 1961 season were caused by the 
spruce budworm, the larch sawfly, the European pine sawfly, and some native 
sawflies on pine. The forest tent caterpillar, the eastern tent caterpillar and the 
birch skeletonizer showed substantial increases in numbers, but did not cause 
serious damage. 

The large spruce budworm infestation in northwestern Ontario remained 
about the same size at about 6,500 square miles. Although it entered into four 
districts, it occurred chiefly in the eastern three-quarters of the Fort Frances 
District and the adjacent south-west comer of the Port Arhur District, with only 
very minor extensions into the Kenora and Sioux Lookout Districts. Most of the 
infestation was classed as heavy. As a result of the prolonged defoliation, mor- 
tality of balsam fir trees showed a sharp increase in the Fort Frances District, 
and some mortality started to appear in the south-west portion of the Port 
Arthur District where severe defoliation had occurred for five consecutive years. 
The 500-square-mile infestation of spruce budworm in the southern part of 
the Geraldton District remained about the same size as in 1960, but a decline 

135 



in the south-west part of the infestation, accompanied by an extension in the 
north-east resulted in a slight north-easterly shift in location. 

Several pockets of light and medium spruce budworm infestation, largely 
on white-spruce trees, occurred in the Lake Simcoe, Lake Huron and Lake Erie 
Districts of southern Ontario. 

Larch sawfly populations across northern Ontario declined, and despite 
some pockets of heavy infestation, notably across central Geraldton and in the 
Sault Ste. Marie District, were at their lowest point of any year during the past 
decade. In southern Ontario population levels were about the same as in 1960, 
with infestations being reported from all districts. A number of valuable European 
larch plantations were severely defoliated, necessitating control action. 

The European pine sawfly continued to spread eastward in southern Ontario 
at its usual rate, and now extends over south-western Ontario as far east as a 
line from Penetanguishene to Leaside, with an extension along the shore of Lake 
Ontario to Whitby. In addition, it has been found in three widely spaced spot 
infestations to the east at Orono, near Vernonville and Belleville. 

The current outbreak of the forest tent caterpillar became apparent first in 
1960 as scattered pockets of defoliation in the Kenora, Sioux Lookout and Sud- 
bury Districts. The Sudbury infestation almost disappeared in 1961 due to un- 
favourable environmental factors, but light infestations appeared in the Parry 
Sound and Pembroke Districts. 

The eastern tent caterpillar, which is conspicuous by the tent it makes on 
wild cherry and apple trees along roadsides, showed greatly increased populations 
in all districts within the insects range, that is, from Sault Ste. Marie to North 
Bay and throughout southern Ontario. In the Parry Sound, Pembroke, Lake 
Simcoe, Lake Huron, Lindsay and Tweed Districts where infestations were heav- 
iest, larvae tended to migrate from defoliated cherry trees to other hardwood 
species. 

The severe infestation of the jack^pine budworm in the north-central' part 
of the Fort Frances District subsided in 1961, but new infestations appeared 
in other parts of the Fort Frances and Kenora Districts, and at scattered points 
in south-western Ontario in the Lake Huron and Lake Erie Districts where the 
insect also attacks Scots-pine plantations. 

In 1961 the birch skeletonizer caused sever browning of white birch foliage 
from Sault Ste. Marie to North Bay, and throughout most of southern Ontario. 
Although the outward damage is spectacular in appearance, it occurs in late 
summer when tree growth is about finished, and therefore does not cause ap- 
preciable permanent injury to the trees. 

The major tree disease in Ontario is the white-pine blister rust, which is 
well-distributed over most of the range of white pine, although increased inci- 
dence of the disease was observed in 1961 in the Chapleau, Gogama and Swa- 
stika Districts. The intensity of the disease varies locally, depending on climate, 
topography and the abundance of the alternate host plants. 

The Dutch elm disease again extended its known distribution, and has 
now been found in all counties of southern Ontario and as far north as South 
River in the Parry Sound District and Deep River in the Pembroke District. 

In 1961 considerable interest was centered on a dieback condition of balsam 
fir in Guilfoyle Twp., Kapuskasing District. Surveys indicated that between 5 
and 10% of the balsam in the upland mixed wood type was dead or dying from 
disease. The disease is conspicuous by the fact that whole crowns of trees turns 
reddish-brown quite suddenly. Research into insects and pathogens as possible 
causes is now underway. 

136 



Control The majority of operations in the direct control of insect infestations 
have been conducted from the ground with hand equipment in the pine, spruce 
and larch plantations of southern Ontario. However, in 1961 over 400 acres of 
30-year-old white pine plantations in the Kirkwood Management Unit, Sault Ste. 
Marie District, were sprayed from the air with DDT to control the white-pine 
weevil. The operation gave almost 100% control on the areas sprayed. Increas- 
ing attention is being devoted to control of weevil in natural stands containing 
young white pine. In total, more than 7,000 acres were treated by spraying or 
leader clipping for control of the white-pine weevil. 

Spraying for control of various species of sawflies, principally the red-headed 
pine sawfly, the European pine sawfly, the yellow-headed spruce sawfly and the 
larch sawfly, covered a total of 2,300 acres. A virus disease as well as DDT is 
used to control the European pine sawfly. 

Almost 500 acres of new plantations were treated with Aldrin for control 
of white grubs, and an equal acreage of plantations was treated chemically for 
mouse control. 

Direct control of tree diseases was confined to the white-pine blister rust. 
The chemical 2,4,5-T is used to eradicate the disease's alternate host plants, wild 
currants and gooseberries, from the immediate vicinity of the pines. Each year 
a portion of a long term program is completed, and in 1961 almost 7,000 acres 
were protected against blister rust in important pine producing areas in the 
North Bay, Pembroke, Lindsay, Tweed and Kemptville Districts. 

Radio Communications 

Traffic totals were down slightly in 1961 from the previous year, the 
province-wide network having handled 88,969 messages totalling 2,270,681 
words. Four new stations were added to the system being located at Wrong 
Lake, Samuel de Champlain Park, Orono and Angus. 

Seventy-eight VHP radiotelephones were purchased and installed in depart- 
ment vehicles; sixteen more model P35 fire-base radiotelephones were manu- 
factured by department staff and distribution made to field offices. New test 
equipment consisting of signal generators, power output meters and crystal cali- 
brators was provided to all field communication technicians in accordance with 
a plan for standardization of service and repair. 

The following types and quantities of radio equipment constituted the 1961 
inventory: 

Tower Radiotelephones 407 

Mobile Radiotelephones (H.F. & V.H.F.) 370 

Marine Radiotelephones 12 

Portable Radiotelephones {V^ watt) 277 

Portable Radiotelephones (2^2 watt) 111 

Portable VHF Walkie Talkie 

Radiotelephones 109 

Portable VHF Radiotelephones (2 watt) 125 

P35 Fire-Base Radiotelephones 94 

30 Watt H.F. Ground Radio Stations 105 

75 Watt H.F. Ground Radio Stations 2 

100 Watt H.F. Ground Radio Stations 3 

150 Watt H.F. Ground Radio Stations 8 

300 Watt H.F. Ground Radio Stations 2 

500 Watt H.F. Ground Radio Stations 8 

15 Watt V.H.F. Ground Radio Stations 75 

50 Watt V.H.F. Ground Radio Stations 

(including V.H.F. attachments for 30 watt 
Ground Stations above) 74 

Aircraft Radio Installations 44 

Aircraft Ground Hailers 20 

Total 1,846" 

137 



NUMBER OF FOREST FIRES AND AREA BURNED OVER. BY DISTRICT 

1961 

District No. of Fires No. of Acres 

Sioux Lookout 201 1,130,814 

Kenora 250 34,155 

Fort Frances 95 5,233 

Port Arthur 92 8,887 

Geraldton 55 308 

Kapuskasing 12 42 

Cochrane 18 777 

Swastika 23 266 

White River 41 50 

Chapleau 7 361 

Gogama 13 2 

Sault Ste. Marie 75 ?47 

Sudbury 115 666 

North Bay 38 128 

Parry Sound 77 158 

Pembroke 38 66 

Tweed 100 2,341 

Lindsay 50 122 

Lake Huron 3 3 

Lake Simcoe 2 2 

1,305 1,184,728~ 

NUMBER OF FOREST FIRES AND AREA BURNED OVER BY MONTHS 

1957-1961 

1961 1960 1959 1958 1957 
Month Fires-Acres Fires-Acres Fires-Acres Fires-Acres Fires-Acres 



March 


























7 


20 


April 


89 


1,131 


21 


119 


90 


972 


413 


5,577 


187 


2,809 


May 


316 


3,739 


145 


2,361 


162 


1,051 


411 


26,381 


543 


36,791 


June 


311 


1,152,111 


79 


387 


161 


692 


198 


3,626 


109 


1,143 


July 


211 


17,706 


326 


27,515 


341 


2,045 


69 


90 


234 


2,940 


August 


251 


8,392 


190 


275 


248 


514 


403 


920 


487 


2,321 


September 


32 


46 


87 


135 


25 


5 


37 


18 


44 


63 


October 


64 


66 


91 


539 


1 





12 


15 


59 


562 


November 


31 


1,537 


17 


55 


1 


2 


15 


25 


1 


2 



Totals 1,305 1,184,728 956 31,386 1,029 5,281 1,558 36,652 1,671 46,651 

NUMBER OF FOREST FIRES AND AREA BURNED OVER. BY CAUSES 

1957-1961 







1961 


1960 


1959 


1958 


1957 


Month 


Fires-Acres 


Fires-Acres 


Fires-Acres 


Fires-Acres 


Fires-Acres 


Settlers 


80 


588 


55 


804 


52 


648 


123 


2,670 


125 


2,846 


Campers 


295 


3,007 


265 


1,103 


323 


1,245 


325 


2,616 


379 


2,746 


Railways 


62 


169 


49 


764 


67 


227 


149 


1,874 


176 


3,129 


Lightning 


445 


1,174,854 


310 


26,982 


242 


1,120 


219 


1,375 


275 


2,575 


Logging 






















Operations 


19 


2,519 


20 


323 


25 


993 


17 


4,573 


39 


3,417 


Mining 






















Operations 


2 


115 


2 


2 


2 


23 


1 


2 


7 


11,930 


Smokers 


201 


1,021 


116 


515 


159 


558 


371 


4,414 


342 


14,649 


Road 






















Construction 15 


14 


18 


12 


12 


56 


63 


8,768 


73 


1,066 


Incendiary 


31 


915 


12 


458 


13 


141 


43 


2,020 


26 


2,583 


Prospectors 


1 


— 


1 


2 


4 


4 


1 


20 


3 


42 


Miscellaneous 


143 


1,506 


97 


407 


116 


209 


229 


8,126 


194 


1,578 


Unknown 


11 


20 


11 


14 


14 


57 


17 


194 


32 


90 


Totals 


1,305 


1,184,728 


956 


31,386 


1,029 


5,281 


1,558 


36,652 


1,671 


46,651 



138 



CLASSIFICATION OF FOREST FIRES. BY SIZE 
1957-1961 



Size 1961 1960 1959 1958 1957 

% acre and under 502 416 470 490 575 

Over Vz acre to 5 acres 

Over 5 acres to 10 acres 

Over 10 acres to 100 acres 

Over 100 acres to 500 acres 

Over 500 acres to 1,000 acres 

Over 1,000 acres to 10,000 acres 

Over 10,000 acres 



559 


398 


434 


753 


741 


80 


50 


59 


108 


120 


112 


59 


56 


178 


187 


12 


23 


9 


20 


37 


7 


5 


1 


4 


7 


14 


5 


— 


5 


3 


19 


— 


— 


— 


1 



Totals 


1,305 


956 


1,029 


1,558 


1,671 


ACRES OF LAND 


BURNED OVER, BY OWNERSHIP 
1957-1961 




Classification 


1961 


1960 


1959 


1958 


1957 


Crown Land — Acres 
Private Land — Acres 
Total Area in Acres 
Number of Fires 


1,180,900 
3,828 

1,184,728 
1,305 


29,190 

2,196 

31,386 

956 


2,580 
2,701 
5,281 
1,029 


25,544 

11,108 

36,652 

1,558 


24,250 

22,401 

46,651 

1,671 



ANNUAL ACREAGE BURNED — CROWN AND PRIVATE 

TOTAL NUMBER OF FIRES, AVERAGE FIRE SIZE 

1925-1961 





Crown 


Private 


Total 


Total No. 


Average Fire 


Year 


Acres 


Acres 


Acres 


of Fires 


Size (Acres) 


1925 


132,481 


57,062 


189,543 


1,149 


165 


1926 


65,888 


22,486 


88,374 


1,110 


80 


1927 


22,722 


12,970 


35,742 


924 


39 


1928 


96,436 


3,947 


100,383 


536 


189 


1929 


608,750 


16,893 


625,643 


1,550 


404 


1930 


357,531 


354,278 


711,809 


1,402 


508 


1931 


105,866 


32,421 


138,287 


1,851 


75 


1932 


626,555 


52,466 


679,021 


2,073 


328 


1933 


325,034 


24,924 


349,958 


1,919 


182 


1934 


160,348 


38,285 


198,633 


1,568 


127 


1935 


183,179 


67,483 


250,662 


1,309 


191 


1936 


1,153,876 


110,557 


1,264,433 


2,264 


558 


1937 


201,887 


22,859 


224,746 


1,453 


155 


1938 


96,168 


42,077 


138,245 


1,292 


107 


1939 


26,089 


3,009 


29,098 


961 


30 


1940 


100,990 


20,624 


121,614 


1,014 


120 


1941 


271,793 


394,754 


666,547 


1,265 


527 


1942 


77,709 


36,007 


113,716 


1,224 


93 


1943 


33,465 


19,352 


52,817 


624 


85 


1944 


73,228 


95,663 


168,891 


1,137 


149 


1945 


17,997 


30,513 


45,510 


966 


47 


1946 


44,656 


32,113 


76,769 


1,739 


44 


1947 


38,093 


45,939 


84,032 


1,393 


60 


1948 


854,778 


162,611 


1,017,389 


2,036 


500 


1949 


40,593 


19,472 


60,065 


1,834 


33 


1950 


13,203 


23,577 


36,780 


985 


37 


1951 


96,662 


4,581 


101,243 


904 


112 


1952 


7,264 


5,157 


12,421 


1,095 


11 


1953 


44,519 


14,290 


58,809 


1,520 


39 


1954 


36,115 


18,578 


54,693 


881 


62 


1955 


370,948 


25,475 


396,423 


2,252 


176 


1956 


221,822 


4,390 


226,212 


1,017 


222 


1957 


24,250 


22,401 


46,651 


1,671 


28 


1958 


25,544 


11,108 


36,652 


1,558 


24 


1959 


2,580 


2,701 


5,281 


1,029 


5 


1960 


29,190 


2,196 


31,386 


956 


33 


1961 


1,180,900 


3,828 


1,184,728 


1,305 


908 



139 



MEANS OF FIRE DETECTION 
1957-1961 





Towers 


Rangers 


Public 


Aircraft 


Total 


1961 Totals 


419 


74 


566 


246 


1,305 


1960 Totals 


304 


63 


431 


158 


956 


1959 Totals 


414 


66 


458 


91 


1,029 


1958 Totals 


581 


87 


769 


121 


1,558 


1957 Totals 


575 


141 


753 


202 


1,671 



STATEMENT OF FIRE PERMITS ISSUED 
1957-1961 



Year 


1961 


1960 


1959 


1958 


1957 


Number of 
Permits 


20,956 


18,616 


17,889 


15,842 


12,778 



STATEMENT OF TRAVEL PERMITS ISSUED 
1957-1961 



Year 


1961 


1960 


1959 


1958 


1957 


Number of 
Permits 


108,108 


94,634 


112,916 


121,373 


118,690 


Number of 
Persons 


393,510 


332,471 


390,510 


412,468 


427,834 



140 



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141 



STATEMENT OF FIRE 





CROWN 




$ 


PRIVATE 




Timber Damage 


Damage To 


Timber Damage 


Districts 


Cu. Ft. 


$ 


Reproduction 


Cu. Ft. 


S 


Sioux Lookout 


1,522,369,431 


30,447,388.62 


5,846.78 


145 


2.90 


Kenora 


58,637,457 


1,172,749.14 


36,086.15 


690,514 


13,810.28 


Fort Frances 


4,428,950 


88,579.00 


1,838.53 


10,938 


218.76 


Port Arthur 


9,578,150 


191,563.00 


9,880.45 


5,450 


109.00 


Geraldton 


242,017 


4,840.34 


409.20 


850 


17.00 


Kapuskasing 


— 


— 


4.52 


— 


— 


Cochrane 


84,700 


1,694.00 


34.00 


— 


— 


Swastika 


3,400 


68.00 


34.00 


11,617 


232.34 


Chapleau 


1,500 


30.00 


50.70 


12,100 


242.00 


Gogama 


— 


— 


18.75 


— 


— 


Sault Ste. Marie 


1,492 


29.84 


1.42 


8,000 


160.00 


Sudbury- 


1,025 


20.50 


271.10 


416 


8.32 


White River 


5,504 


110.08 


192.73 


— 


-^ 


North Bay 


1,040 


20.80 


78.22 


800 


16.00 


Parry Sound 


625 


12.50 


15.79 


746 


14.92 


Pembroke 


650 


13.00 


21.15 


— 


— 


Tweed 


89,762 


1,795.24 


7,324.87 


4,252 


85.04 


Lindsay 


786 


15.70 


58.99 


3,825 


76.50 


Lake Simcoe 


256 


5.12 


20.00 


— 


— 


Lake Huron 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 



Totals 1,595,446,744 31,908,934.88* 62,187.35 749,653 14,993.06* 

*This timber is inaccessible so that value has only academic interest. 



142 



DAMAGE TABLE— 1961 









$ 




$ 


$ 


TOTAL 


Total 


$ 


Private 


Damage 


To Timber 


Damage 


Damage To 


Total 


Property 


Reproduction Cu. Ft. 


$ 


Reproduction 


Damage 


Damage 


7.72 


1,522,369,576 


30,447,391.52 


5,854.50 


30,453,246.02 


81,500.00 


308.97 


59,327,971 


1,186,559.42 


36,395.12 


1,222,954.54 


444.00 


2.22 


4,439,888 


88,797.76 


1,840.75 


90,638.51 


1,302.50 


407.30 


9,583,600 


191,672.00 


10,287.75 


201,959.75 


52,631.40 


17.68 


242,867 


4,857.34 


426.88 


5,284.22 


— 


2.83 


— 


— 


7.35 


7.35 


— 


— 


84,700 


1,694.00 


34.00 


1,728.00 


9,651.98 


229.30 


15,017 


300.34 


263.30 


563.64 


— 


— 


13,600 


272.00 


50.70 


322.70 


— 


— 


— 


— 


18.75 


18.75 


— 


709.08 


9,492 


189.84 


710.50 


900.34 


— 


1,329.52 


1,441 


28.82 


1,600.62 


1,629.44 


— 


— 


5,504 


110.08 


192.73 


302.81 


5,490.00 


39.80 


1,840 


36.80 


118.02 


154.82 


200.00 


74.50 


1,371 


27.42 


90.29 


117.71 


91.65 


12.53 


650 


13.00 


33.68 


46.68 


— 


514.13 


94,014 


1,880.28 


7,839.00 


9,719.28 


16.00 


31.10 


4,610 


92.20 


90.09 


182.29 


1,310.50 





256 


5.12 


20.00 


25.12 


— 


3,686.68 


1,596,196,397 


31,923,927.94* 


65,874.03 


31,989,801.97* 


152,638.03 



143 






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FOREST PROTECTION BRANCH 

Air Service Section 
1961-62 

Two Otter aircraft were purchased during the year and two Beaver aircraft 
were sold. One Otter crashed while carrying out fire suppression operations at 
the time of the serious fire situation in Kenora District during June. Fortunately, 
the pilot escaped without injury although the aircraft was damaged beyond repair. 
The present fleet is comprised of 35 Beaver, eight Otter and one Super Widgeon, 
making a total of 44. 

Flying operations were carried out from 28 bases during the fire season. 
Eleven of these bases provide year-round flying service necessary in resources 
management work. 

Five heHcopters were again leased from May 1st to September 30th to provide 
transportation in fighting fires that occur in areas where there are no roads or 
landable lakes. 

Water dropping from tanks mounted on Beaver and Otter aircraft again 
proved to be an important factor in successful fire attack in 1961. 

Total flying time for the year was 14,485 hours. Total passengers carried 
37,970. 

Total loads carried 16,242,084 pounds. 



flowing reports are added 


as supplementary 


to this report: 




TABLE 1 








Operating Bases 








1961-62 






BASE 






TYPE OF AIRCRAFT 


Red Lake 








Beaver 


*Kenora 








Beaver (2) 


*Fort Frances 








Beaver 


Nym Lake 








Beaver 


* Sioux Lookout 








Beaver 
Otter 


I^nace 








Beaver 


♦Port Arthur 








Beaver 
Otter 


Caribou Lake 








Beaver 


Pays Plat 








Beaver 


Twin Lakes 








Beaver 


*Geraldton 








Otter 


Pickle Lake 








Otter 


Oba Lake 








Beaver 


White River 








Beaver 


*Sault Ste. Marie 








Beaver 
Otter 


*Chapleau 








Beaver 


*Gogama 








Beaver 


South Porcupine 








Otter 


Temagami 








Beaver 


Remi Lake 








Beaver 


Carey Lake 








Beaver 


* Sudbury 








Beaver 
Otter 


Parry Sound 








Beaver 


* Pembroke 








Otter 


Lauzon Lake 








Beaver 


Tweed 








Beaver 


* Toronto 








Beaver (2) 
Widgeon 


Kenogami 








Beaver 


* 


Denotes 


Year-round 


Bases 





151 



TABLE 11 



Transport Aircraft — Effective Loads Carried 
1961-62 



Aircraft 


Hours Flown 






Effective Loads 


REAVER 














CF-OBS 


547:45 


312,815 


lbs. 


156 


tons. 


815 lbs. 


CF-OBW 


:40 


330 


lbs. 






330 lbs. 


CF-OBX 


:40 


165 


lbs. 






165 lbs. 


CF-OBY 


96:25 


58,509 


lbs. 


29 


tons. 


509 lbs. 


CF-OBZ 


234:25 


217,435 


lbs. 


108 


tons. 


1,435 lbs. 


CF-OCA 


371:45 


303,175 


lbs. 


151 


tons, 


1,175 lbs. 


CF-OCB 


503:55 


712,384 


lbs. 


356 


tons, 


384 lbs. 


CF-OCC 


338:35 


237,710 


lbs. 


118 


tons. 


1,710 lbs. 


CF-OCD 


222:05 


99,894 


lbs. 


49 


tons, 


1,894 lbs. 


CF-OCE 


273:05 


194,289 


lbs. 


97 


tons, 


289 lbs. 


CF-OCG 


267:00 


137,270 


lbs. 


68 


tons. 


1,270 lbs. 


CF-OCH 


450:05 


279,963 


lbs. 


139 


tons, 


1,963 lbs. 


CF-OCJ 


205:50 


130,361 


lbs. 


65 


tons, 


361 lbs. 


CF-OCK 


287:25 


202,270 


lbs. 


101 


tons. 


270 lbs. 


GF-OCL 


246:10 


189,296 


lbs. 


94 


tons. 


1,296 lbs. 


CF-OCN 


373:05 


294,327 


lbs. 


147 


tons. 


327 lbs. 


CF-OCO 


290:05 


196,473 


lbs. 


98 


tons, 


473 lbs. 


CF-OCP 


714:45 


402,780 


lbs. 


201 


tons. 


780 lbs. 


CF-OCQ 


441:40 


446,855 


lbs. 


223 


tons, 


855 lbs. 


CF-OCS 


112:55 


34,735 


lbs. 


17 


tons. 


735 lbs. 


CF-OCT 


473:55 


221,285 


lbs. 


110 tons, 


1,285 lbs. 


CF-OCU 


375:50 


282.587 


lbs. 


141 


tons. 


587 lbs. 


OF-OCV 


545:30 


310,365 


lbs. 


155 


tons. 


365 lbs. 


CF-OCX 


386:05 


322,710 


lbs. 


161 


tons. 


710 lbs. 


CF-OCY 


375:35 


344,011 


lbs. 


172 


tons, 


11 lbs. 


CF-OCZ 


311:45 


184,973 


lbs. 


92 


tons. 


973 lbs. 


CF-ODA 


386:30 


54,846 


lbs. 


27 


tons. 


846 lbs. 


CF-ODB 


291:35 


171,871 


lbs. 


85 


tons, 


1,871 lbs. 


CF-ODC 


440:25 


92,515 


lbs. 


46 


tons. 


515 lbs. 


CF-ODD 


208:35 


95,255 


lbs. 


47 


tons. 


1,255 lbs. 


CF-ODE 


427:25 


114,405 


lbs. 


57 


tons. 


405 lbs. 


CF-ODF 


185:35 


113,355 


lbs. 


56 


tons. 


1,355 lbs. 


CF-ODG 


525:55 


313,935 


lbs. 


156 


tons. 


1,935 lbs. 


CF-ODO 


123:35 


23,900 


lbs. 


11 


tons. 


1,900 lbs. 


CF-ODS 


232:40 


131,440 


lbs. 


65 


tons. 


1,440 lbs. 


OTTER 














CF-ODJ 


481:20 


1,060,658 


lbs. 


530 


tons. 


658 lbs. 


CF-ODK 


258:00 


956,520 


lbs. 


478 


tons. 


520 lbs. 


CF-ODL 


398:05 


1,771,720 


lbs. 


885 


tons. 


1,720 lbs. 


CF-ODP 


349:10 


685,600 


lbs. 


342 


tons. 


1,600 lbs. 


CF-ODQ 


305:20 


371,238 


lbs. 


185 


tons. 


1,238 lbs. 


CF-ODT 


104:30 


632,055 


lbs. 


316 


tons, 


55 lbs. 


CF-ODU 


294:00 


1,291,002 


lbs. 


645 


tons. 


1,002 lbs. 


CF-ODV 


610:30 


1,986,090 


lbs. 


993 


tons. 


90 lbs. 


CF-ODW 


157:05 


216,292 


lbs. 


108 


tons, 


292 lbs. 


WIDGEON 

CF-ODR 


258:30 

Total Transport 


42,420 
. Section: — 


lbs. 


21 


tons. 


420 lbs. 




Total Flying time, Hours: 


14,485:45 










Total Loading, 


lbs.: 


16,242,084 


lbs. 








Total Loading, 


tons: 


8,121 


tons 


, 84 


lbs. 



152 



TABLE III 



Hours Flown on Various Phoses of Flying Operotions 

1949-61 1961-62 

Fire Ranging (Detection and Suppression) 68,945:45 7,129:55 

Timber Management 10,495:35 799:20 

Fish and Wildlife 30,171:45 3,628:25 

Lands 2,544 : 10 260 : 00 

Parks . 1,183:30 265:50 

Interdepartmental Flying 4,354:45 370:15 

Admini stration 36,348 : 10 2,032:00 

154,043:40 14,485:45 



Total 



76,075:40 

11,294:55 

33,800:10 

2,804:10 

1,449:20 

4,725:00 

38,380:10 



168,529:25 



Break-Down of Administration 



1961-62 



Mercy Flights 33 :00 

Tests (Radio and Aircraft) 118:35 

Ferrying and Instruction 290:40 

Research, Incl. Entomology 169:35 

Forced Landings and Operations 267:00 

Transportation Ordinary 704:50 

Transportation Special 448:20 

Photography 

Surveys 



2,032:00 



TABLE IV 



Passengers and Personnel Carried 



1924-61 



1961-62 



Total 



Passengers Carried 528,192 

Personnel Carried 155,857 

Total Passengers and Personnel 

Carried ._ 684,049 

Effective Loads Flown, lbs. __ 150,899,306 
Effective Loads Flown, Tons ^ 75,449 tons 

1,306 lbs. 



82,749 




560,941 


5,221 




161,078 


37,970 




722,019 


[3,242,084 




167,141,390 


8,121 


tons 


83,570 tons 


84 


lbs. 


1,390 lbs. 



153 



TABLE V 



Hours Flown at Bases 




1961-62 




BASE HOURS FLOWN 


Carey Lake 473:20 




Caribou Lake 307:20 




Chapleau ^ 430:25 




Fort Frances 804:30 




Geraldton 344:05 




Gogama 411:30 




Ig-nace 235:25 




Kenog-ami , 206:55 




Kenora '^ 1,000:35 




Lauzon Lake 349:50 




Nym Lake 389:45 




Oba Lake 267:10 




Pays Plat 343:30 




Parry Sound 325:10 




Pickle Lake 438:50 




Port Arthur 824:50 




Pembroke 713:05 




Red Lake 441:10 




Remi Lake 265:25 




Saulte Ste. Marie 820:10 




Sioux Lookout 1,111:20 




South Porcupine 288:05 




Sudbury 579:15 




Temagami 269:50 




Twin Lakes 300:30 




Toronto 386:10 




White River 215:05 




Tweed 374:45 




Air Service Operations, Testing, Ferrying, etc. 1,567:45 




14,485:45 



154 







TABLE VI 










Flying Time — 


Pilots 




PILOTS 




1924-61 


1961-62 


Total 


Allen 


DW 


2,434:15 


330:10 


2,764:25 


Ballantyne 


DE 


1,543:40 


378:15 


1,921:55 


Beaushene 


GD 


3,044:35 


402:20 


3,446:55 


Bieck 


AH 


1,113:30 


481:40 


1,595:10 


Burtt 


AE 


7,691:40 


515:45 


8,207:25 


Calver 


DR 


2,894:45 


362:40 


3,257:25 


Campbell 


GE 


4,334:15 


453:20 


4,787:35 


Golfer 


AP 


5,875:55 


820:55 


6,696:50 


Cooke 


TC 


6,329:05 


753:25 


7,082:30 


Cram 


WW 


912:25 


317:15 


1,229:40 


Croft 


BR 


1,118:25 


382:15 


1,500:40 


Croal 


DM 


1,002:45 


631:25 


1,634:10 


Denley 


JG 


7,165:25 


401:30 


7,566:55 


Evans 


FB 


4,082:25 


376:30 


4,458:55 


Fiskar 


UW 


3,485:40 


385:30 


3,871:10 


Glennie 


NA 


2,170:10 


454:35 


2,624:45 


Hoar 


HA 


2,795:20 


250:15 


3,045:35 


Hoeberg 


PS 


2,825:25 


293:50 


3,119:15 


Hugill 


WA 


2,195:05 


309:20 


2,504:25 


Kincaid 


J 


7,082:10 


574:35 


7,656:45 


Kirk 


CJ 


4,454:45 


347:50 


4,802:35 


Lamont 


JA 


3,404:00 


275:40 


3,679:40 


LeFeuvre 


CJ 


8,658:30 


379:20 


9,037:50 


Love 


NS 




165:20 


165:20 


Lowe 


B 


1,279:25 


315:30 


1,594:55 


MacDougall 


FA 


5,071:45 


119:20 


5,191:05 


North 


DH 


893:00 


357:20 


1,250:20 


Parsons 


R 


7,206:20 


343:20 


7,549:40 


Poulin 


LD 


7,764:50 


217:00 


7,981:50 


Reid 


DM 


4,184:15 


406:45 


4,591:00 


Siegel 


J 


4,817:20 


444:55 


5,262:15 


Speight 


HC 


7,202:55 


655:25 


7,858:20 


Smith 


AB 


7,050:55 


9:10 


7,060:05 


Thomas 


E 


3,357:10 


191:35 


3,548:45 


Thompson 


FJ 


2,398:55 


296:15 


2,695:10 


Trussler 


GE 


7,261:45 


364:05 


7,625:50 


Turcotte 


LG 


960:45 


342:05 


1,302:50 


Taylor 


JM 


3,462:00 


92:20 


3,554:20 


Pike 


SJ 




287:00 


287:00 


Other Pilots 




179,807:50 




179,807:50 






329,333:20 


14,485:45 


343,819:05 



155 



TABLE VII 
Flying Time — Aircraft 



AIRCRAFT 



1924-61 



1961-62 



TOTAL 



Beaver 

CF-OBS 

CF-OBW 

CF-OBX 

CF-OBY 

CF-OBZ 

CF-OCA 

CF-OCB 

CF-OCC 

CF-OCD 

CF-OCE 

CF-OCG 

CF-OCH 

CF-OCJ 

CF-OCK 

CF-OCL 

CF-OCN 

CF-OCO 

CF-OCP 

CF-OCQ 

CF-OCS 

CF-OCT 

CF-OCU 

CF-OCV 

CF-OCX 

CF-OCY 

CF-OCZ 

CF-ODA 

CF-ODB 

CF-ODC 

CF-ODD 

CF-ODE 

CF-ODF 

CF-ODG 

CF-ODO 

CF-ODS 

Otter 

CF-ODJ 

CF-ODK 

CF-ODL 

CF-ODP 

CF-ODQ 

CF-ODU 

CF-ODV 

CF-ODW 

CF-ODT 

Widgeon 

CF-ODR 
All Other 



Aircraft 



4,692:10 
3,526:40 
4,083:30 
3,638:45 
4,085:20 
3,634:40 
4,249:40 
3,740:40 
3,468:05 
4,303:45 
3,361:00 
3,662:25 
3,221:30 
3,719:00 
3,584:30 
4,033:45 
3,866:25 
4,024:05 
4,196:15 
4,011:05 
3,809:45 
3,633:50 
2,846:05 
3,215:50 
3,038:15 
2,363:35 
2,930:30 
3,548:05 
4,284:30 
838:15 
2,548:10 
3,189:45 
3,278:50 
605:15 
323:35 

2,121:00 
2,149:30 
2,092:45 
1,217:15 
1,597:05 
224:45 



1,815:20 



1,082:40 
198,534:25 



547:45 
:40 
:40 
96:25 
234:25 
371:45 
503:55 
338:35 
222:05 
273:05 
267:00 
450:05 
205:50 
287:25 
246:10 
373:05 
290:05 
714:45 
441:40 
112:55 
473:55 
375:50 
545:30 
386:05 
375:35 
311:45 
386:30 
291:35 
440:25 
208:35 
427:25 
185:35 
525:55 
123:35 
232:40 

481:20 
258:00 
298:05 
349:10 
305:20 
294:00 
610:30 
157:05 
104:30 

258:30 



5,239:55 
3,527:20 
4,086:10 
3,733:10 
4,319:45 
4,006:25 
4,753:35 
4,079:15 
3,690:10 
4,576:50 
3,628:00 
4,112:30 
3,427:20 
4,006:25 
3,830:40 
4,406:50 
4,156:30 
4,738:50 
4,637:55 
4,124:00 
4,283:40 
4,009:40 
3,391:35 
3,601:55 
3,413:50 
2,675:20 
3,317:00 
3,839:40 
4,724:55 
1,046:50 
2,975:35 
3,375:20 
3,804:45 
728:50 
556:15 



2,602:20 

2,407:30 

2,490:50 

1,566:25 

1,902:25 

517:45 

610:30 

157:05 

1,919:50 



1,341:10 
198,534:25 



328,392:15 



14,485:45 



342,878:00 



156 



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157 



TABLE IX 
Helicopter Flying Hours 



HELICOPTER HOURS FLOWN 



CF-IZH 450:20 

CF-ICG 566:30 

CF-IFA 373:20 

CF-JFR 635:15 

CF-FHM 541:20 













2,566:45 


Hours Flown 


on 


Various 


Phases 


of 


Flying Operations 


SERVICE 










HOURS FLOWN 



Fire Ranging 2,124:55 

Timber Management 109:15 

Fish and Wildlife 94:05 

Lands 28:55 

Administration 209:35 



2,566:45 



Break-Down of Administration 

Research incl. Entomology 1:55 

Transportation Ordinary 1 :05 

Ferrying 201:55 

Forced Landings and Tests 4:40 

209:35 



158 




Restoration of an original township lot corner in Methuen Township, nnade in 1937 
from the evidence presented by a very old cedar tree marked for the corner more 
than 40 years previously. Note the original marking and the extent of the cut required 

to recover the survey evidence. 



159 



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Cadastral & Topographic 

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Surveys 

Examination 


Cadastral and 

Topographic 

Mapping 













160 



LANDS AND SURVEYS BRANCH 

The Branch is comprised of four sections with responsibilities and functions 
as follows: 

Surveys Section 

Performance of surveys for the disposition of Crown lands, the retracement of 

obliterated original boundaries, base and meridian lines, provincial parks, lands 

acquired for departmental purposes, provincial boundaries; 

Custody and maintenance of survey records; 

Map compilation and distribution; 

Sale of maps, record reproductions, departmental publications; 

Lands Section 

Administration of the public lands; 

Disposition of Crown lands by sale, lease, licence; 

Servicing of Crown leases and Licences of Occupation; 

Land Use Planning Section 

Preparation of a land use plan for the public lands of the province; 

Wilderness areas; 

Advisory Committees on Recreational Land Use Planning; 

Engineering Section 

Inspection and approval of dams, investigations, water resource management, 

issuance and servicing of Water Power Lease Agreements, Licences of Occupation 

for dams, flooding, diversions; 

Preparation of plans for departmental buildings; 

General engineering services; 

Designs and plans for hatcheries, trout rearing stations, renovations, plant and 

equipment; 

Engineering studies for wildlife management; 

Access roads, acquisition of land. 

Detailed reports follow here. 

SURVEYS SECTION 

In the past four years, following the department's new policy of selling 
public land for summer resort use by reference to registered plans of subdivisions, 
367 subdivisions totalling some 6,000 lots were surveyed, the plans registered, 
and the lots made available for sale. 

In view of the number of available lots for sale on registered plans of sub- 
division, the subdivision survey programme was reduced during the past fiscal 
year with 71 subdivision surveys made totalling 966 lots. This number represents 
a reduction of about 50 per cent over the previous year. In addition to the 
subdivision surveys, 683 individual surveys were completed in areas where 
registered plans of subdivision were not available. 

The long-range programme of retracement surveys to restore obliterated 

161 



survey lines and corners in the original Crown survey fabric commenced last year 
was continued. Survey instructions were issued for 250 miles of retracement surveys 
and, in addition, about 75 miles of original survey lines were retraced in the 
surveys of Crown subdivisions. 

Ontario Regulations 266/61 made under The Surveys Act were passed. 
These regulations standardize and prescribe the kind and form of survey monu- 
ments and where they are to be placed in surveys of private and public land. 

New Maps Nos. 22 and 25 of the Territorial Series, on a scale of 8 miles to 1 
inch, were published. These maps, comprising the territorial districts of Algoma, 
Sudbury, Timiskaming and Cochrane, replace Map No. 24B. The new maps 
include the following new features, improved colour tone, boundaries of Depart- 
ment of Lands and Forests administrative districts, and standardized grid system 
for locating geographic townships. 

Details of the activities of the surveys are as follows: 

Survey instructions issued during the period April 1st, 1961, to March 
31st, 1962: 

Meridmn Surveys 

No survey instructions were issued for the survey of Base or Meridian Lines 
during the fiscal year. 

Special Retracement Surveys 

1. Re-establishment of the west boundary of lot 36 and the west boundaries of 
lots 37, 38 and 39 in concession II N.R., Township of Watten, District of 
Rainy River. 

2. Retracement and establishment of certain road allowances and township lot 
corners in the northerly part of the Township of Belmont, County of Peter- 
borough. 

3. Retracement and establishment of certain road allowances and township lot 
corners in the southerly part of the Township of Belmont, County of Peter- 
borough. 

4. Retracement of part of the south boundary of the Township of Thorneloe, 
District of Timiskaming. 

5. Retracement of the south boundary of the Township of Belmont in the 
County of Peterborough. 

6. Retracement of a portion of the southerly boundary of the Townships of 
Kennebec and Kaladar, and survey of lots 16, 17 and 18, concessions 6 and 
7, Township of Kennebec. 

7. Retracement of portions of the boundary between the Townships of Jaffray 
and Melick and between Jaffray and Haycock, District of Kenora. 

8. Retracement of the boundary between the Townships of Dill and Broder 
and between Dill and Neelon, District of Sudbury. 

9. Retracement of portions of the boundary between the Townships of Blezard 
and McKim; the Townships of Cascaden and Trill, and certain lot corners 
in the Township of Cascaden, District of Sudbury. 

10. Retracement of a portion of the boundary between the Townships of Levack 
and Morgan, and certain lot corners in the Township of Levack, District 
of Sudbury. 

11. Retracement of portions of the southerly boundaries of the Townships of 
Van Home and Aubrey, District of Kenora. 

12. Retracement of portions of the northerly boundary of the Township of 
Watten and portions of the northerly and easterly boundaries of the Town- 
ship of Halkirk, District of Rainy River. 

162 



13. Retracement of certain original survey points or corners and certain original 
boundaries or lines in the Township of Watten, District of Rainy River. 

14. Retracement of a portion of the northerly boundary of the Township of 
MacGregor and a portion of the westerly boundary of the Township of 
McTavish, District of Thunder Bay. 

15. Retracement of a portion of the northerly boundary of the Township of 
McGregor, District of Thunder Bay. 

16. Retracement of certain township boundaries in the Townships of Dane, 
Leo and Medina, District of Timiskaming. 

17. Retracement of a portion of the southerly boundary in the Township of 
Klock and a portion of the westerly boundary of the Township of Dane, 
District of Timiskaming. 

18. Retracement of the boundary between the Townships of Dysart and Dudley, 
County of Haliburton. 

19. Retracement of the boundary between the Townships of Clyde and Sabine, 
County of Haliburton and District of Nipissing. 

20. Retracement of the boundary between the Townships of Bruton and McClure, 
Counties of Haliburton and Hastings. 

21. Retracement of portions of the northerly boundary and the road allowance 
between concessions 10 and 11, Township of Darling, County of Lanark. 

22. Retracement of a portion of the boundary between the Townships of Lindsay 
and St. Edmunds, County of Bruce. 

23. Retracement of portions of the boundary between the Townships of Ferguson 
and Burpee and Ferguson and Hagerman and certain road allowances in 
the Township of Ferguson, District of Parry Sound. 

24. Retracement of the westerly and southerly boundaries of the Township of 
Franklin, District of Muskoka. 

25. Retracement survey of certain lot corners along the Hastings Road in the 
Townshios of Dungannon and Faraday, County of Hastings. 

26. Retracement survey of a portion of the eastern boundary of the Township 
of Tarentorus, District of Algoma. 



Summer Resort Subdivision Surveys 

1. Kabenung Lake, Township 31, Range 27, District of Algoma. 

2. (a) Zig-Zag Island, Township of Boys 

(b) Clearwater Bay, Township of Boys 

(c) Catastrophe Lake, Township of Pelican 

(d) Kendall's Inlet, south of Pellatt Township 

(e) Pistol Lake, north of Umbach Township, 
in the District of Kenora. 

3. Long Bay of the Lake of the Woods, Township of Devonshire, District of 
Kenora. 

4. (a) Wabaskang Lake, north of Wauchope Township 
(b) Perrault Lake, north of Wauchope Township, 
in the District of Kenora. 

5. (a) Norway Lake, north of Redditt Township, 

(b) Armstrong Lake, Township of Redditt 

(c) Black Sturgeon Lake, Township of Haycock 

(d) Black Sturgeon Lake, Township of Melick, 
in the District of Kenora. 

163 



6. (a) Regina Bay, Township of Willingdon 

(b) South Narrow Lake, Township of Phillips, 
in the District of Kenora. 

7. RoUand Lake, Township of Leduc, District of Thunder Bay. 

8. Paugh Lake, Township of Burns, County of Renfrew. 

9. (a) Lower Shebadowan Lake, Township of Conaoher 
(b) Middle Shebandowan Lake, Township of Hagey, 
in the District of Thunder Bay. 

10. (a) Gushing Lake, south of Inwood Township 

(b) Cox Lake, north of Purdom Township, 

in the District of Thunder Bay. 
n. (a) Footprint Lake, north of Dance Township 

(b) Jackfish Lake, east of Senn Township, 

in the District of Rainy River. 

12. (a) Wasaw Lake, east of Dance Township 

(b) Sabaskong Bay of Lake of the Woods, Claxton Township, 
in the District of Rainy River. 

13. Raven Lake, Sherborne Township, County of Haliburton. 

14. (a) Eels Lake, Township of Cardiff 

(b) West Twin Lake, Township of Methuen 

(c) Coon Lake, Township of Burleigh, 

in the Counties of Haliburton and Peterborough. 

15. Dawson Island, Township of Johnson, District of Algoma. 

16. (a) Bearhead Lake, Township of Scarfe 

(b) Lake of the Mountains, Township of Cobden, 
in the District of Algoma. 

17. Lake Nipissing, Township of Casimir, District of Nipissing. 

18. Herridge Lake, Township of Strathcona, District of Nipissing. 

19. (a) Bain Lake (2), Township of Field 
(b) Talon Lake (2), Township of Olrig, 
in the District of Nipissing. 

20. (a) Tyson Lake (3), Townships of Sale and Attlee 

(b) Tyson Lake, Township of Humboldt 

(c) Carlyle Lake (4), Township of Carlyle, 
in the District of Manitoulin. 

21. (a) Mephisto Lake, Township of Cashel 

(b) Mayo Lake, Township of Mayo 

(c) Wensley Lake, Township of Miller 

(d) Raglan Lake, Township of Raglan 

(e) Diamond Lake, Township of Radcliffe, 
in the County of Renfrew. 

22. Ashigami Lake, Township of Scadding, District of Sudbury. 

23. (a) Panache Lake, Township of Caen 
(b) Panache Lake, Township of Dieppe, 
in the District of Sudbury. 

24. (a) Upper Sturgeon Lake, Township of Delamere 
(b) Otter Lake, Township of Cascaden, 

in the District of Sudbury. 

25. Restoule Lake, Township of Patterson, District of Parry Sound. 

26. (a) Clear Lake, Township of Burton 

(b) Blackstone Lake, Township of Conger, 
in the District of Parry Sound and Muskoka. 

164 



27. Fletcher Lake, Township of McCHntock, County of Haliburton. 

28. Harris Lake, Township of Wallbridge, District of Parry Sound. 

29. Pickerel River, Township of Wilson, District of Parry Sound. 

30. Weslemkoon Lake (3), Townships of Ashby and Effingham, County of 
Lennox and Addington. 

31. (a) Cardwell Lake, Township of Wicklow 

(b) Kamaniskeg Lake, Township of Bangor 

(c) Kamaniskeg Lake, Township of Bangor, 
in the County of Hastings. 

32. (a) Gibson Lake, Townships of Sheraton and Thomas 
(b) Charland Lake, Township of German, 

in the District of Cochrane. 

33. (a) Severn River, Township of Wood, District of Muskoka. 

(b) Gloucester Pool, Township of Matchedash, County of Simcoe. 

34. Twin Lake, Township of Ivanhoe, District of Sudbury. 

35. Lower Twin Lake, Township of Nettleton, District of Cochrane. 

Municipal Surveys 

1. Re-establishment and monumentation of certain angles in lots 36 to 45, 
concessions C and D, Township of Amabel, County of Bruce. 

2. Re-establishment and monumentation of certain angles in lots 48 to 59, 
concessions 3 to 7, Township of St. Edmunds, County of Bruce. 

3. Re-establishment and monumentation lots 150 and 151, Township of Thorold, 
Count of Welland. 

Miscellaneous Surveys 

1. Boundary and internal surveys in certain provincial parks. 

2. Establishment of the line between the north and south parts of lots 7 and 8, 
concession VII, Township of Forbes, District of Thunder Bay. 

3. Subdivision of parts of lots 6 and 7, concession V, in the Township of Airy, 
District of Nipissing, for residential purposes. 

4. Commercial site on the west shore of White Lake in unsurveyed territory 
north of Township 71, District of Thunder Bay. 

5. West boundary of Chief Ranger's Headquarters at White River. 

6. Inspection of subdivision surveys in the Districts of Kenora and Rainy River. 

7. Survey for road right-of-way, in the townships of Harcourt and Bruton, 
County of Haliburton. 

8. Survey for private right-of-wav within boundaries of Holiday Beach Provincial 
Park, Township of Maiden, Countv of Essex. 

Details of the number of survey plans of summer resort locations which were 
examined during the fiscal year and which were surveyed as individual location 
surveys or into subdivision unit plans are as follows: 

Provincial Park Surveys 

Internal surveys within the boundaries of the following provincial parks were 
carried out: Craigleith, Inverhuron, Killarney, Sibley, Pipestone, Quetico, Sauble 
Falls, Springwater, Algonquin, Lake Superior, Bottle Lake, Six Mile Lake, Oastler, 
Eagle, Killbear, Bass Lake and Sandbanks. 

Boundary surveys or investigation work relative to boundaries were carried 
out in Inverhuron, Sauble Falls, Bottle Lake and Outlet. 

165 





Individual Parcels 


Subdivision Plans 




Administrative 


Crown Survey- 


Private Survey 


Crown 


Survey 




District 


Fee Paid 


No Fee 


Fee Paid 


No Fee Paid 


Total 


Chapleau 








32 


32 


Cochrane 




28 




57 


85 


Erie 




2 






2 


Fort Frances 




30 




100 


130 


Geraldton 




9 






9 


Gogama 




8 




38 


46 


Huron 




2 






2 


Kapuskasing 




2 




111 


113 


Kenora 


1 


109 


5 


188 


303 


Lindsay 


4 


15 




66 


85 


North Bay- 




31 




57 


88 


Parry Sound 


5 


93 


2 


180 


280 


Pembroke 




8 




197 


205 


Port Arthur 




34 




107 


141 


Kemptville 








1 


1 


Sault Ste. Marie 


3 


27 




97 


127 


Simcoe 


2 


12 




84 


98 


Sioux Lookout 




10 




22 


32 


Sudbury 


13 


151 




181 


345 


Swastika 




30 




53 


83 


Tweed 




63 




288 


351 


White River 




19 






19 


Totals : 


28 


683 


7 


1,859 


2,577 



The above include 162 plans of subdivision containing 1,866 lots. 

Geographic and Map Publications 

The reproduction of two of the Territorial Series Maps was completed and 
ready for distribution: (a) Map 22 "Districts of Algoma, Sudbury and Timis- 
kaming", Scale 8m — 1", 10,000 copies were reproduced in 8 colours; (b) 
Map 25 "District of Cochrane", Scale 8m — V\ 7,500 copies were reproduced 
in 7 colours. 

These maps will supersede the now obsolete Map 24B "Part of Northern 
Ontario". An added feature on these maps, and all subsequent maps of the 
series, is that the Departmental Administrative Districts have been shown. It is 
hoped this will be beneficial not only to department personnel but also to the 
public. These maps also feature improved colour tones, populated centres shown 
by status symbols and a standardized grid system for locating the position of 
geographic townships. 

The compilation and drawing of Territorial Series Map 24 "Districts of 
Kenora and Rainy River", 8m — 1", was completed. This map, to be printed 
in 7 colours, will be in readiness for reproduction by April 1962. 

The compilation and drawing of Territorial Series Map 23 "District of 
Thunder Bay", 8m — 1", was started in September 1961, and it is anticipated 
that this map will be completed in readiness for reproduction before December 
1st, 1962. 

Preliminary designs and specifications were created for future revision of 
Map 21 "Southern Ontario", Map 33 Electoral Districts of the Province of 
Ontario, and Map 47 "Algonquin Provincial Park". 

Editing of Geographical Nomenclature on Maps 

At the request of the Canadian Permanent Committee on Geographical 
Names (succeeding the former Canadian Board on Geographical Names), Ottawa, 
and other departments, a number of maps were checked regarding established 
and new nomenclature. 

166 



The major groups were: 

(a) Maps of the 1/25000 Series published by Department of National Defence, 
Ottawa — 34 sheets. 

(b) Charts published by Canadian Hydrographic Services — 8 charts. 

(c) Maps of the National Topographic Series, published by Department of 
Mines and Technical Surveys — 6 sheets. 

(d) 6 Geological maps were reviewed for the Ontario Department of Mines. 

During the year, assistance was given to the C.P.C.G.N., Ottawa, in editing 
nomenclature for the Ontario section of the "Gazetteer of Canada"; this work 
is now completed and publication is anticipated in 1962. 

Reference Library Information 

Expansion of the index of geographical names in Ontario via new and 
revised card entries continued. 

2,000 new entries were made and 3,500 entries were revised. 

Progressive micro-filming of added or revised entries for the index is being 
maintained. 

Planimetric Detail Maps 

The following detailed planimetric maps were prepared: 

Area or grid maps 60 

Township maps 17 

Composite plans _ 5 

Miscellaneous plans 50 

Lot plans 101 

Water lot plans _. 17 

Township subdivision plans annulled in whole or in part 7 

General Administration, Map Distribution and Survey Records 

Map Distribution 

A considerable increase is to be noted in the overall distribution figures of 
all maps. This was due mainly to the opening of Highway 17 connecting Sault 
Ste. Marie with Port Arthur, for which map number T2800, showing general 
information along the highway, and plan number T2210, covering Lake Superior 
Provincial Park, were prepared, for the anticipated influx of tourists. 

A total of 32,865 copies of lithographed district and miscellaneous maps 
produced by this department were distributed, of which 1,750 copies were for 
the "official use" of this and other departments of the provincial and federal 
governments (see "Trend of Map Distribution Charts"). 

The map sheets of the National Topographic Series, produced and distributed 
by the Federal Department of Mines and Technical Surveys, as well as the 
sheets produced by the Army Survey Establishment Bureau of the Department 
of National Defence, Ottawa, for resale purposes, or for the "official use" of 
this and other departments of the Ontario Provincial Government, were distributed 
in the total quantity of 45,848 copies (see "Trend of Map Distribution Chart"), 
an increase of 8,855 copies over that of the previous fiscal year. Of the total 
distributed, 14,267 copies were supplied for the "official use" of this department, 
including district offices, by the E>epartment of Mines and Technical Surveys, 
without charge. 

The demand for copies of the Lake Simcoe and Trent Canal Nautical 
(Marine) Charts published by the Canadian Hydrographic Service, Ottawa, 

167 



continues to increase. 474 copies were distributed, but this figure is not shown 
in the total overall map distribution figure. 

The popularity of the provincial topographic lithographed map sheets on the 
scale of 2 miles to 1 inch continues to increase. These map sheets are produced 
by the Army Survey Establishment Bureau, Department of National Defence, 
Ottawa, for aerial photographic information made under the Forest Resources 
Inventory programme of the Timber Branch for this department. Due to other 
commitments, the conversion of mapping to the 1:50,000 scale, the Army Survey 
Estabhshment Bureau will not be able to produce any new sheets in this series 
for this department. 

Thirty-three thousand and eighteen (33,018) copies (see "Trend of Map 
Distribution Chart") of this series were distributed, an increase of 6,907 copies 
over that of the previous fiscal year. 

The summary of the total quantity of lithographed map sheets distributed is 
as follows: 

National Topographic Series ,— 78,866 

Map No. 20 2,523 

District Maps 10,755 

Map No. 33 A — Electoral 503 

Map No. 28 — Geographical Townships 584 

Miscellaneous Maps -— - 18,500 



Total 111,731 

A decrease of 100 "over the counter" individual cash sales was noted 
against that of the previous fiscal year, for a total of 7,900 transactions for the 
sale of lithographed map sheets, reproductions of survey records and other maps 
and plans. One thousand counter invoices for items sent out on credit were issued, 
being an approximate increase of 200 as compared to last year. Eight thousand 
seven hundred (8,700) letters of request from the public, covering similar 
transactions, were processed. 



Reproductions 

47,692 square feet of photographic reproduction paper was consumed for 
reproductions of maps and survey records for departmental work, the Survey 
Branches of the Ontario Hydro-Electric Power Commission and the Ontario 
Department of Highways, other provincial government departments and com- 
missions, Ontario Land Surveyors and the general public. This was 20,182 
square feet more than that used in the previous year. 

The consumption of sensitized paper used in the reproduction of various 
topographic map tracings, Crown land tracings and township prints, Georgian 
Bay Island map sheets, subdivision and summer resort plans of surveys, as well 
as other miscellaneous plans, by the dry process reproduction method, was almost 
doubled this year. A total of 461,740 square feet of sensitized paper and linen 
was consumed, which was 192,659 square feet greater than that used in the 
previous fiscal year. The quantity of transparent reproduction material used 
shows an increase over the amount used during the past fiscal year. A summary 
of the dry process material used is as follows: 

Blue or black line paper 437,054 square feet 
Transparent linen 5,625] 

Transparent plastic 2,268 ( 7,893 square feet 

Opaque linen 16,793 square feet 

Total 461,740 
168 



Reproductions required for mapping projects for this branch and various 
district offices, required to be produced photographically by commercial firms, 
are not included in the above figures. 

Map Mounting and Bookbinding 

The following work was handled by the map mounting and bookbinding 
staff maintained by this section for departmental requirements, including the 
preservation of old survey plans. 

Map Mounting 

New plans mounted 

Summer resort subdivision and composite — 334 

Miscellaneous lithographed maps and prints — for district offices 159 

— for head office 255 
Old plans remounted 

Original township surveys and patents plans 68 

Mining locations 363 

Archival plans and records 148 

Total: 1,327 
Bookbinding 

New bindings 

Field notes of current surveys 11 

Miscellaneous 18 
Rebindings 

Patent reference volumes 36 

Field notes 27 

Miscellaneous 7 



Total : 99 

Crown Surveys Records 

The use of original Crown survey records for reproduction or reference 
purposes by the Survey Branches of The Hydro-Electric Power Commission of 
Ontario, the Ontario Department of Highways, Ontario Land Surveyors in private 
practice and the general public, continues to increase. 

Six hundred and seventy-seven cards were typed covering plans being re- 
catalogued and filed in the Survey Record Catalogue along with 2,036 cards 
copied from information contained in the summer resort and mining location 
index book and filed in the Surveyor's designation number card index, by casual 
help employed for the summer months only. This completed the retyping and 
filing of these records. In addition, approximately 1,100 entries were made in the 
Surveyor's designation number card index of surveyed parcels, and change of 
file numbers. The returns of surveys of 152 plans of subdivisions made for 
summer resort purposes and 176 plans of miscellaneous surveys consisting of the 
surveys of pipe line right-of-ways, composite plans made on Crown lands, other 
than individual summer resort location surveys, as well as six books of field 
notes were registered, catalogued and filed. The returns of one Municipal Survey 
also were entered into the records. 

The refiling of all plans of surveys, with the exception of the plans of 
surveyed mining claims presently filed on current correspondence files, into the 
vertical filing system, was continued this fiscal year. Approximately 18,000 flat, 
current correspondence files and thousands of old docket files were examined. 
This completed the examination of, and removal of plans from the old docket 
files prior to 1916, in the Surveys Section vault. Approximately 24,000 plans 
of surveys, descriptions, field notes and affidavits were removed and refiled into 

169 




170 



the vertical filing system. This required the typing of approximately 10,000 filing 
labels, which was done partly by the summer casual help and partly by the full- 
time staff. All survey record material removed from the files was microfilmed. 
Certain series of old docket files were transferred to the Provincial Archives for 
permanent retention. 

Survey Party Equipment 

Four field survey parties under staff surveyors, carrying out summer resort 
location subdivision surveys, retracement surveys, and other miscellaneous surveys, 
were supplied and equipped for field work. Major equipment purchased for field 
use included one Theodolite, one vehicle, several chains and tapes and other 
miscellaneous items. 

The following quantity of survey monuments were distributed to various 
districts for the use of Ontario Land Surveyors on the staff or in private practice 
who were making individual or subdivision surveys for summer resort purposes on 
Crown land under instructions from the department, for municipal surveys being 
made under departmental instructions, or for other miscellaneous surveys. 



Iron Bars 






6 inch 


110 




24 inch 


1,322 




48 inch 


1,300 


Total 2,732 


Rock Posts 






Crown lands 




17 


Municipal 







Bronze Caps 






Crown lands 




1,654 


Municipal 




103 


Standard Posts 






Crown lands 




20 


Municipal 







Wooden Guide Posts 




1,600 



Accounts Payable, Supplies and Equipment 

Aporoximately 1,200 invoices and accounts payable were examined, checked, 
recorded and classified prior to passing to the Accounts Branch for payment. 
These were for travel and disbursements of members of the staff, purchases made 
for equipment, supplies, maintenance and other operating costs, and for surveys 
made on Crown lands by Ontario Land Surveyors in private practice. Eighty- 
four property receipts, transfers and write-off forms were prepared for the 
Equipment Inventory Records. Approximately 1,000 requisitions were prepared 
covering purchase of supplies and equipment, maintenance and other operations. 

LANDS SECTION 
Land Administration 

Continued study of Crown Land Administration resulted in several changes 
in legislation, regulations, policy and procedure to improve the efficiency of the 
Department operation and thus serve the public better. 

The policy of sale of land for recreational use according to registered plans 
of subdivision rather than as individual locations was again emphasized. The 
former method of sale permits immediate sale, whereas the latter requires a 
survey after an application is approved, resulting in delays up to six months before 
sale can be consummated. During the fiscal period under review approximately 

171 



75% of the total number of applications received were for lots shown on 
registered subdivision plans. 

The decentralization of summer resort sales to district offices mentioned in 
last year's report has proven satisfactory and was extended to include individual 
lots, the transfer and cancellation of sales, and the granting of extensions of time 
to fulfil building requirements. Head Office continues to prepare and issue patents. 

Several subdivision control areas were established under section 15(2) of 
The Public Lands Act. These will be studied carefully to select suitable locations 
for public use and plan proper subdivisions into lots for future disposition for 
summer cottage purposes. The Departments of Health and Municipal Affairs 
have continued to co-operate in providing the benefit of their experience in 
the establishment of subdivisions and other land use considerations. 

Following receipt of a report from the Department of Mines to the effect 
that the Lake of the Woods was a potentially valuable mineral area, the Depart- 
ment of Lands and Forests agreed to the staking, under The Mining Act, of 
islands having an area of 500 acres or more, subject to the reservation in all cases 
of the surface rights on 400 feet back from the shoreline of the lake. 

Several areas in territory without municipal organization were established as 
restricted areas under the provisions of section 16 of The Public Lands Act. 
This authority vests in the Minister the power to prevent the erection of dwellings 
and other buildings or the use of buildings by squatters on abandoned mining 
properties where lack of facilities such as roads, hydro, schools, churches, water 
and proper sewage disposal makes such occupation undesirable. 

Close liaison with the Department of Highways resulted in more positive 
control over sites adjacent to the King's highways for which authorities are issued 
by the Department of Lands and Forests for the purpose of construction camps. 
This will result in the removal of buildings and restoration of the site to more 
natural condition on completion of the project. 

Application for leasing of Crown lands for trailer parks may now be made 
if the land is within an organized municipality and the application is approved 
by the municipality and the local medical officer of health. 

Arrangements were concluded providing for the leasing of Crown land to 
the timber industry for logging communities, depot camps or other semi- 
permanent establishments not covered under The Crown Timber Act and 
regulations. 

The policy of leasing rather than selling land fronting on highways for 
commercial purposes was continued. Several leases issued for gasoline stations 
and motels in areas where these services are most required by the travelling 
public. In some cases the areas involved were offered for lease by public tender. 
Suitable locations on highways, such as Highway 17, are selected, marked on the 
ground and shown on maps for the purpose of easy identification and inspection 
by intending lessees. 

At the second Session of the 1960-61 Legislature, those sections of The 
Public Lands Act dealing with the disposal of Crown land for agricultural pur- 
poses, being sections 44 to 61, were repealed. Section 43b, enacted at the same 
Session, provided for the establishment of The Public Agricultural Lands Com- 
mittee. The chairman and members of the committee were appointed by the 
Minister and several meetings have been held to formulate policy and procedure. 
Selection of land suitable for agricultural use was confined largely to the Districts 
of Cochrane and Temiskaming, where, to date, some 200 lots have been inspected, 
soil-tested and classified as to agricultural suitability. 

In the matter of land disposition under the Ontario-Dominion Agreement 

172 



made under the Dominion Veterans' Land Act, which may be terminated during 
the next succeeding fiscal year, only 13 transactions were concluded. 

The graphs and tables forming part of this Section show the total number 
of all sales, assignments and cancellations made, and leases, licences of occupation 
and land use permits issued. 

The following table shows the area patented under The Public Lands Act 
and the area returned to the Crown. 



Acres 



Acres 



Area patented 
(including Quit 
Claim Patents) 



22,915.0757 



Total 22,915.0757 



Area returned by cancellation of sales 11,089.620 

Area returned by forfeiture under The 

Provincial Land Tax Act 16,459.113 

Area purchased by the Department of 

Public Works 1,671.560 

Total 29,220.293 



LAND USE PLANNING SECTION 



Introduction 



Land use planning in the Department of Lands and Forests has as its 
objective the making of plans for the best possible management of all the 
renewable natural resources of the Province of Ontario for which the Department 
is responsible, and seeing that these plans are integrated. Since the Ontario 
Government is committed to a policy of "Multiple Resource Use", land use 
planning is of paramount importance to all those who have the responsibility for 
natural resource management so that no part of the programme will be overlooked. 

This branch maintains a close liaison both in the field and at head office 
with other departments of government in its planning programme. 

Land Use Planning Guide 

During the year a guide for land use planning in the districts was formulated 
for the purpose of setting out in general terms the requirements in land use 
planning. The Guide is intended to provide the districts with a basic framework 
upon which to build the land use plan regardless of the stage of their planning. 

This work entailed visits on the part of the Supervisor of the Land Use 
Planning Section to all twenty-two districts in the Province at least once, and 
to some of them more than once, to discuss the preparation of the land use plan 
with the District Forester and his supervisors. 

Co-operation With Research Branch 

Wherever the information is available the districts are using a site classifica- 
tion, evolved by the Site Section of the Research Branch, as the technical 
foundation for their land use plans. This classification is set out in some detail 
in the report entitled "The Ecological Basis for Land-Use Planning" by G. A. 
Hills. This has only been made possible by years of research put into this report 
by the Site Section of the Research Branch. We are particularly fortunate in 
thus having available a unique site classification which classifies the sites according 
to use capabilities for the diff'erent natural resource uses. 

A very close liaison is maintained between the Land Use Planning Section 
and the Site Section. 



173 



Private Lands Liaison Committee 

This is an inter-departmental committee appointed by order-in-couacil, 
consisting of three members of the Department of Agriculture and three members 
of the Department of Lands and Forests, of which the Supervisor of the Land Use 
Planning Section is the chairman. One of the problems tackled by the Committee, 
which has a direct bearing upon the work of the Lands Section of this branch, 
was the sale of public lands for agricultural purposes. The Committee studied this 
matter and came up with a "Land Disposition Policy for Northern Ontario" 
which was accepted by the Government and resulted in an amendment to the 
Public Lands Act, whereby, in each district where an agricultural community 
exists, it is now possible to sell a parcel of land tailored to suit the requirements 
of the potential farmer. 

This has already resulted in a much improved system and should prevent 
a great many of the abuses that have taken place as a result of the sale of 
Crown lands for agricultural purposes in the past. 

Co-ordination of Recreational Zoning Plans 

During the year, as the result of a co-operative effort between the Lands 
Section and the Land Use Planning Section, a revision of instructions governing 
the functioning of the Recreational Land Use Planning Committees, was set up. 
This will result in reducing the number of zones and in providing a more uniform 
method of operation by the different districts across the Province. The respon- 
sibility for head office guidance at the district meetings and preparation of the 
recreational plans for the Minister's signature was placed in the Land Use Planning 
Section. 

Wilderness Areas 

A start has been made in establishing a representative number of nature 
reserves across the Province in each climatic region. The purpose is to preserve 
in their natural state "forest associations" which, of course, includes the habitat 
for wildlife. A number of recommendations have been received, and it is hoped 
that they will all be processed and the areas set aside as a representative group 
before the end of the next fiscal year. 

One wilderness area was established during this fiscal year under the 
Wilderness Areas Act of 1959, as follows: 

Item No. 88 Timber Island Wilderness Area 

This consists of 101 acres located in Lake Ontario in the 
Township of South Marysburg in the County of Prince 
Edward. This island was a gift to the Crown from Mrs. H. J. 
Cody of Toronto. The island contains 74 acres of timbered 
area representing an interesting picture of undisturbed forest 
development on the shallow limestone sites common in Prince 
Edward County. 
This brings the total number of wilderness areas established under the 
Wilderness Areas Act of 1959 to thirty-six. 

ENGINEERING SECTION 

Water Resources 
Approval of Dams 

The number of dams approved for construction pursuant to The Lakes 
and Rivers Improvement Act totalled 35 in the year April 1st, 1961, to March 

174 



31st, 1962. The approval of these dams involved the examination of 167 plans. 
One plan for alterations to a dam was examined and approved, one for a 
dike, diversion and settling basin, and two plans for a diversion of the Don River 
— a total of 171 plans having been examined during the year. 

Licences of Occupation 

Five licences of occupation for damsites and flooding rights were issued 
during the year. 

Eleven licences of occupation were cancelled; two because the rights therein 
contained were to be included in water power lease agreements to issue; one 
because the licensee no longer required the dam, power now being supplied by 
The Hydro-Electric Power Commission; two because the licence of occupation 
was conterminous with the expired water power lease agreement and a new 
licence is to issue; and six because the dams are no longer required due to the 
adoption of modern methods in the transportation of pulpwood. 

A further licence of occupation will be cancelled upon receipt of the 
District Forester's report on whether or not the dam should be retained as 
benefitting the Department in the areas of conservation, forst protection and fish 
and wildlife propagation. 

Five licences of occupation are in various stages of completion. 

Water Power Lease Agreements 

Water Power Lease Agreement No. 60 issued to Spruce Falls Power and 
Paper Company Limited for the Smoky Falls development in the District of 
Cochrane, being the second and final renewal lease of Water Power Lease No. 59. 

Water Power Lease Agreement No. 61 issued to The Algoma Steel Corpora- 
tion Limited for the water power development at Steephill Falls in the District 
of Algoma, replacing Water Power Lease Agreement No. 12 which expired with 
no right of renewal. 

Water Power Lease Agreement No. 62 issued to Great Lakes Power 
Corporation Limited for the water privilege designated as Location K.G.4, at 
Cedar Falls, on the Magpie River, District of Algoma. 

The installed capacity of all plants under Crown lease increased by 120,000 
horsepower during the year to a total of 4,500,490 horsepower as of March 
31st, 1962. 

Field Inspections 

Fifteen field trips were made to inspect the condition of dams, investigate 
complaints in regard to weter levels, make surveys of watersheds, and to attend 
meetings to discuss the operation of dams. 

Dam Reconstruction 

The reconstruction of ten dams was recommended to the Department of 
Public Works continuing the programme of rebuilding abandoned logging dams 
in the interests of forest protection, conservation and fish and wildlife propagation. 
Assistance was given to the Public Works engineers in determining a satisfactory 
regulated water level and obtaining stream flow and historical data useful in 
designing the new dams. 

Nine dam reconstruction or repair projects were completed and turned over 
to the Department of Lands and Forests for operation during the year 1961-62. 

175 



Buildings 

During this fiscal year there was an increase of approximately one-third in 
the number of "A" capital work orders over the previous year. 

Some of the major "ALF" construction projects carried out were as follows: 
residences at Outlet Beach Park, Darlington Beach Park, Samuel de Champlain 
Park, Kenora, and Gogama; maintenance buildings at Timmins and Samuel de 
Champlain Park; an extensive addition to the headquarters building at Port 
Arthur; office buildings at Elk Lake, Espanola, and White Lake; a boathouse at 
Port Burwell, and a packing shed at Orono. 

New and extended electrical services were provided by the Department of Public 
Works at the Maple Research Station and, following up on the discovery of a new 
major water supply, a new reservoir and waterworks system has been constructed. 

Hatcheries 

The construction of a fish-ladder at the Nicolston Dam on the Nottawasaga 
River near Alliston was completed and the structure placed in service. A last- 
minute modification was made by the addition of a trapping arrangement near 
the upstream end, including a special basket which can be raised by a hoist 
so that the fish can be removed, checked individually and tagged for future 
identification before being released upstream. The results were very gratifying; 
the ladder was used by a large number of migrant Rainbow Trout. 

At the Chatsworth Hatchery and Trout Rearing Station, active construction 
was commenced on the second phase of the renovation. A temporary diversion 
was established to carry the heavy flow from the springs, a large reinforced- 
concrete intake and screenchamber was formed and poured, a supply-main was 
installed from the headpond to the screenchamber, and fourteen 25-foot-diameter, 
reinforced-concrete circular ponds were formed and poured. Part of the new 
24-inch main drain was installed along with a part of the supply piping, and 
earth work was started for the four new natural ponds. 

At the Hill's Lake Hatchery and Trout Rearing Station, approximately 1,200 
feet of old reinforced-concrete supply flume was replaced with a buried, 36-inch- 
diameter asbestos-cement water main. This flume carries about 5,000 imperial 
gallons of water per minute to supply the entire station. 

At the Pembroke Hatchery and Trout Rearing Station, the extensive water 
collecting trenches which are the sole source of water for operation, were 
extended by approximately 1,000 feet. As a result, the available water supply 
was increased by approximately 30 per cent. In addition, a metering flume was 
installed complete with a recording flow-meter so that a continuous record may 
be kept of the total flow. 

At the White Lake bass ponds, a new water supply system was installed 
in the temporary hatchery building and six small holding tanks were installed 
near the building. 

Preliminary planning was continued for the proposed renovation of the 
Normandale (Walsh) Hatchery and Trout Rearing Station near Simcoe. 

Preliminary investigations were made for proposals to create sanctuaries 
for waterfowl on lands held by the Ontario - St. Lawrence Development 
Commission and also on lands held by the National Capital Commission. 

Access Roads — Land Acquisition 

Approval for expenditure of $268,000 was granted for maintenance of 
access roads. 

Requests were forwarded to the Department of Public Works for the 
acquisition of 36 properties required for departmental purposes. 

176 



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183 



AGRICULTURAL LAND 



The fiscal year ending March 31st, 1962 



Administrative 




Sales 


Cancellations 


Ass 


igrnments 


Patents 


District 


No. 


Acres 


No. 


Acres 


No. 


Acres 


No. 


Acres 


Cochrane 






1 


92.00 


2 


155.75 


19 


1590.116 


Fort Frances 






1 


203.00 






1 


63.32 


Kapuskasing 


1 


100.00 


18 


1491.60 


2 


174.50 


15 


1524.49 


Kemptville 














1 


100.00 


Kenora 


2 


244.81 


1 


75.45 






13 


1525.388 


Lake Erie 














1 


450.00 


Lake Simcoe 














1 


100.00 


North Bay 


1 


100.00 


2 


240.00 






9 


1177.80 


Parry Sound 






2 


201.00 






1 


98.02 


Pembroke 














2 


192.807 


Port Arthur 






7 


1004.25 






9 


1257.507 


Sault Ste. Marie 






6 


942.00 






1 


74.5 


Sioux Lookout 


1 


160.00 














Sudbury 


5 


497.00 


2 


240.00 






4 


525.21 


Swastika 






17 


1303.125 






15 


1187.69 


Tweed 






1 


100.00 






2 


400.00 


Totals 


10 


1101.81 


58 


5892.425 


4 


330.25 


94 


10266.848 



SUMMER RESORT 



The fiscal year ending March 31st, 1962 



Administrative 




Sales 


Cancellations 


Assignments 




Patents 


District 


No. 


Acres 


No. 


Acres 


No. 


Acre^ 


No. 


Acres 


Chapleau 


2 


1.29 










5 


10.66 


Cochrane 


22 


15.20 










25 


16.224 


Fort Frances 


50 


63.20 


3 


4.72 






41 


56.71 


Geraldton 


8 


5.25 










17 


20.27 


Gogama 


9 


18.05 










9 


18.22 


Kapuskasing 


16 


14.116 










11 


12.995 


Kenora 


131 


140.347 






2 


2.27 


156 


205.517 


Lake Erie 


43 


11.08 










47 


12.38 


Lake Simcoe 


51 


40.081 


4 


3.291 


2 


1.41 


57 


67.381 


Lindsay 


89 


76.712 


8 


10.06 


2 


1.31 


340 


337.4976 


North Bay 


92 


95.27 


6 


7.78 


1 


0.95 


116 


116.547 


Parry Sound 


337 


333.895 


15 


23.182 


10 


15.798 


647 


663.1021 


Pembroke 


51 


54.95 


1 


2.00 






63 


86.852 


Port Arthur 


80 


94.085 










77 


98.406 


Sault Ste. Marie 37 


40.159 


5 


5.62 






76 


104.00 


Sioux Lookout 


14 


19.48 


2 


6.43 






16 


23.812 


Sudbury 


181 


173.310 


6 


6.22 


3 


2.13 


303 


336.646 


Swastika 


25 


18.079 


1 


3.26 






37 


29.332 


Tweed 


132 


145.237 


4 


4.00 


2 


1.86 


163 


173.957 


White River 


21 


17.15 










28 


24.92 


Totals 


1391 


1376.941 


55 


76.563 


22 


25.728 


2234 


2415.4287 



184 






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185 



CITIES. TOWNS and TOWNPLOTS 
The fiscal year ending March 31st, 1962 



Administrative 


Sales 




Cancellations 




Patents 


Qaitdaim Deeds 


District 


No. 


Acres 


No. 


Acres 


No. 


Acres 


No. 


Acres 


Cochrane 


8 


1.073 


2 


0.186 


4 


0.844 






Fort Frances 










1 


0.17 






Geraldton 


27 


5.455 


8 


1.607 


22 


4.704 






Gogama 


8 


2.524 






3 


0.796 






Kapuskasing 


11 


2.976 


6 


3.235 


20 


4.946 






Kenora 


6 


4.662 






7 


8.382 






Lake Huron 


1 


0.081 






4 


20.651 


3 


1.34 


Lindsay 


1 


0.5 














Parry Sound 










1 


0.50 






Pembroke 


4 


1.313 






1 


0.148 






Saulte Ste. Marie 








1 


0.11 






Sioux Lookout 


7 


2.20 


1 


0.16 


8 


4.71 






Sudbury 


10 


9.312 






12 


10.214 






Swastika 


11 


8.114 


2 


0.34 


12 


3.438 






White River 


10 


1.70 


1 


0.18 


9 


1.63 






Totals 


104 


39.910 


20 


5.708 


105 


61.243 


3 


1.34 



FREE GRANT LAND 

RETURNED SOLDIERS AND SAILORS 

The fiscal year ending March 31st, 1962 



Administrative Cancellations 

District No. Acres 

Cochrane 2 153.5 

Kapuskasing 

Kenora 

Port Arthur 

Sudbury 

Swastika 6 678.00 



Patents 
No. Acres 



3 


308.401 


2 


209.093 


2 


184.60 


2 


256.00 


1 


80.00 


1 


79.75 



Totals 



8 



831.5 



11 



1117.844 



FREE GRANT LAND 
The fiscal year ending March 31st, 1962. 



Administrative Cancellations 
District No. Acres 

Cochrane 

Fort Frances 1 

Kenora 1 

Lindsay 1 

Parry Sound 33 

Pembroke 1 

Port Arthur 

Sault Ste. Marie 2 

Sudbury 

Swastika 

Tweed 4 



Patents 
No. Acres 



150.00 



155.64 






160.00 






100.00 


1 


50.00 


3250.67 


5 


558.00 


101.00 


1 


71.00 




2 


316.00 


178.00 








1 


81.20 




2 


240.125 


256.00 


1 


86.00 



Totals 



43 



4201.31 



14 



1552.325 



186 






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187 



PATENTS OFFICE 

Statement of Patents, etc. issued during the year ending March 31st, 1962 

Public Land Patents 2328 

Free Grant Patents 14 

Free Grant Patents Soldiers & Sailors 11 

Patents & Transfers (Town Lots) 108 

Miscellaneous Documents 198 

Release of Pine 14 2673 



Crown Leases 37 

Algonquin Park Leases 11 

Rondeau Park Lease 1 

Timagami Lease 1 

Water Power Lease Agreements 2 52 



Licenses of Occupation 71 71 



Licenses of Occupation Cancelled 62 

Crown Leases Cancelled 21 83 



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195 



LAW BRANCH 



Supervisor 

G. H. Fer^son 
Solicitor 



Solicitor 
D. A. Crosbie 



Solicitor 
Vacant 



Secretary 
M. D. Mackay 



Clerk Stenographers 

1. M. M. Bell 

2. E. E. Williams 

3. J. Purvis 



Patents Office 
Head Clerk. 
E. F. Eaton 



Principal Clerk 
B. P. Foster 



Clerks and 
Typists 

1. M. McLaren 
2.M. E. Webb 
3. I. Ross 



Senior Clerk 

Typist 
A. F. Tant 




196 



LAW BRANCH 



TRANSFER Of PATENTS OFFICE TO LAW BRANCH 

Effective October 1, 1961, the Patents Office, which formerly had been 
attached to the Lands and Surveys Branch, was transferred to the Law Branch 
in order that the work of that office, which is primarily a legal service, might be 
brought under the direct supervision of the Supervisor of the Law Branch. 

RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE LAW BRANCH 

Counselling: 

Advising upon the legal position of the Department in all matters affecting 
the Department. Interpretation of Statutes and regulations. 

Preparation of: 

Legislation, regulations, recommendations to Council, agreements, leases, 
licences, pleadings, office consolidations of statutes and regulations administered 
by the Department and briefs and memoranda on special subjects. 

Recording of Crown land transactions and preparation of title documents: 

Maintenance of records of Crown land, including sales, leases, licences, 
cancellations, forfeitures, etc., thereof and advising the public and others on such 
records; preparation and engrossing of title documents disposing of Crown land, 
including letters patent, leases and licences of occupation; compilation of statistics 
and incidental correspondence. 

Other Legal Services: 

Including settlement of claims and disputes, collection of bad accounts, 
conducting litigation, title searching and conveyancing. 

Legislation 

At the Session of the Legislature which convened on the 22nd day of 
November, 1961 and prorogued on the 18th day of April, 1962, The Game and 
Fish Act, 1961-62, The Gananoque Lands Act, 1961-62 and The Provincial 
Land Tax Act, 1961-62, were enacted and amendments were made to The 
Conservation Authorities Act, The Crown Timber Act, The Fish Inspection Act, 
The Forest Fires Prevention Act, The Forestry Act, The Provincial Parks Act, 
and The Public Lands Act. 

Notes On Legislation 

The Game and Fish Act, 1961-62 

The Game and Fisheries Act, which had been last revised in 1946, was 
completely rewritten to simplify the Act and to bring it into line with present 
administrative practices. 

197 



The Gananoque Lands Act, 1961-62 

This new Act provided for the disposition of a small parcel of land in the 
Town of Gananoque to the adjacent owners who have encroached thereon and 
to the Corporation of the Town of Gananoque. 

The Provincial Land Tax Act, 1961-62 

The Provincial Land Tax Act was completely rewritten for the purpose of 
bringing the Act in line with modern procedures and to adopt, where practicable, 
principles of The Assessment Act. 

The Conservation Authorities Amendment Act, 1961-62 

Clause d of section 1 of the Act was repealed and clause g of the said 
section was re-enacted to provide that "Minister" was defined as the member of 
the Executive Council designated by the Lieutenant Governor in Council to 
administer the Act. 

Subsection 7 of section 4 of the Act was repealed. 

Section 9 of the Act was re-enacted to provide for the situation where 
municipal status or boundaries are changed by annexation or amalgamation. 

Subsection 2 of section 10 of the Act was amended to apply to all 
municipalities. 

Complementary to an amendment to section 42, subsection 1 of section 
12 of the Act was amended to provide that where the Minister makes a grant 
to a conservation authority the Lieutenant Governor in Council may appoint the 
chairman of the authority. 

Subsection 1 of section 13 was amended by striking out "chief officer" in 
the first line. 

Subsection 2 of section 14 was repealed. 

Clause c of section 17 was re-enacted to provide that land could only be 
sold, leased or otherwise disposed of with the approval of the Lieutenant Governor 
in Council. 

Clause d of subsection 1 of section 20 was enlarged to permit regulations 
regulating or prohibiting the construction of buildings or structures or the dump- 
ing of fill in or on a pond or swamp or below the high-water mark of a lake, 
river or stream. 

Clause b and subclause i of clause c of section 21, subsection 1 of section 22, 
subsections 1 and 4 of section 24, subsection 1 of section 34, subsection 3 of 
section 37 and subsection 6 of section 38 were amended by striking out the 
references to "chief officer". In addition, subsection 3 of section 37 was amended 
by adding a person appointed by the Minister to the committee mentioned in 
the subsection and subsection 6 of section 38 was amended to provide that by- 
laws of municipalities mentioned in the subsection required the approval of the 
Minister. 

Section 4 1 a was added to the Act to require auditing of accounts of authorities 
by a person licensed under The Public Accountancy Act. 

Section 42 of the Act was re-enacted to provide that the Minister might 
make grants to an authority provided that such grants in any one year for any one 
purpose shall not exceed $10,000. 

The Crown Timber Amendment Act, 1961-62 

Section 14 of The Crown Timber Act was amended by adding thereto sub- 
section la which provided that for the purpose of subsection 1 of section 14 
of the Act, chips produced as a by-product of the manufacture of lumber shall 
be deemed to be manufactured into lumber. 

198 



Clause a of section 25 of the Act was amended to delete the requirement 
that a licensee shall file with the Minister an annual statement of measures to 
be taken to promote and maintain the productivity of the licence area. Subsection 
4 was replaced by a subsection authorizing the Minister to enter into agreements 
for such promotion and maintenance. 

The Fish Inspection Amendment Act, 1961-62 

Section 13 of The Fish Inspection Act was amended by adding thereto 
clause aa which provides for regulations prohibiting or regulating the marketing 
of fish that are not inspected or that are below any prescribed grade, quality or 
standard and to provide that any regulation made under the section may be 
limited to area, species of fish, time or otherwise. 

The Forest Fires Prevention Amendment Act, 1961-62 

Subsection 1 of section 14 of The Forest Fires Prevention Act was amended 
to provide for agreements with the Crown in right of Canada or any Province 
of Canada and any agency of any of them. Subsection 2 of the said section 14 
was repealed. 

The Forestry Amendment Act, 1961-62 

Qause c of section 1 of The Forestry Act was amended by striking out 
of the definition of "owner" the words "and includes the holder of a licence 
under The Crown Timber Act." 

The Provincial Parks Amendment Act, 1961-62 

Section 9 of The Provincial Parks Act was amended to add "conservation 
officers" to the list of officers who have, in a provincial park, the authority of a 
member of the Ontario Provincial Police Force. 

The Public Lands Amendment Act, 1961-62 

Section 2a was added to The PubHc Lands Act to confirm the policy that 
25 per cent of the remaining public lands that border on bodies of water shall 
be set aside and preserved for recreational and access purposes. 

Section 9 of the Act was amended to provide that the Minister would file 
the annual report with the Lieutenant Governor in Council and lay it before the 
Assembly. 

Subsection 1 of section 15 was re-enacted to extend the zoning principle 
to all public lands. 

Subsection 1 of section 17 of the Act was re-enacted to provide for supple- 
mental regulations respecting the terms and conditions of sale or lease of pubhc 
lands. New subsection la authorizes the Minister to fix terms and conditions in 
addition to those required by the regulations. By subsection 3a the Minister was 
authorized to dispose of lands not disposed of by public auction or tender. 

Subsection 2 was added to section 25 to permit the extension of the time 
for the performance of conditions of sale or leases in accordance with regulations. 

Section 26 dealing with the taking of possession of public lands occupied 
without authority was re-enacted for the purpose of strengthening these 
procedures. 

Section 67a was added to the Act to provide that the use of a public beach 
for travel is not sufficient to make it a highway. 

Section 73 of the Act which deals with one-quarter of land subdivided 
within five years of the Crown grant was re-enacted to strengthen the provisions 
of the section. 

199 



Effective Dates: 

The Game and Fish Act, 1961-62 will come into force on proclamation. 
The Provincial Land Tax Act, 1961-62 comes into force on January 1, 1963. 
Except subsection 2 of section 1, which came into force on December 15, 1961, 
The Conservation Authorities Amendment Act, 1961-62 and The Public Lands 
Amendment Act, 1961-62 came into force on April 18, 1962. The Crown 
Timber Amendment Act, 1961-62, and The Gananoque Lands Act, 1961-62 
came into force on March 30, 1962. The Fish Inspection Amendment Act, 1961- 
62, The Forest Fires Prevention Amendment Act, 1961-62, The Forestry Amend- 
ment Act, 1961-62 and The Provincial Parks Amendment Act, 1961-62, came 
into force on December 15, 1961. 



Regulations 

Forty-three regulations made under the authority of the Statutes administered 
by the Department of Lands and Forests were approved and filed during the fiscal 
year from April 1, 1961 to March 31, 1962. 

The following are the regulations which were approved and filed: 
The Conservation Authorities Act 



O.Reg. 69/62 — New 

The Forest Fire Prevention Act 

O.Reg. 117/61 — Amending O.Reg. 96/53 
O.Reg. 129 A/61 — New 
O.Reg. 235/61 — New 
O.Reg. 236/61 — New 

The Game and Fisheries Act 

O.Reg. 72/61 — Amending O.Reg. 243/60 



O.Reg. 
O.Reg. 
O.Reg. 
O.Reg. 
O.Reg. 
O.Reg. 
O.Reg. 
O.Reg. 
O.Reg. 

O.Reg. 

O.Reg. 
O.Reg. 



96/61 — Amending O.Reg. 34/56 

99/61 — New 
234/61 — New 
237/61 — New 
242/61 — New 
243/61 — New 
262/61 — New 
264/61 — New 
267/61 — Amending Reg. 201 of 

R.R.O. 1960 
271/61- Amending O.Reg. 242/61 



279/61 
280/61 



O.Reg. 281/61- 
O.Reg. 286/61- 
O.Reg. 300/61- 
O.Reg. 305/61- 
■O.Reg. 306/61- 
O.Reg. 320/61- 

'O.Reg. 321/61 
O.Reg. 322/61 

O.Reg. 345/61 

O.Reg. 347/61 

O.Reg. 352/61 



New 

Amending O.Reg. 242/61 

Amending O.Reg. 264/61 
Amending O.Reg. 237/61 
Amending O.Reg. 234/61 
Amending O.Reg. 170/61 
Amending O.Reg. 264/61 
New 



New — 

■ New and revoking Reg. — 

114 of R.R.O. 1960 
• Amending Reg. 203 of — 

R.R.O. 1960 

Revoking Reg. 192 of 

R.R.O. 1960 

New 



— Fill — Lower Thames Valley- 
Conservation Authority 

— Fire Districts 

— Closing Sioux Lookout Fire District 

— Closing Sioux Lookout Fire District 

— Closing Kenora Fire District 



— Open Season for Fur Bearers — 
Cochrane and Kenora Districts 

— • Fish Sanctuaries — Waters Set Apart 

— Open Season for Black Bear 

— Open Season for Deer and Moose 

— Open Season for Fur Bearers 

— Open Season for Pheasants 

— Open Season for Upland Game 

— Open Season for Rabbit and Squirrel 

— Hunting Licences 

— Use of Snares in Lennox and 
Addington 

— Open Season for Pheasants 



Open Season for Black Bear 

Open Season for Pheasants — Pelee 

Island 

Firearms 

Open Season for Beaver 

Open Season for Deer and Moose 

Crown Game Preserves 

Hunting Licences for Residents 

Open Season for Moose — Lake 

Superior Provincial Park 

Migratory Bird Hunting — Long Point 

Migratory Bird Hunting — Holiday 

Beach, Presqu'ile, etc. 

Sunny Lake Fish Sanctuary 

Hinterland Areas 



— Hunting on Crown lands in the town- 
ships of Bruton and Clyde 
O.Reg. 355/61 — Amending O.Reg. 281/61 — Restriction on Calibre of Firearms 



200 



O.Reg. 
O.Reg. 
O.Reg. 
O.Reg. 



19/62 
20/62 
25/62 
36/62 



O.Reg. 43/62 ■ 
The Provincial 

O.Reg. 257/61- 



— Amending Reg. 
R.R.O. 1960 

— Amending Reg. 
R.R.O. 1960 

— Amending Reg. 
R.R.O. 1960 

— Amending Reg. 
R.R.O. 1960 

— Amending O.Reg, 

Parks Act 

— Amending Reg, 
R.R.O. 1960 



The Public Lands Act 

O.Reg. 370/61 — Amending Reg. 

R.R.O. 1960 
O.Reg. 66/62 — Amending Reg. 

R.R.O. 1960 
O.Reg. 75/62 — Amending Reg. 

R.R.O. 1960 

The Surveys Act 

O.Reg. 266/61 — New 
The Wilderness Areas Act 
O.Reg. 268/61 — Amending Reg. 

R.R.O. 1960 
O.Reg. 35/62 — Amending Reg. 

R.R.O. 1960 

The Wolf and Bear Bounty Act 

O.Reg. 265/61 — Amending Reg. 
R.R.O. 1960 



203 of — Fish Sanctuaries — Waters Set Apart 

204 of — Fish Sanctuaries — Waters Set Apart 
188 of — Crown Game Preserves 

201 of —Use of Snares 

237/61 — Open Season for Rabbits 

499 of — Camp Site Permits 



524 of — Sale of Public Lands and Summer 

Resort Locations 
524 of — Prices of Subdivisions — Presqu'ile 

Provincial Park 
524 of —Sale of Public Lands 



— Prescribing Monuments 

567 of — Establishing Wilderness Areas 

567 of —Establishing Timber Island Wilder- 
ness Area 

569 of — Removing Bear Bounty 



ORDERS-IN-COUNCIL RECOMMENDED BY THE MINISTER Of 
LANDS AND FORESTS DURING THE YEAR 1961-62 

THE CONSERVATION AUTHORITIES ACT 
Numbers of Orders-in-Council 



596/62 


; 606/62 


; 683/62 


; 787/62 


; 904/62 


; 911/62; 


603/62 


; 666/62 


; 752/62 


; 901/62 


; 905/62 


; 935/62; 


605/62 


; 670/62 


764/62 
THE CRC 


903/62 
)WN TIMBER . 


907/62 
A^CT 








Numbers 


of Orders-in-Coi 


mcil 




1288/61 


3638/61 


; 4461/61 


; 166/62 


; 561/62 


; 1069/62; 


1364/61 


3868/61 


; 4462/61 


; 167/62 


; 562/62 


; 1070/62; 


1365/61 


3872/61 


4633/61 


209/62 


563/62 




1366/61 


3962/61 


4634/61 


210/62 


615/62 




1884/61 


4064/61 


4719/61 


211/62 


640/62 




1885/61 


; 4065/61 


4766/61 


212/62 


655/62 




1887/61 


4101/61 


4790/61 


269/62 


690/62 




1888/61 


4102/61 


4791/61 


274/62 


691/62 




1890/61 


4214/61 


4840/61 


362/62 


692/62, 




1941/61 


4216/61 


4841/61 


364/62, 


789/62 




2365/61 


4378/61 


4958/61 


366/62 


883/62 




2513/61 


4379/61 


5111/61 


378/62 


884/62 




2514/61 


4380/61; 


29/62; 


432/62; 


915/62; 




2515/61 


4385/61 


121/62; 


507/62; 


946/62; 




3211/61 


4386/61 


122/62 


508/62 


947/62 




3304/61 


4434/61 


125/62 


559/62 


948/62; 




3409/61, 


4435/61; 


128/62; 


560/62; 


1068/62; 





201 



THE EXECUTIVE COUNCIL ACT 
Numbers of Orders-in-Council 



1378/61 


2516/61; 


4058/61; 


78/62 


1999/61 


3097/61; 


4548/61; 


88/62 


2088/61 


3586/61; 


4957/61; 


604/62 


2476/61 


3588/61; 


53/62; 





2310/61; 



THE FINANCIAL ADMINISTRATION ACT 
Numbers of Orders-in-Council 



1391/61 

3210/ei 

916/62 



THE FINES AND FORFEITURES ACT 
Numbers of Orders-in-Council 



1886/61; 



THE FOREST FIRES PREVENTION ACT 
Numbers of Orders-in-Council 



THE GAME AND FISHERIES ACT 
Numbers of Orders-in-Council 



1678/61 
2538/61 


3126/61; 
3137/61; 


3493/61; 
3494/61; 


3935/61; 
4090/61; 


4415/61 
4515/61 


2772/61 


3335/61; 


3801/61; 


4104/61; 


4531/61 


2789/61 


3469/61; 


3868/61; 


4117/61; 


355/62 



506/62; 



5075/61; 



THE LAKE OF THE WOODS CONTROL BOARD ACT 
Numbers of Orders-in-Council 



3129/61; 
3154/61; 



3437/61; 

4547/61; 



MISCELLANEOUS 
Numbers of Orders-in-Council 



4574/61; 
5076/61; 



208/62; 
289/62; 



414/62; 
509/62; 



4067/61; 
645/62; 



THE MUNICIPAL ACT 
Numbers of Orders-in-Council 



THE 

198/62; 



ONTARIO NORTHLAND TRANSPORTATION COMMISSION ACT 
Numbers of Orders-in-Council 



THE PARKS ASSISTANCE ACT 
Numbers of Orders-in-Council 



894/62; 
908/62; 
S09/62; 



202 



3104/61; 



THE PROVINCIAL PARKS ACT 
Numbers of Orders-in-Council 



THE PUBLIC LANDS ACT 
Numbers of Orders-in-Council 



1363/61; 


3202/61 


4238/61 


4743/61 


1676/61; 


3896/61 


4377/61 


4763/61 


1680/61; 


3963/61 


4446/61 


4789/61 


1682/61; 


4063/61, 


4463/61 


4794/61 


2081/61; 


4131/61 


4464/61 


4923/61 


2085/61; 


4180/61 


4481/61 


4956/61 


2087/61; 


4194/61; 


4484/61 


5109/61 


2186/61; 


4206/61 


4533/61 


5110/61 


2374/61; 


4217/61 


4540/61 


42/62 


2713/61; 


4218/61 


4642/61 


43/62 


3149/61; 


4224/61 


4658/61 


135/62 


3155/61; 


4237/61 


; 4742/61 


; 164/62 



170/62, 


620/62 


197/62, 


641/62 


270/62 


790/62 


279/62 


791/61 


363/62 


821/62 


370/62 


885/62 


407/62 


886/62 


428/62 


910/62 


457/62 


1015/62 


564/62 


1067/62 


567/62 


1071/62 


568/62 


; 1094/62 



3303/61; 
4938/61; 
5075/61; 



3136/61; 



3138/61; 

474/62; 



3135/61; 



THE PUBLIC SERVICE ACT 
Numbers of Orders-in-Council 



THE SURVEYS ACT 
Numbers of Orders-in-Council 

THE WILDERNESS AREAS ACT 
Numbers of Orders-in-Council 



THE WOLF AND BEAR BOUNTY ACT 
Numbers of Orders-in-Council 



Total number of Orders-in-Council — 242 

(Orders-in-Council passed under two statutes are shown in both lists). 



Federal-Provincial Co-operative Agreements 



1. Forest Inventory, Reforestation Nurseries 

By an agreement dated July 20th, 1961, between the Government of Can- 
ada as represented by the Honourable Hugh John Flemming, Minister of Forestry, 
and the Government of Ontario as represented by the Honourable J. W. Spooner, 
Minister of Lands and Forests, the agreement of January 28th, 1952, as amend- 
ed by the agreement of December 20th, 1956, regarding forest inventory, re- 
forestation and nurseries, v^^as extended to the 31st day of March, 1962. The 
amending agreement provides that no payment shall be made by Canada in 
respect of claims made after the 30th day of September, 1962. 



203 



2. Management of Forestry Lands owned by the National Capital Commission 
By an agreement dated the 16th day of August, 1961, between the Minister 

of Lands and Forests and the National Capital Commission, made pursuant to 
the provisions of The Forestry Act, the forestry lands of the Commission de- 
scribed in the agreement and additional forestry lands from time to time are 
placed under the administration of the Department of Lands and Forests for 
management for forestry purposes at the expense of the Province until the 31st 
day of March, 2011, In addition to forestry management parts of the land may 
be developed for public recreational purposes provided the Commission is agree- 
able to the use of the part to be developed. 

Land may be returned to the Commission upon payment by the Commission 
of the expenses of the Province less any revenue, but not including interest. Upon 
expiration or termination of the agreement the Commission will pay to Ontario 
the expenses of the Province less the revenue, without including interest, and if 
there is an excess of revenue above the expenses the excess will be paid to the 
Commission without interest. The agreement provides for meetings every two 
years to review the agreement and the action taken thereunder. 

3. Forest Fires Protection on Indian Reserves 

By an agreement dated the 31st day of July, 1961, between the Govern- 
ment of the Province of Ontario as represented by the Honourable J. W. Spooner 
and the Government of Canada as represented by the Honourable Ellen L. Fair- 
clough, Minister of Citizenship and Immigration, it was agreed that Ontario 
would do all things necessary to extinguish grass, brush or forest fires occurring 
on Indian reserves and surrendered lands as defined by the Indian Act within 
the fire districts of Ontario and assume the full cost of the prevention and con- 
trol of such fires. Prevention and detection services shall be the same as Ontario 
provides for adjacent public lands. Where a fire originates on a part of an 
Indian reserve or surrendered land that is held under a timber licence by a 
person who is not an Indian, Canada shall pay Ontario the full cost incurred by 
Ontario in controlling and extinguishing the fire. For the services provided Can- 
ada shall pay to Ontario 2c an acre except the acreage which is held under 
timber licence by non-Indians. For the year 1961 the acreage was 873,297 
acres with a payment of $17,465.94. The agreement provides that the annual 
payments made by Canada will be adjusted due to changes in the acreage of 
Indian reserves, surrendered lands and licensed areas. 

4. Forest Access Roads and Trails 

By an agreement made in January, 1962, between the Government of Can- 
ada as represented by the Honourable Hugh John Flemming, Minister of Forestry 
and the Government of Ontario as represented by the Honourable J. W. Spooner, 
the agreement of the 9th of March, 1961, respecting the construction of forest 
access roads and trails and the sharing of the cost thereof, was extended to the 
31st day of March, 1962. 

5. Management of Renewable Resources in Northern Ontario 

By an agreement made the 24th day of January, 1962, between Her Ma- 
jesty the Queen in right of Ontario as represented by the Honourable J. Wilfrid 
Spooner, Minister of Lands and Forests and Her Majesty the Queen in right of 
Canada as represented by the Honourable Ellen Loucks Fairclough, Minister of 
Citizenship and Immigration, Ontario and Canada agreed to a programme to 
replace the ten-year joint fur resource programme inaugurated in 1950 which 
programme is designed to improve the livelihood of persons resident in the re- 

204 



mote or under-developed areas of the Province, many of whom are Indians. The 
agreement covers the period from April 1st, 1962 to March 31st, 1972, and 
may be terminated by one-year's written notice. The agreement is primarily 
applicable to the Bruce Peninsula and that part of Ontario lying north and west 
of the southerly boundary of the Parry Sound and Pembroke Forest Districts. 
The agreement applies to development, management and harvesting of the 
following resources: 

(a) Commercial fishing including all aspects of sustained yield production 

and quality control; 

Fishing and hunting for domestic use; 

Sports fishing and hunting, including instruction and assistance to 

guides and outfitters, and public hunting on Indian Reserves on a 

fee basis; 

Wild rice, blue cherries and other wild crops; 

Forestry, including pulp or lumber production, forest fire protection 

and training in relation thereto; 

Processing and marketing of products, including fur, derived from the 

resources which are the subject of this agreement. 
The agreement provides for an advisory committee of five members, three 



(b) 
(c) 



(d) 

(e) 

(f) 




A Conservation Officer checks hunting licences, Lindsay District. 

205 



from Ontario, one of whom shall be the chairman. It is a duty of the advisory 
committee to advise Ontario and Canada with respect to development, manage- 
ment and cropping of the renewable natural resources including, where necessary 
or expedient in the interest of primary producers, the processing and sale of such 
products and the distribution of the proceeds amongst the persons for whose 
benefit the development programme has or will be undertaken. The committee 
will submit an annual programme and a budget and Ontario will, provided 
monies are appropriated therefor by the Legislature, undertake the administra- 
tion, supervision and management of the programmes or special projects and will 
expend $200,000 annually. Provided monies are appropriated by Parliament, 
Canada will pay Ontario $50,000 annually for administration and supervision 
expenses plus 50% of all other expenses of the programmes and projects pro- 
vided the total amount payable by Canada does not exceed $100,000 or 50% 
of the amount actually expended, whichever is the lesser. The agreement pro- 
vides that administration and supervision costs may include salaries and expenses, 
including air transportation, in whole or in part, of overseers, conservation offi- 
cers, management officers, biologists, and others who by agreement are engaged 
in the supervision and management of resource programmes other than fur. It 
also provides that other costs may include field investigations directed to man- 
agement, including taking of animal censuses; lake examinations to determine 
the safe level of production; management research and fur marketing projects; 
transfers of live fur-bearing or game animals; restocking with fish and applica- 
tion of such other rehabilitation techniques as will bring development projects 
more quickly into sustained yield production; shore installations such as ice houses, 
packing sheds and docks for the primary production of round or dressed fish in- 
cluding where necessary, living accommodation for seasonal staff; purchase or 
rental of boats, canoes, motors and other patrol or camp equipment used by 
supervisors, inspectors or research personnel; such other and additional items as 
are included in the advisory committee budget and approved by the parties to 
the agreement. The agreement provides for a study of processing and marketing 
facilities which, if undertaken, will be carried out under supplementary agree- 
ments. Fish processing plants, establishments for fur marketing, or plants for 
processing and storage of any product will only be established where private 
companies have failed or refused to do so after being given a reasonable oppor- 
tunity to undertake the work at their own cost without subsidy or guarantee. 

The agreement provides that subject to cancellation and any treaty or statute, 
the principle of previous use and occupation will be continued to be applied in 
the allocation of trapping, commercial fishing and wild crop harvesting rights. 
It was further agreed that licences for the commercial harvesting of resources 
will be issued only to primary producers and that individuals who do not person- 
ally participate in producing or harvesting at the primary level shall not be eligible 
for any licence which governs the production or the harvesting of the resources 
v/hich are subject to the agreement. The agreement provides that Indians shall 
be liable to the payment of all licence and other fees. Ontario agrees that where 
suitably trained Indians are available it will give consideration to employment of 
such Indians in connection with the programme. 

Canada may appoint a field officer for liaison purposes. 

6. Campgrounds and Picnic Areas 

The winter works programme respecting the development of campgrounds 
and picnic areas was continued for the period from October 15, 1961 to May 
31, 1962 on the terms and conditions applied in previous years. 

206 




One of 3,341 groups to whom Department personnel gave lectures or showed films 

during the past fiscal year. 




-^jn^Wm^i 



rX 



•,""«'' 






J 









Lands and Forests won four awards in the AACI competition. See under Publications 

and Films for details. 

207 




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01 FICE MANAGEMENT 

Sub-Section Supervisor 
A. F. Madore 




Ijl 


Equipment Inventory 

B. Holway 
Circular Production 

& Clerical 

Mrs. N. J. Johnson 

Miss A. Henry 

Personnel Staff Records 

and Seasonal Staff 

Requirements 





PURCHASING 

Sub-Section Supervisor 
G. A. Harper 




General Procurement 

W. H. Smith 

Purchase Order 

Preparation 

Mrs. M. Davidson 

Purchasing Clerk 

'.Mrs. M. Harvey 

Stock-Card Records 

Clerk 

Mrs. M. Buck 

Invoice Accounting 

.Miss M. Turner 





■K%^ 


== g 


f^ffl ^ 


Im Rec 
McGly 
s. J. M 

ss Mess 


ass 



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208 



OPERATIONS BRANCH 

GENERAL ORGANIZATION 

As of March 31, 1962, Operations Branch was composed of four sections: 

1. Office Management Section 

2. Central Supply Warehouse Section 

3. Conservation Information Section 

4. Conservation Education Section 

1. Office Management Section directs most of the purchasing for the Depart- 
ment, generally, including all pertinent aspects such as tenders, quotations, cur- 
rent catalogue prices and the study of ever-changing products. The Section is 
responsible for — the inventory and control of office furniture and equipment; 
the condition of all office machines of the Department; the processing of all 
requisitions of stationery supplies for the Department; the control of supply and 
demand for uniforms; and the liaison required in the organization of conferences, 
meetings, etc. 

2. Central Supply Warehouse Section is charged with the receipt and main- 
tenance of stock, the keeping of stock records, and the supply of equipment. 

3. Conservation Information Section issues weekly news and special press 
releases; operates a photograph, slide and cut service; handles a large volume 
of correspondence and personal enquiries on the use of renewable, natural re- 
sources; prepares special articles and background material for outside agencies; 
prepares and places both display and classified advertisements; maintains a ref- 
erence library; and publishes more than 100 books, pamphlets and reports for 
Department use and general distribution. 

4. Conservation Education Section is responsible for the production and man- 
agement of Department displays and exhibits throughout the Province (including 
the Canadian National Exhibition); for poster contests for school children; for 
the production of motion picture films dealing with fire control, timber products, 
fish and wildlife resources and parks; for preparation and delivery of lectures 
or discussions in schools and camps; and for radio and television broadcasts. 



OFFICE MANAGEMENT SECTION 
Purchasing Subsection 

This subsection, charged with procurement of supplies and services for the 
department throughout the province, experienced a widespread activity, covering 
purchasing and its related aspects as well as other diversified duites. 

In the period under review, there were received some nine-thousand-odd 
requisitions for supplies and services, which was the basis for the issuance of 
3,658 direct purchase orders, 1873 Queen's Printer stationery orders, 493 Queen's 
Printer printing orders and 324 Public Works requisitions. 

In an analysis of work performed, the following activities were as prom- 
inently noted as heretofore: 

209 



1. Receipt and recording of all requisitions from head office and regional 
and district offices, requiring decision as to what could be supplied from 
stock and what was to be ordered; 

2. quotation calls, opening of same in committee and recommendations; 

3. investigation and procurement procedures for all purchases, including 
also preparation of direct purchase orders and requisitions to the Queen's 
Printer and the Department of Public Works, and expediting of same; 

4. maintenance of accurate inventory control; 

5. liaison between this department and the Department of Public Works 
for office and other space requirements throughout the province and for 
which leases and rentals are arranged and other related matters attended 
to; 

6. supervision of telephone and lighting demands, moving and other internal 
and external office requirements; 

7. arrangements for accommodation, travel, conferences, etc; 

8. correspondence, preparation of reports; 

9. special assignments. 

Correspondence, telephone and interviewing are media which were employed 
extensively. 

This subsection was on the alert for new items and trends in office equip- 
ment and supplies and developments on existing ones. District and head offices 
were kept informed of these matters and their suppHers where it was deemed 
warranted, and descriptive sheets and catalogues were suppHed to the afore- 
mentioned offices. 

Office Management Subsection 

Office Management Subsection was responsible for office services and the 
preparation of estimates which included equipment and supplies, stationery and 
office outfitting, travel, maintenance and operating, payrolls, uniforms, pubUca- 
tions and public appeals. 

2. The inventory of all major equipment in the province belonging to the de- 
partment. This included trucks, cars, boats, canoes, power plants, shop equip- 
ment, tools, fire hose, outboard motors, office machines, etc. There were some 
2,000 power units including mobile, marine and stationary. 

3. Invoices covering all purchases for head office and field offices were pro- 
cessed in this subsection as to fair price, confirmation of proper item, and actual 
receipt of material. The invoices were then coded to proper vote and item and 
forwarded to the Accounts Branch for processing and payment. 

4. Circulars and Bulletins. All circulars and bulletins required by the depart- 
ment were processed through this section after they were approved by the Cir- 
cular Board. This involved the cutting of stencils, the follow-up through the 
duplicating room, and distribution. All revisions of circulars and bulletins in 
effect in the branch were carried through by this section, including an annual 
review to publish a list of the circulars and bulletins to be retained in effect. 
This involved close study and checking with all other branches as it might affect 
them. 

5. Uniforms. There were approximately 1,500 approved personnel in uniform 
on the staff of this department including seasonal Parks staff. A continuous 
record was kept of each individual's uniform account which was checked against 

210 



requisitions for uniform items, and requisitions were approved according to scale 
of issue. Included in the estimates for the coming fiscal year must be an accurate 
estimate of funds required for the uniform programme. An application for each 
item of uniform was sent to the manufacturer together with measurement chart. 
Constantly changing problems such as size, fit and type, of individual require- 
ments had to be resolved. 

6. Records. Records pertinent to all Crown Lands of the province were con- 
trolled through the Records Office. Assembly, indexing and classification of all 
incoming correspondence, compiling of new files and distribution to the offices 
in which officials required any particular files, were the main responsibilities of 
this office. There were approximately 500 files sent out and returned in any 
given day. Every new letter pertaining to any of 300,000 files was recorded, 
sent to the pertinent offices for handling, and finally added to the proper file for 
record. During the current fiscal year, record files up to and including all plans 
and surveys to the end of 1915 were microfilmed. 

7. Boat Licensing. This subsection was responsible through the Federal De- 
partment of Transport for the processing of applications for licences for all de- 
partment boats. Some marine units of the department required only a licence 
number, and others required registration showing home port, tonnage, dimensions, 
etc., depending on the specifications of the marine unit in question. Specifications 
of the boats supplied to this section were used to prepare the necessary applica- 
tions for licences including tonnage, etc. 

8. Special Assignments. Because of the nature of the work, there was almost 
a daily demand for services where immediate action and organization were re- 
quired. 

CENTRAL SUPPLY WAREHOUSE SECTION 

This section is responsible for receipt of stock, housing and distribution of: 
stationery supplies, all fish and game licences, uniform articles to our Head Office 
and districts throughout the province. 

A cross-section of statistics is outlined below as a guide to the volume of 
work handled by the Central Supply Warehouse. 

Stockroom 

Tonnage received from April 1, 1961, to March 31, 1962:- 

Ton Cwt. Lbs. 



290 5 85 

Shipments were made by express, freight, transport and mail, also the internal 
supply to department offices throughout the city. 

Tonnage shipped from April 1, 1961, to March 31, 1962:- 

Ton Cwt. Lbs. 



253 9 20 

Distribution and Collating 

Distribution and collating of material are essential and integral parts of this 
section which includes collating, stapling and distribution of: circulars, bulletins, 
acts, bills, technical reports, weekly newsletters. Fish and Wildlife Review, Re- 
source Management Report, Land Tax Bills, fishing summaries, hunting sum- 
maries, game cards, etc. 

211 



Statistics from April 1, 1961, to March 31, 1962:- 

Information Bulletins 63,175 

Circulars 24,415 

News Releases 113,048 

Extracts from Fishery Reg. 10,483 

Land Tax Act 10,832 

Game and Fishery Act & Fishing Reg. 38,056 

Summary Hunting Reg. 339,935 

Land Tax Bills 38,300 

Provincial Parks Book 43,610 

Book Covers and Letters 173,181 

Miscellaneous Distributions 341,379 

Total — 1,196,414 



Licence Issuing Room 

There were over thirty various types of hunting, angling, trapping, trap-line, 
guide, frog, dip-net, roll net, and bait fish Mcences issued to licence issuers and 
our own district offices throughout the province. Certain licences were also sent 
to issuers in the U.S.A. 

The quantities of licences received from the printers varied from 500 to 
550,000 each. The number of licences prepared and checked for mailing and 
express totalled 1,392,043 and were forwarded from 13,577 invoices to over 
2800 issuers. 

In addition to the foregoing, 197,700 Provincial Park Annual Vehicle En- 
trance Permits, 362,700 Daily Permits, 265,500 Camp-Site Permits and 293,000 
Fur Seals were distributed. 

Uniform Room 

The Department's uniform stockroom is also located in this section. A stock 
of replacement uniform articles are carried and issues are shipped to personnel 
as authorized by requisition. 



CONSERVATION INFORMATION SECTION 

The Section disseminates information concerning Department operations and 
the conservation of the renewable, natural resources under Lands and Forests 
administration. It works through many media to bring to as many people as 
possible a better understanding of Department policies and conservation prin- 
ciples. 

News 

The Lands and Forests news release is mailed every week to all newspapers 
and all radio and television stations in Ontario. Its circulation of 2,100 includes 
class magazines, outdoor writers, conservation groups and hunters' and anglers' 
clubs and associations. It is popular with outside agencies because it delivers 
news, opinions and governmental regulations in a form easily adapted for im- 
mediate use; its contents are frequently reprinted with little or no editorial change. 

The use of news release material by publications and outdoor writers in the 
United States contributes to Ontario's tourist trade. Relatively short items have 
been expanded into feature articles in large-circulation magazines. 

The news release lists coming conventions and other events of interest to 

212 



sportsmen, naturalists, conservationists and professions and industries concerned 
with aspects of Lands and Forests administration. 

News of more than normal urgency is given immediate public notice by 
spot press releases which go directly to important news outlets. 

Correspondence 

The Section answers requests for information on such subjects as hunting 
and fishing regulations, camping facilities, tourist accommodation, summer cot- 
tage properties, and the purchase and planting of forest tree seedlings; many of 
these requests come from the United States. In addition, students and teachers 
at schools and universities apply for information of a scientific nature. Visitors 
at the larger fairs and exhibitions apply for printed material at Lands and Forests 
information centres. 

During the fiscal year, the Section returned 30,000 answers by mail, an in- 
crease of 800 over the previous year. This total does not include the numerous 
requests for information answered in person and over the telephone. 

Photographs 

The Section operates a darkroom and a photograph library which contains 
approximately 18,000 black-and-white 8" x 10" photographs, 3,000 colour 
(35mm) transparencies, 200 ektachrome (4" x 5") transparencies, and a stock 
of half-tone and line cuts used in Lands and Forests publications. The library 
provides sets of transparencies for use in lectures on fish species and tree species 
and 175-piece sets of black-and-white prints for identification of trees and shrubs. 

During the fiscal year, the library loaned approximately 9,000 black-and- 
white prints to newspapers and magazines, 900 transparencies to lecturers and 
text book publishers, and 100 cuts to publishers. 

Appeals 

Special appeals are prepared by the Section for news media to enlist public 
support of Department programmes, principally in the fields of forest fire pre- 
vention and hunter safety. 

During the past year, the Section placed 52 administrative advertisements 
in 35 newspapers to call for tenders on timber cutting, etc. 

Articles 

The concentration of conservation messages is increased by special services 
performed for outside agencies. Articles are written on request for newspapers 
and magazines when the subject is related to some aspect of Lands and Forests 
operations; illustrative photographs are usually supplied to attract reader interest. 
Background material is supplied on request to outside writers and commentators. 

Department personnel are often invited to address meetings of sports clubs, 
conservation groups and service organizations. The material for a number of 
these addresses is prepared by Section staff. 

Library 

The Section's reference library contains copies of all Lands and Forests 
literature and a variety of books, periodicals and press clippings; it includes early 
reports and legislative journals dating from 1856. 

213 



Publicaiions 

The Department was honoured at the 1962 annual meeting of the American 
Association for Conservation Information by the award of two First prizes and 
one Third prize for Lands and Forests publications in a competition including 220 
entries from 46 States and six Provinces. 

First Place awards were won by Meet the Wildlife of Ontario's Outdoors, 
a booklet with colour drawings for school children, and Highlights, 1961 , the 
condensed version of the Annual Report of the Minister, clarified with charts 
and drawings for public distribution. The Third Place award went to Mammals 
of Ontario, a cover for text books, approved for distribution to schools by the 
Department of Education. 

Department booklets, leaflets and folders cover many aspects of Lands and 
Forests operations, providing information of interest to the general public and to 
special groups. As new material becomes available, new titles are issued and 
old ones are revised to meet the ever-growing demand for information. 

Annual Report of the Minister (Part I) presents a detailed account of 
Department operations during the preceding fiscal year as prepared by separate 
branches and sections. A Statistical Reference of Lands and Forests Administration 
is a pocket-size book which gives a record of the administration across the past 
few decades. 



List of Publications 

(*Indicates publications issued during the 1961-62 fiscal year.) 
CONSERVATION AUTHORITIES 
Conservation Authorities Act 
Conservation Reports 
Conservation Authorities in Ontario 

FISH AND WILDLIFE 

Sport Fishes of Ontario (Chart in Colour) $1.00 

Population Studies of Ring-Necked Pheasants on Pelee Island 

(Wildlife Series, No. 4) $2.00 

Game Birds Need Cover 

Guide's Manual $0.25 

Fishing in Lake Simcoe - $2.00 

Ten Commandments of Gun Safety 
Why Hunter Safety Training? 
Trapper's Manual (revised) 

* Biological Investigations of Traplines in Northern Ontario, 1951-56 

(Wildlife Series No. 8 — Summary for Trappers) 
*The Lake Sturgeon 
*The Game and Fisheries Act and The Ontario Fisheries Regulations 

* Summary of Ontario Trapping Regulations 

* Summary of Ontario Hunting Regulations 

* Summary of Ontario Fishing Regulations 
*Extract from Ontario Fishery Regulations (Poster) 

FOREST PROTECTION 

Forest Protection in Ontario 
Wings Over Ontario 
Operation: Survival in the Woods 
*The Forest Fire Prevention Act 

* Early Days 

214 



LANDS AND SURVEYS 

List of Water Powers -. $0.75 

List of Geographical Townships $0.50 

A Second Look at Aerial Surveys 

Ontario Resources Atlas $1.00 

Price List of Lithographed Maps and Plans 
Lands for Settlement 
Summer Resort Lands (revised) 
*Crown Surveys in Ontario 

LAW 

Complete Set of 21 Acts Administered by the Department (without binders) $5.00 

OPERATIONS 

A Teacher's Guide to Forest Conservation 

Meet the Wildlife of Ontario's Outdoors $0.35 

Camping in the Muskoka Region $2.00 

How to Survive in the Woods 
Camping Safety Folder 
Dictionary of Terms 
*The Birch Bark Canoe 
*Brief Messages 

*Common Trees (spruce, white pine, jack pine, yellow birch, sugar maple) 
*Common Birds (Bluebird, Black-capped Chickadee and White-throated 
Nuthatch, Flicker, Evening Grosbeak, Rose-breasted Grosbeak, Song 
Sparrow, White-throated Sparrow, and Scarlet Tanager) 
♦Common Mammals (Beaver, Black Bear, Coyote, Red Fox, Muskrat, Otter, 
Cottontail Rabbit, Squirrels, Timber Wolf, and Woodchuck or Ground- 
hog) 
*Annual Report of the Minister of Lands and Forests 
Part I — Detailed 
Part II — Highlights 
*A Statistical Reference of Lands and Forests Administration 
♦Administrative Branches Chart 
*List of Publications for Distribution 

(The following reprints of articles in Sylva, Your Lands and Forests Re- 
view, discontinued in February, 1961, were still available.) 
Snakes Alive 
The Massasauga Rattler 
The Ontario Tree Seed Plant 
Forests for the Future 
The White Bass 
The Yellow Perch 
The Lake Trout 
The Northern Pike 
The Lake Sturgeon 
The Carp 

The Rainbow Trout 
The Smallmouth Bass 
The Largemouth Bass 
The Atlantic Salmon 
The Aurora Trout 

PARKS 

Algonquin Story $2.00 

Algonquin Provincial Park 
*Quetico Provincial Park 
*Wasaga Beach Provincial Park 
*Canoe Routes — Algonquin 
*Canoe Routes — Quetico 
♦Provincial Parks of Ontario (revised) 

Provincial Parks in Ontario (Canadian Geographical Reprint) 

A Guide to Anglers in Algonquin Park 

So You Want to Go Camping? 

Check List of Birds — Algonquin 

Check List of Birds — Rondeau 

Check List of Trees, Shrubs and Woody Vines — Algonquin 

215 



Check List of Trees, Shrubs and Woody Vines — Rondeau 

Check List of Ferns, Fern Allies and Herbaceous Flowering Plants — 

Algonquin 
Check List of Ferns, Fern Allies and Herbaceous Flowering Plants — 

Rondeau 
Check List of Mammals — Algonquin 
Check List of Fishes, Amphibians and Reptiles — Algonquin 

PERSONNEL 

*Ontario Forest Ranger School Prospectus 

*Ontario Forest Ranger School (Information Brochure) 

♦Ontario Forest Ranger School Year Book 

RESEARCH 

Currents and Water Masses of Lake Huron (Res. Rep. No. 35) 

An Experiment with Wrapping Materials for Bales of Nursery Stock 

(Res. Rep. No. 37) 
Forest Research in Ontario 
An Experiment on Culling and Grading of White Spruce Nursery Stock. 

Part A: The Percentage of Cull (Res. Rep. No. 38) 
Experimental Planting of Tubed Seedlings (Res. Rep. No. 39) 
An Underplanting and Release Experiment, 1954-58 (Res. Rep. No. 40) 
A Field Test of Dunemann Stock (Res. Rep. No, 41) 
Forest Site Evaluation in Ontario (Res. Rep. No. 42) 

The Shaping of Pine Trees by Pruning and Shearing (Res. Rep. No. 43) 
♦Moisture Relations of Nursery Stock (Res. Rep. No. 45) 
The Classification of Biotic Site 

Rapid Germination of White Pine Seed (For. Chron. Sept. 59) 
Identification of Forest Soils on Aerial Photographs 

(For. Chron. Mar. 59) 
A Summer Field Grafting Technique for White Pine (For. Chron. 59) 
The Effect of Photo Period on White Pine Seedling Growth 

(For. Chron. June 61) 
Regional Site Research (For. Chron. Dec. 60) 
Natural Layering of Black Spruce B.S.P. in Northern Ontario 

(For. Chron. Sept. 61) 
Forest Tree Breeding and Genetics in Canada (Genetics Soc. Can. 58) 
II miglioramento del pioppa nel Canada Orientale 

(Cellulosa e Carta, 9-3-58) 
The Hybrid Pinus pence Griseb. x Pinus Strobus (Silvae Genetica, 58) 
Soil-Forest Relationships in the Site Regions of Ontario 

(N.A. Conf. East Lansing, Mich. 59) 
Soil-Forest Relationships in the Site Regions of Ontario 

(For-Soil Conf. Sept. 58) 
Comparison of Forest Ecosystems (Vegetation and Soil) in Different 

Climatic Zones (Silva Fennica. 60) 

The Glackmeyer Report of Multiple Land-Use Planning $4.00 

Some Effects of Smelter Pollution North East of Faleonbridge, Ontario 

(Can. Jour. Bot. 60) 
The Influence of Smelter Fumes on the Chemical Composition of Lake 

Waters Near Sudbury and upon the Surrounding Vegetation 

(Can. Jour. Bot. 60) 
The Survival of Yearling Lake Trout Planted in South Bay, Lake Huron 

(Can. Fish. Cult. 23.58) 
Further Observations on the Survival of Yearling Lake Trout Planted in 

South Bay (C.F.C.26.60) 
A Modified Roller Press for Scale Impressions (Can, Fish. Cult. 26.60) 
Variation in Vertebral Count in F2 Hybrids of Salvelinus Fontinalis x S. 

Namaycush (Can. Fish. Cult. 26.60) 
Homing Behaviour in Spawning Lake Trout (Can. Fish Cult. 26.60) 
Short-term Storage of Brook Trout Milt (Prog. Fish-Cult. 59) 
Use of Tricaine Methanesulfonate (M.S. 222) in Transport of Live Fish 

Without Water (Prog. F-C. Oct. 59) 
The First Filling of Swim Bladder in Salmonoids (Can. J. Zool. 38.60) 
The Preferred Temperature of Fish and Their Midsummer Distribution in 

Temperate Lakes and Streams (Jour. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 58) 
Studies on River-Spawning Populations of Lake Trout in Eastern Lake 

Superior (Am. Fish Soc. Publ. 87.58) 
Survival and Growth of Tagged Lake Trout in South Bay, Lake Huron 

(Trans. Am. Fish Soc. 89.60) 

216 



Selectivity of Gill Nets for Lake Whitefish (Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 89.60) 

The Use of Lead Versenate to Place a Time Mark on Fish Scales 
(Trans. Am. Fish Soc. 89.60) 

Some Relations Between Air Temperatures and Surface Water Tempera- 
tures of Lakes (Limn, and Ocean. July 59) 

Tularemia among Muskrats, Walpole Island 
(Can. Jour. Comp. Med. May 59) 

Wildlife Management and Sylvatic Rabies in Ontario 
(Can. Soc. W & F Biologists. 59) 
*The Ecological Basis of Land-Use Planning 

TIMBER 

Manual of Scaling Instructions 

Manual of Timber Management, Part 4. Timber Marking for Special 

Cutting Operations $0.50 

Forest Resources Inventory Reports 

No. 1 North Bay- 
No. 2 Temiskaming 

No. 3 Cochrane 

No. 4 Kapuskasing 

No. 5 Geraldton 

No. 6 Port Arthur 

No. 7 Algonquin 

No. 8 Parry Sound 

No. 9 White River 

No. 10 Sudbury 

No. 12 Chapleau 

No. 13 Gogama 

No. 14 Fort Frances 

No. 15 Kenora 

No. 16 Sioux Lookout 

No. 17 Kemptville 

No. 18 Tweed 

No. 19 Lindsay 

No. 20 Lake Simcoe 

No. 21 Lake Huron 

No. 22 Lake Erie 

No. 23 Potentially Exploitable Area 

No. 24 Normal Yield Tables 

No. 25 Cull Studies 
Reforestation in Ontario 
The Farm Woodlot 
Woodlot Improvement 
Planning for Tree Planting 
Care and Planting of Forest Trees 
Forest Tree Planting 
Manual of Seed Collecting 

Forest Trees of Ontario $0.50 

Hardwood Trees of Ontario $0.50 

Fifty Years of Reforestation in Ontario $0.50 

The G. Howard Ferguson Forest Station 
*Orono Forest Station 
*Midhurst Forest Station 
*Johnny Acorn Says 
♦The Timber Acts 
*A Manual for Forest Tree Nursery Soil Management $5.25 

CONSERVATION EDUCATION SECTION 

Conservation Education Section conducts an educational programme which 
consists of the type of appeals calculated to attract public interest and explain in 
easily understandable terms the need for the wise use of the renewable natural 
resources. 

Visual Education 

Head Office Film Library now contains 250 titles, with two or more prints 
of many of the titles. All films are available for loan to Field Offices upon request. 

217 



During the year more than 500 requests were filled, and these consisted of from 
one to six titles each. 

Thirteen 16 mm sound projectors with 12" speakers were purchased for 
replacement in the Field. Each District has its own projector, and it has access to 
Regional Film Libraries as well as Head Office Film Library. Three new 35 mm 
slide projectors were purchased during the year. 

This Section loaned 16 mm motion picture projectors, 35 mm slide projectors, 
screens and films to the Provincial Parks offering an interpretive programme to 
the public during the summer months. 

16mm Film 

Several thousand feet of motion picture film is available for use on television 
and is used by T.V. outlets throughout the Province. The section produced four 
new colour/sound films entitled "Parks for the People" — 22 minutes; "Shore and 
Water Birds" — 15 minutes; "Creatures of the Forest — 14 minutes; and "Wings of 
the Wild" — 14 minutes. The film "Parks for the People" was awarded First Prize 
by the American Association for Conservation Information in competition with 
52 other Provinces and States. 

During the year, the following films were added to Head Office and Field 
Film Libraries: 

"Air Tanker Attack" 

"Beaver Valley" 

"Creatures of the Forest" 

"Field Trip to a Fish Hatchery" 

"The Forest Grows" 

"Helicopters in Fire Control" 

"Life in the Woodlot" 

"Muzzleshy" 

"Parks for the People" 

"The Pond" 

"Quetico" 

"Safety on the Water" 

"Shore and Water Birds" 

"Smoke and Weather" 

"Time and Terrain" 

"Wings of the Wild" 

Radio and Television 

Radio and television stations throughout the Province have been most generous 
in their donations of free time to the Department, and Districts regularly take 
advantage of these opportunities to reach the public. In addition to radio 
programmes, several Districts now conduct regular, live television broadcasts of 
their own. The Section also supplies Districts with films for use on television. 

Exhibits 

Visual conservation appeals are featured in the Department's exhibit at some 
seventy-five of the most popular shows and fairs in Ontario. The major exhibits 
were as follows: 

Canadian National Exhibition — Toronto 

Many new improvements were made to our exhibit area in the Ontario 
Government Building this year. Some new displays were added, such as the 
portable Forest Protection, Small Boat Safety and Hunter Safety Panels, and one 
depicting Dutch Elm Disease. The actual making of canoe paddles and axe 

218 



handles by an Indian, was featured in the outdoor trappers' wild fur display. 
Other displays featured were Timber Management, Parks, Forest Protection, game 
fish, snakes, animals, birds and the Children's Poster Contest. A nature trail was 
arranged on the mound with cages containing small animals and various species 
of trees were planted, and these were identified by sign cards for the viewing 
public. 

The Conservation Poster Contest for Elementary School children from six to 
fourteen years of age was held again this year. A Grand Prize of $100.00 was 
presented for the best poster. First, second and third prizes, in each of three age 
groups, in amounts of $50.00, $25.00 and $15.00 were awarded. Thirty Honour- 
able Mentions, ten in each age group, were presented with books. 

Canadian National Sportsmen's Show — Toronto 

Our exhibit featured Hunter Safety Theatre, Trapper's Wild fur display, and 
Smokey Bear. The actual making of canoe paddles and axe handles by an Indian 
was featured in the wild fur display. The new Hunter Safety Cartoon Panels 
and the Small Boat Safety Panels were also used. Fish, animals and birds were 
also on display. 

Central Canada Exhibition — Ottawa 

A display depicting woodlot management was featured. Fish and animals 
were also on display. 

International Plowing Match — Belleville 

Woodlot Management was the theme of this exhibit, with a tree-planting 
demonstration. Animals were also displayed. 

Timmins' Sportsmen's Show — Timmlns 

This exhibit featured a Fish and Wildlife display of furs, fish, game and 
Hunter Safety. Forest Protection was also featured. 

Royal Agricultural Winter Fair — Toronto 

The new Timber Management Models depicting "Thinning Plantations Pays", 
"Wood Provides Employment" and "Good Woodlot Management Pays" and five 
panels identifying important wood species. Four cages of animals were also 
displayed. 

Full co-operation was given the District Office at Port Arthur for the 
Canadian Lakehead Exhibition held in Port Arthur and the North-Westem 
Sportsmen's Show in Fort William. 

Lecture Tours 

Officers of the Department keep in constant touch with the public through 
fish and game associations, schools, church groups, service clubs and youth organi- 
zations. Illustrated lectures are given on all aspects of the Department's work. 
The following table provides a summary of the public lectures delivered by Head 
Office and Field Staff during the fiiscal year. A summary of lecture tours which 
were carried out by the Ontario Forestry Association during the same period is 
shown below the Department figures. 

219 



Region 


District 


School Meetings 
No. Attend 


Public 
No. 


Meetings 
Attend 


Total 
No. Attend 


Western 


Fort Frances 
Kenora 
Sioux Lookout 


23 
6 


965 
1157 


75 
35 
10 


4165 

3601 

370 


98 
35 
16 


5130 
3601 
1527 


Mid- 
Western 


Geraldton 
Port Arthur 


3 

7 


163 
255 


28 
68 


2223 
8853 


31 
75 


2386 
9108 


Northern 


Cochrane 

Kapuskasing 

Swastika 


85 

26 

5 


15364 

2951 

338 


29 
35 
48 


1001 
2076 
3245 


114 
61 
53 


16365 
5027 
3583 


Central 


Chapleau 
Gogama 
S.S. Marie 
Sudbury- 
White River 


3 
12 

7 

10 

9 


150 
647 

183 

636 

1478 


12 
27 
51 
40 

7 


487 

541 

2779 

3503 

800 


15 
39 
58 
50 
16 


637 
1188 
2962 
4139 
2278 


South- 
Central 


North Bay- 
Parry Sound 


28 
83 


2857 
3931 


53 

86 


2530 
3164 


81 
169 


5387 
7095 


South- 
Eastern 


Kemptville 
Lindsay 
Pembroke 
Tweed 


34 
60 
20 

177 


2653 
2890 
2333 
8500 


160 
203 
165 
222 


9797 
13485 
19569 
11775 


194 
263 
185 
399 


12450 
16375 
21902 
20275 


South- 
western 


Lake Erie 
Lake Huron 
Lake Simcoe 


69 

8 

133 


5093 

748 

10665 


464 
280 
435 


33266 
12658 
24231 


533 

288 
568 


38359 
13406 
34896 


Ontario Forestry Association 






406 


58442 


406 


58442 




TOTALS 


808 


63957 


2939 


222561 


3747 


286518 



220 




A happy scene in Blue Lake Provincial Parle, Kenora District. 




This view oi Marten River Provincial Park, North Bay District, shows how attractive 

a camper's life can be. 



221 




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222 



PARKS BRANCH 

RESPONSIBrilTIES AND FUNCTIONS 

Provision, operation and maintenance of provincial parks as public recreational 
lands with facilities necessary for uses in keeping with the park environments; 

Examination of potential park areas; 

Submission of recommendations regarding potential and proposed provincial 
park areas to the Ontario Parks Integration Board; 

Production of detailed master plans for provincial parks; 

Development of provincial parks in accordance with the master plans; 

Design and construction of provincial park structures and buildings; 

Establishment, operation and maintenance of interpretive programmes and ex- 
hibits in provincial parks of natural and /or historical significance; 

Collection, compilation and assessment of provincial park statistics. 

In 1961 a total of 77 provincial parks were open for public use. In addition 
there were five provincial parks under development and 13 areas reserved for 
future development. 

Again, an increase in provincial park use was experienced in a 9% visitor 
increase to 6,215,000 and an increase in the numbers of campers of 23% from 
592,103 to 862,559. In addition, wilderness campers using canoe routes increas- 
ed their numbers by 62% to a total of 57,992. 

With the assistance of the Federal /Provincial Unemployment Relief Pro- 
gramme the development of provincial parks was continued with a total expendi- 
ture of $1,320,523.03 of which 50% was contributed by the Federal Govern- 
ment. In addition a total of $1,500,000.00 was available for park development 
and land purchases. This year, provincial park development included the addi- 
tion of 43 miles of park roads, 1,266 campsites, 83 acres of picnic area, 88 
wells, 34 boat docks and launching ramps, more than 400 earth-type toilets, 
27 change houses and three flush-type comfort stations. Through the facilities 
of the Department of Reform Institutions 5,400 picnic tables and 4,310 fireplace 
grills were constructed for provincial park use. 

Complete interpretive programmes of museums, conducted trips, illustrated 
lectures and labelled trails were continued in Algonquin, Rondeau, Sibley, 
Presqu'ile and Quetico Provincial Parks. The Sibbald Memorial Museum was 
again in operation in Sibbald Point Provincial Park as was the Nancy Island 
Museum at Wasaga Beach Provincial Park. The labelled trail at Remi Lake 
Provincial Park was continued and at Inverhuron Provincial Park an interpretive 
trail incorporating a new labelling technique was introduced. A programme of 
conducted trips, outdoor film presentations and a labelled trail was introduced 
at Pinery Provincial Park by the interpretive staff of Rondeau Provincial Park. 
The geology exhibit at Craigleith Provincial Park was again displayed. These 
programmes and interpretive facilities, designed to familiarize visitors with the 
natural features and /or historical backgrounds of these provincial parks were 
used, this year, by 399,167 park visitors, an increase over the previous year 
of 6%. 

223 



With the termination of the archaeological investigations at Serpent Mounds 
Provincial Park, active interpretation was discontinued with plans for the presenta- 
tion of a permanent exhibit centre next year. 

In keeping with the multiple-use concept of land use and with full regard 
for park values and interests, hunting was continued in certain provincial parks 
and extended to include other selected provincial parks. 

Waterfowl shooting, during the regular open season, was permitted in Ron- 
deau, Presqu'ile and Holiday Beach Provincial Parks on a seasonal permit basis 
of $4.00 per hunter in each park. At Darlington Provincial Park, 15 blinds 
were constructed and rented at a daily rate of $2.00 with restrictions limiting 
the number of hunters to two per blind and the number of shooting days to 
three per week. During the season, 787 gunners used seasonal permits while 420 
rented blinds to provide a total of 1,207 waterfowl gunners. 

Pheasant shooting of stocked birds was introduced in Sibbald Point, Dar- 
lington and Presqu'ile Provincial Parks. The season was open for live weeks 
with a daily shooting fee of $5.00 per hunter and restrictions limiting the hours 
of shooting to the period, 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., the daily bag limit to three 
birds and the numbers of hunters at any one time to 25, 12 and 10 in Sibbald 
Point, Darlington and Presqu'ile Provincial Parks, respectively. During the season, 
379 gunners bagged 612 birds of 809 released in the three provincial parks. 

The hunting of moose and deer in the Townships of Bruton and Qyde, 
which had been included in Algonquin Provincial Park in 1960, was permitted 
to continue but was organized and controlled by a system of regulated hunting 
camp permits. During the open season, 50 permits at $20.00 each represented 
364 hunters who took 124 deer and 28 moose. In addition a zone was established 
for daily hunters at no charge. 

Based upon a high moose population determined by aerial survey, moose 
hunting was permitted in Lake Superior Provincial Park during the regular open 
season with no special permit other than the regular hunting licence. From 
sample returns, a kill of at least 70 moose was reported. 

The provision of facilities for winter sports activities was continued in three 
provincial parks. In Kakabeka Fails Provincial Park, more than 40,000 visitors 
enjoyed the skating and tobogganing. Although there was some tobogganing in 
Darlington Provincial Park, skating on the bay was the chief activity. On each 
of several Sundays, more than 1,000 cars were noted in the Park and of interest 
is the number of people w'ho came to watch the skating. More than 6,000 visitors 
took part in skating, tobogganing and skiing in Pinery Provincial Park where, 
although all five toboggan runs and the ski slopes were busy on Sundays, the 
skating was the most popular. 

Of the total of 77 provincial parks which were open to the public in 1961, 
vehicle entry permit fees were charged in 70 and campsite permit fees were 
charged in 68. Seven provincial parks were open without fees. Fees in provincial 
parks were revised to increase the seasonal vehicle entry permit from $2.00 to 
$3.00. The daily vehicle entry permit at fifty cents was continued as was the daily 
campsite permit fee of $1.00. The weekly campsite permit fee of $5.00 was 
abandoned. 

In order to avoid boat parking congestion in provincial parks and to protect 
recreational wilderness values in the larger provincial park interiors, regulations 
were established to prohibit the leaving of unattended boats in provincial parks 
except in areas provided for the purpose. This regulation is to became effective 
in Algonquin Provincial Park in 1962. 



224 



TABLE NO. 1 

PROVINCIAL PARKS ESTABLISHED 
(as of March 31. 1962) 



Administrative 

District Name of Park Date Established 

Lake Erie Clay Creek Sept. 29, 1958 

Holiday Beach Oct. 6, 1958 

Ipperwash June 24, 1938 

John E. Pearce June 25, 1957 

Long Point May 3, 1921 

Pinery Oct. 11, 1957 

Rock Point June 25, 1957 

Rondeau May 5, 1894 

Turkey Point April 21, 1959 

Chapleau Five Mile Lake Sept. 29, 1958 

Cochrane Greenwater June 25, 1957 

Kettle Lakes June 25, 1957 

Fort Frances Caliper Lake July 22, 1960 

Quetico April 1, 1909 

Geraldton Klotz Lake July 22, 1960 

Blacksand July 22, 1960 

Gogama Ivanhoe Lake June 25, 1957 

Kapuskasing Nagagamisis June 25, 1957 

Remi Lake June 25, 1957 

Kemptville Silver Lake Sept. 29, 1958 

South Nation July 22, 1960 

Kenora Aaron Sept. 29, 1958 

Blue Lake July 22, 1960 

Rushing River Sept. 29, 1958 

Sioux Narrows June 25, 1957 

Lindsay Darlington Oct. 30, 1959 

Emily June 25, 1957 

Mark S. Burnham July 26, 1955 

Presqu'ile May 18, 1922 

Serpent Mounds June 25, 1957 

Lake Simcoe Bass Lake June 25, 1957 

Sibbald Point Dec. 23, 1957 

Six Mile Lake Feb. 24, 1958 

Springvirater Sept. 29, 1958 

Wasaga Beach Aug. 31, 1959 

North Bay Marten River July 22, 1960 

Parry Sound Grundy Lake April 21, 1959 

Sturgeon Bay July 22, 1960 

Pembroke Algonquin May 27,1893 

Port Arthur Arrow^ Lake June 25, 1957 

Inwood ; Sept. 29, 1958 

Middle Falls July 22, 1960 

Sibley Jan. 13, 1944 

Sault Ste. Marie Lake Superior Jan. 13, 1944 

Sudbury Fairbank June 25, 1957 

Windy Lake April 4, 1959 

Swastika Esker Lakes June 25, 1957 

Kap-Kig-Iwan June 25, 1957 

Tweed Black Lake Sept. 29, 1958 

Lake on the Mountain June 25, 1957 

225 



TABLE NO. 2 

PARKS IN OPERATION AND PENDING ESTABLISHMENT 
(as of March 31. 1962) 

Administrative 

District Name of Park 

Lake Erie St. Williams 

Port Bruce 

Fort Frances Lake of the Woods 

Geraldton MacLeod Lake 

Rainbow Falls 

Lake Huron Craigleith 

Inverhuron 
Sauble Falls 

Kemptville Fitzroy 

Murphys Point 
Rideau River 

Lake Simcoe Devils Glen 

Earl Rowe 

North Bay Antoine 

Finlayson Point 
Samuel de Champlain 

Parry Sound Mikisew 

Killbear Point 
Oastler Lake 
Restoule 

Pembroke Carson Lake 

Driftwood 

Port Arthur Kakabeka Falls 

Sault Ste. Marie Batchawana Bay 

Pancake Bay 

Sioux Lookout Pakwash 

Ojibway 

Sudbury Chutes 

Tweed Lake St.. Peter 

Outlet Beach 
Sandbanks 
Bon Echo 

White River White Lake 



226 



TABLE NO. 3 



SALE OF VEHICLE PERMITS AND CAMPSITE PERMITS 



Administrative 

District 
and Park Name 


1958 


Vehicle Permits 
1959 1960 


1961 


1958 


Campsite Permits 

1959 1960 1961 



Lake Erie 

Rondeau 24535 27447 

Ipperwash 13794 12210 

Long Point 2362 2636 

Holiday Beach 6202 8839 

Clay Creek 929 1095 

St. Williams 1042 666 

Pinery 18899 

Rock Point 
Turkey Point 

Chapleau 
Five Mile Lake 

Cochrane 

Kettle Lakes 2478 3471 

Greenwater 

Fort Frances 

Quetico 1922 2168 

Caliper Lake 764 1231 

Lake of the Woods 

Geraldton 

Helen Lake 727 

MacLeod Lake 357 1198 

Rainbovi^ Falls 180 281 

Klotz Lake 72 261 
Blacksand 

Gogama 

Ivanhoe Lake 

Lake Huron 

Craigleith 2900 3486 

Sauble Falls 4052 4814 

Inverhuron 5169 

Kapuskasing 

Remi Lake 705 1235 

Nagagamisis 

Kemptville 

Silver Lake 3405 3496 

South Nation 4342 4240 

Rideau River 3207 6251 

Fitzroy 

Kenora 

Aaron 844 795 

Blue Lake 645 1002 

Rushing River 2750 3510 

Sioux NarroviTS 530 868 

Twin Lake 658 

Lindsay 

Presqu'ile 15832 16783 

Emily 2767 5417 

Serpent Mounds 1891 3792 
Darlington 



27282 

11787 
2574 

11788 
1228 
1120 

18446 



3361 



30559 
11291 

6962 
12905 

1496 

1084 
23537 

1137 
994 

137 



3087 
498 



3148 
4747 
2714 



5285 
6165 
4177 

86 

5275 



5686 6970 

5854 5441 

4113 5096 

198 

260 526 



9102 



2264 2570 

1555 1076 

842 1174 



1279 985 

274 2655 

199 152 

277 942 



522 



452 

737 



533 
182 
121 

428 



724 



826 
1154 



623 

162 
907 



942 



12646 

267 

1369 

236 



853 
351 



1178 1529 

1435 1634 

78 166 



132 



3442 
4814 
4961 



1408 



4134 
4937 
9344 



1283 
1080 
4354 
1454 



235 



3832 
4844 
5805 



1718 
407 



3883 
4580 
9280 
3509 



1626 

1057 

2977 

626 



15284 16517 

5702 6454 

4798 6115 

4270 8817 



2552 
2605 



219 



2161 

1105 

648 



576 
500 
2222 
560 
512 



4632 
659 
582 



4083 
3389 
2884 



603 



2624 
1301 
2024 



657 

821 

2922 

1171 



7828 
1864 
1700 



821 
311 
901 
399 



123 



3852 
3053 
4437 



778 



3237 
1373 
3111 



1043 
1235 
3105 
1622 



7864 

2649 

3214 

262 



1015 

7892 

660 

2161 



269 



4140 
3297 
5283 



875 
516 



4017 
1335 
3257 
1853 



2014 
1757 
3615 
1492 



8504 
3323 
3904 
2006 



227 









TABLE 1 


NO. 3 
















(Cont'd.l 










SALE Of VEHICLE PERMITS 


AND 


CAMPSITE PERMITS 




Administrative 

District 
and Park Name 


1958 


Vehicle 
1959 


Permits 
1960 


1961 


1958 


Campsite 
1959 


Permits 
1960 


1961 


Lake Simcoe 
Bass Lake 
Devils Glen 
Sibbald Point 
Springwater 
Earl Rowe 
Six Mile Lake 


5006 

2780 

14375 

13584 


7217 

2754 

24214 

13876 


6926 
2687 
24380 
13572 
2409 
2640 


7209 
2496 
28307 
13174 
2756 
3563 


2919 

674 

5442 


4188 

839 

9351 


4568 

875 

9098 

908 
2334 


5013 

879 

10566 

1353 
3533 


North Bay 


















Finlayson Point 
Marten River 
Antoine 
Samuel de 
Champlain 


621 

2120 

720 


851 

2249 

856 


995 
1997 
1051 


844 

1929 

497 

2172 


1098 

3214 

271 


1574 

3731 

835 


2003 
2973 
1236 


2076 

3633 

640 

1234 


Parry Sound 


















Sturgeon Bay 
Oastler Lake 
Grundy Lake 
Mikisew 
Killbear Point 


1000 

3135 

661 


1028 
4120 
1244 

793 


1321 
4007 
2264 
1037 
1180 


1489 
4016 
3554 
1297 
2004 


1346 
3162 
1259 


2007 
4556 
2793 
1036 


1726 
4208 
3544 
1858 
1891 


2305 
4634 
5458 
2089 
4738 


Pembroke 


















Algonquin 
Carson Lake 
Driftwood 


42385 
185 
913 


43991 

149 

1404 


48609 

205 

1470 


49430 

583 

1721 


12553 

1176 

391 


15759 
1560 
1178 


17526 
1213 
1554 


21040 
1498 
1780 


Port Arthur 


















Sibley 

Middle Falls 
Shuniah 
Kakabeka Falls 
Inwood 


3112 
2811 

897 
6120 

709 


3262 

2886 

1809 

10898 

304 


1919 

2895 

1864 

13288 

508 


4693 
4091 
2389 
27605 
1439 


680 
693 
391 
704 
846 


889 
1164 

801 
1081 

550 


1090 
1122 
1026 
1666 
652 


3074 
2642 
2985 
4088 
1823 


Sault Ste. Marie 


















Pancake Bay 
Lake Superior 


480 


1076 


1230 
803 


4944 
5816 


466 


1227 


1405 
782 


6681 
8069 


Sioux Lookout 


















Frog Rapids 
Perrault Falls 


52 
153 








149 
299 








Sudbury 

Windy Lake 
Fairbank 


2020 
502 


4219 
1196 


3930 
1700 


4089 
1902 


802 
232 


1165 
1238 


921 
1987 


861 
3067 


Swastika 


















Esker Lakes 
Kap-Kig-Iwan 


1000 


1156 
2195 


1300 
1883 


1393 
1559 


145 


534 
578 


860 
861 


893 
739 


Tweed 


















Black Lake 
Lake St. Peter 
Mazinaw 
Outlet Beach 
Bon Echo 


1065 
634 
391 


2183 

936 

398 

13838 


2014 

883 

316 

13249 


1793 
780 

15227 
2418 


890 

1082 

762 


2067 
1577 
1045 

1777 


1966 

1217 

934 

2485 


2017 
1255 

3684 
2171 


Other Offices 


428 


97 




5 










TOTALS 


207751 


292459 


320205 


392707 


74763 


124355 


148527 


216975 



228 









TABLE 1 


NO. 4 














RECORD OF 


PARK 


USE 








Administrative 


















District 




Total 


Visitors 






Total < 


Campers 




and Park Name 


1958 


1959 


1960 


1961 


1958 


1959 


1960 


1961 


Lake Erie 


















Rondeau 


692453 


673439 


693631 


642020 


12823 


20320 


24726 


30703 


Ipperwash 


198002 


232450 


253346 


187945 


19686 


25794 


25398 


23002 


Long Point 


72157 


93046 


112405 


203121 


10610 


17168 


17631 


24388 


Holiday Beach 


76080 


94697 


154196 


158843 








919 


Pinery 




248220 


371866 


301665 




22109 


37008 


53551 


Clay Creek 






29719 


30393 




330 


1022 


2084 


St. Williams 






38057 


32981 










Rock Point 








12963 








1103 


Turkey Point 








16457 








5610 


Lake Huron 


















Sauble Falls 


116812 


179766 


141119 


178298 


9801 


13074 


11544 


12981 


Craigleith 


51871 


83369 


58988 


60396 


8755 


14488 


13928 


15180 


Inverhuron 




106720 


85550 


97986 




11424 


18247 


21742 


Lake Simcoe 


















Sibbald Point 


153879 


316011 


379901 


325206 


19566 


35378 


35535 


42636 


Bass Lake 


100266 


154127 


139840 


199991 


9445 


17749 


18559 


20423 


Devils Glen 


25262 


47722 


68805 


81367 


2395 


2971 


3149 


3116 


Springwater 


190679 


131984 


113620 


109686 










Six Mile Lake 






46758 


80057 






8714 


12878 


Earl Row^e 






44366 


60248 






3540 


5298 


Lindsay 


















Presqu'ile 


241368 


332196 


299745 




18005 


29385 


29240 


37307 


Emily 


25113 


96300 


102452 


124360 


2505 


7252 


10385 


13986 


Serpent Mounds 


24191 


76250 


73963 




2097 


6101 


12125 


15483 


Darlington 






52681 


122895 






1064 


8111 


Mark S. Burnham 




23900 


29009 










Tweed 


















Black Lake 


10621 


46059 


32157 


42727 


3288 


8350 


8535 


8537 


Lake St. Peter 


25348 


32394 


22173 


29372 


3305 


6115 


4778 


4902 


Mazinaw Lake 


11971 


9353 


8967 




2964 


4034 


3651 




Outlet Beach 




272047 


160640 


209112 




7464 


14478 


15504 


Bon Echo 








39314 








8922 


Kemptville 
Silver Lake 


53222 


66644 


81288 


68082 


8045 


10355 


13789 


16569 


South Nation 


52660 


61444 


49734 


42810 


4065 


4956 


5347 


5189 


Rideau River 


54555 


80877 


174255 


144756 


2604 


7811 


12379 


14689 


Fitzroy 








51328 








7364 


North Bay 


















Antoine 


14467 


38907 


32951 


22346 


1299 


3017 


4480 


2365 


Finlayson Point 


4725 


35356 


27584 


40002 


3726 


5314 


7992 


7754 


Marten River 


15681 


36780 


59059 


63225 


11961 


13746 


11339 


14024 



Samuel de 
Champlain 

Parry Sound 

Sturgeon Bay 22634 
Grundy Lake 15914 

Oastler Lake 67666 

Mikisew 
Killbear Point 

Pembroke 

Algonquin 457984 

Carson Lake 3528 

Driftv^^ood 6634 



18102 4897 



33300 27382 23751 4595 7238 6408 8377 

92569 71541 93303 4708 9700 13585 21898 

106071 145061 120057 11884 17195 16455 14956 

11814 20460 42904 3970 7299 8421 

43168 105675 7712 18718 



451313 513568 466983 47064 59360 68823 77676 

5477 4161 3107 3428 5477 4161 3578 

11736 10720 14791 1454 4487 6329 7317 



229 



TABLE NO. 4 
r Cont'd.; 

RECORD OF PARK USE 



Administrative 


















District 




Total 


Visitors 






Total Campers 




and Park Name 


1958 


1959 


1960 


1961 


1958 


1959 


1960 


1961 


Sudbury 


















Windy Lake 


44896 


95995 


84414 


55696 


2990 


4805 


3747 


4222 


Fairbank 




23307 


33826 


28384 




4983 


7873 


12290 


Saulte Ste. Marie 


















Pancake Bay 


2755 


32467 


31489 


69581 


1805 


5014 


5543 


26527 


Lake Superior 






16086 


46508 






3246 


31170 


Chapleau 


















Five Mile Lake 








3713 








926 


Gogama 


















Ivanhoe Lake 






1337 


2683 






472 


998 


Swastika 


















Esker Lakes 


7668 


12739 


23367 


21072 


509 


1772 


3225 


3312 


Kap-Kig-Iw^an 




27497 


24135 


30258 




2050 


3079 


2319 


Cochrane 


















Kettle Lakes 


53203 


63210 


69716 


50544 


1863 


2958 


3632 


3370 


Greenw^ater 








6222 








1266 


Kapuskasing 


















Remi Lake 


24025 


33243 


34871 


25773 


811 


2280 


3128 


3387 


Nagagamisis 








14026 








1962 


Geraldton 


















MacLeod Lake 




25549 


51953 


16420 




2264 


3060 


3891 


Rainbow Falls 








45815 




652 


1203 


28960 


Klotz Lake 












3227 


3391 


2362 


Blacksand 








14139 






1447 


8211 


Port Arthur 


















Kakabeka Falls 


70370 


120333 


162703 


279622 


2467 


4230 


6805 


16102 


Inwood 


9670 


6274 


9333 


10208 


3065 


2061 


2772 


6847 


Shuniah 


38831 


49500 


43589 


52461 


1414 


2978 


3860 


10978 


Sibley 


46768 


67695 


33253 


45070 


2727 


3717 


4493 


13836 


Middle Falls 


30048 


133680 


52958 


55529 


2651 


4818 


4563 


9888 


Fort Frances 


















Quetico 


30769 


46493 


56590 


66531 


1777 


3265 


3720 


5749 


Caliper 


8940 


14047 


27291 


21832 


2830 


4489 


5715 


6254 


Lake of the 


















Woods 






16562 


14665 






300 


655 


Kenora 


















Twin Lake 


13227 








1877 








Sioux Narrows 


6280 


18369 


31005 


24676 


1969 


4261 


6139 


6284 


Blue Lake 


3821 


17464 


20186 


24099 


1950 


3368 


5034 


6317 


Aaron 


12491 


12620 


23494 


26173 


2104 


2555 


4052 


7681 


Rushing River 


42955 


47433 


74643 


59980 


7833 


11190 


12249 


14637 


Provincial Totals 


3232460 


5106353 


5692578 


5809314 


270720 


479069 


592103 


862559 



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239 



TABLE NO. 7 



SUMMARY OF ATTENDANCE FOR INTERPRETIVE AND NATURALIST 
PROGRAMMES (YEAR ENDING MARCH 31. 1962) 



Algonquin Provincial Park 

Museum Attendance (estimated) 
Pioneer Logging Exhibit (estimated) 
Conducted Trips 
Nature Trail Registration 
Evening Programmes of Lectures 
Outdoor Amphitheatre Programmes 
Special Groups 



Rondeau Provincial Park 

Museum Registration 
Conducted Trips 

Evening Programmes of Lectures 
Special Group Conducted Trips 
Special Group Lectures 
Outdoor Film Presentations 



Pinery Provincial Park 

Conducted Trips 

Outdoor Film Presentations 



Sibley Provincial Park 

Museum Registration 
Conducted Trips 
Nature Trail Registration 
Evening Programmes of Lectures 



Quetico Provincial Park 

Museum Registration 
Conducted Trips 
Nature Trail Registration 
Evening Programmes of Lectures 



Presqu'il Provincial Park 

Museum Registration 

Conducted Trips 

Nature Trail Registration 

Outdoor Amphitheatre Programmes 

Special Groups 



Sibbald Point Provincial Park 

Museum Registration 

Nancy Island Museum 

Museum Registration 

Remi Lake Provincial Park 

Nature Trail Registration 

Inverhuron Provincial Park 

Nature Trail Registration 



122 days 

85 days 
57 trips 

5 trails 

18 programmes 

37 programmes 

35 groups 



80 days 

77 days 

1 trail 

1 trail 



Attendance 

149,287 
58,600 

3,602 
41,003 

2,226 
10,940 

1,832 



Total 


267,490 


79 days 
47 trips 

7 programmes 
12 groups 

1 group 

9 presentations 

Total 


25,631 
760 
646 
311 

90 

2,868 

30,306 


18 trips 
7 presentations 


768 
3,350 


Total 


4,118 


57 days 
39 trips 
2 trails 
19 programmes 


15,428 

494 

277 

2,708 


Total 


18,907 


76 days 
22 trips 

5 trails 

Total 

77 days 
26 trips 

3 trails 
17 programmes 
11 groups 


7,143 

391 

1,075 

1,816 

10,425 

18,129 
1,101 
3,100 
5,455 

547 


Total 


28,332 



23,421 

13,652 

96 

1,600 



240 



TABLE NO. 8 
INTERPRETIVE PROGRAMMES 



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Diagram showing the increase in Interpretive Programme Attendance of 
Museums, Nature Trails, Conducted Trips and Lectures. 



241 



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242 



TABLE NO. 10 

YEARLY INCREASES IN 

PROVINCIAL PARK USE IN PARKSj 

RECORDING STATISTICS 



6215370^ VISITORS 



5692578 



5106352 



3232460. 



2llif66l^ 



1725876>' VEHICLES 



1552671. 



1410447/ 



927873 



62Q666 . 



862559 . CAMPERS 




21 Parks 
195fi — 



40 Parks 

1251 



51 Parks 



52 Parks 

1252 



61 Parks 
1260 



70 Parka 
3. 901 



243 




Junior Rangers assist in building a bridge in Res+oule Provincial Park, Parry Sound 

District. 




Lands and Forests personnel hear speaker trom Civil Service Commission explain new 

classifications. 



244 



PERSONNEL BRANCH 

Classification 

Job Evaluation is rapidly becoming the keystone of classification. Established 
early in 1961 by the firm of Stevenson and Kellogg, the Job Evaluation programme 
has now developed to the point of being well integrated with the older position 
classification system. The first phase of the project covering all clerical and office 
family jobs is reaching completion within the Department. The position specifica- 
tions received to date have been rated preparatory to the final stage of salary 
analysis, which is the most important step of the Job Evaluation programme. 
It is anticipated that the Government will publish the salary recommendations 
stemming from the foregoing analysis towards the latter part of 1962. The two 
classification systems of Job Evaluation and Position Classification are now 
operating on a complementary basis, but the latter method continues to be the 
dominant approach in the classification of departmental jobs. 

The workload of classification procedures is rapidly increasing, partly as a 
reflection of the new Job Evaluation programme. The need for extra staff is 
currently being studied with a view to appointing one or two additional job 
analysts or personnel assistants. 

The study of specialized classifications relating to this Department continues 
to play an important role. The salary surveys and the examination of organiza- 
tional problems within the Department continue to be an important aspect of 
classification work. The studies of the forester, biologist, research scientist, forest 
ranger and conservation officer classification series have been completed and the 
new classes and salaries established by the Civil Service Commission. 

The introduction of the Job Evaluation programme this year has provided 
an important stimulus to the better understanding of classification, its purpose and 
problems, within the Department. Generally, it has been found that the methods 
used in job analysis have produced a greatly improved understanding of classifica- 
tion on the part of the individual employee. 

Recruitment 

The recruitment programme was continued and appointments were made to 
fill vacancies at various levels resulting from retirements, superannuations, resig- 
nations, deaths, dismissals, and the addition of new positions. 

The professional staff was increased by the appointment of 12 foresters, 
biologists and research scientists in 1961. 

As a result of the continuing unemployment problem, during the winter of 
1961/62 an unusually large number of enquiries about employment were dealt 
with by the Personnel Branch. 

Transfer and Promotions 

The personnel management programme of transfer and promotion of staff 
throughout the head office branches and districts was continued. Intra-Department 
job advertising as a tool in selection was used in nine classifications with some 
expansion of advertising in the clerical field. The programme notifies employees 
of the existence of vacancies and thus gives them the opportunity to indicate their 
desire for promotion and transfer. It is felt that the effectiveness and efl!iciency 
of the Department is being furthered by the methods being employed. 

245 



Training and Development 

A survey of training and development taking place in the field was conductea, 
and each district summarized its progress during the previous year. On-the-job 
training was general with temporary training and familiarization assignments 
under different branch supervisors. 

Safety and first aid courses continued. Short-term outside courses of the 
university extension type were sponsored by the Department where it was felt that 
the subject had direct application to the individual's job. In addition to this, the 
Department sponsored Public Administration courses at Ryerson (3 years) and 
at the University of Toronto (2 years) for selected head office employees. 
Advantage was taken of the seminars and workshops conducted by the American 
Management Association, and several supervisors attended. 

Five foresters and one biologist from the field completed the diploma course 
in resources management at the University of Toronto. This course was sponsored 
by the Department and will continue. 

Work was begun on a training plan to encompass all the training and 
development for the Department following the general agreement of a training 
policy. 

The Educational Leave Committee considered eight applications for post- 
graduate training, and leave of absence was granted in four cases. 

Ontario Forest Ranger School 

(1) General Diploma Course — 

New policy involving 100% increase in students begun. 

(120 instead of 60); 

50% sponsored and 50% paid own way; 

The latter were recruited from secondary schools and 

various employment fields. 

(2) Special Fish and Wildlife Certificate Course — 

25 students graduated. 

(3) Four Scalers Courses completed — 

1 64 men graduated with full scaler's licence, 
33 graduates with pulp licence only. 

(4) Fire suppression training manuals completed and training 
policy approved. New training programme in forest fire control 
ready for application in the succeeding fiscal year. 

(5) Work continued on revision of general course curriculum and 
student assistant programme. 

Grievances 

Ten grievances were brought to the attention of the Grievances Board, with 
a number of grievances being resolved at a lower level. This is a decrease of 
50% from the previous fiscal year. 

Overtime 

The administration of overtime in the Department has been difficult due 
to the characteristic nature of the work of many of the field staff, where long hours 
per work day, and six- and seven-day work weeks, during the summer period, 
have been accepted and to which the work has become adjusted. A study of the 
situation has been initiated for the following fiscal year. It is expected that over- 
time as a normal working procedure will be well established throughout the 
Department in the fiscal year to come. 

246 



Safety Training 

Safety training and practices have been applied to Department staff, with 
particular concentration on work projects employees where injuries occur more 
often and are usually expected because of lack of experience. 

There have been improvements in general, and especially in the injury record 
of Crown Land tree-planting operations, UNR Projects, fire fighters and Junior 
Rangers. Supervisors and foremen are being trained in the Lateiner Method 
of Accident Control and taught how to apply the method to the job. 

The Injury Frequency Rate decreased 1.2 from the previous fiscal year — 

Frequency Rate for 1960-61 21.0 
Frequency Rate for 1961-62 19.8 



Decrease 1.2 

The number of injuries requiring absence from work has been reduced, and 
it is expected that it will be reduced still further through continued emphasis on 
safety training. 

The Frequency Rate is computed on 100,000 man-days basis, the method of 
calculation used by the woods industry of Ontario. 

No. of Lost Time Injuries x 100,000 



No. of Man-days Worked 



A lost time injury is one that requires more than four calendar days' absence 
from work. 

Workmen's Compensation 

The number of compensable injuries increased by 122 over the previous 
fiscal year, making a total of 771 compensable claims. Department costs, however, 
decreased approximately $10,000. Total cost was $120,384 compared with 
$130,209 for the previous fiscal year. 

The higher number of injuries was due to the bad fire season in the Western 
Region but, fortunately, injuries were not serious and attendant costs remained 
low. 

Average cost per claim was $91.14 — a decrease of $15.00 per claim. 

Injuries on UNR Projects increased 1.8%, but costs decreased by one-half of 
last year's total. 

Crown Land Tree Planting Projects are showing an improvement in their 
accident picture. There is a decrease of 3.1% over last year. 

The fire season in Fort Frances, Kenora and Sioux Lookout Districts was 
very bad, and 96% of injuries among Extra Fire Fighters occurred in these 
districts. 

The number of Junior Rangers employed increased by 116, and injuries 
increased by almost 1%. 

Percentage of employees injured was 14.3% — an increase of 1% over last 
year. The average number of workers employed during the year increased by 
1,000. 

Junior Forest Ranger Programme 

The Junior Forest Ranger programme grows in popularity each year. There 
were 619 students appointed to 49 camps in 15 districts of the province. 
These camps were operated for eight weeks from July 3 to August 26. The cost 
to operate the programme this year was $310,457.14, which includes wages, 
travel, maintenance and provisions. 

247 



STAFF ATTENDANCE SUMMARY 

The table below indicates the total number of employees on staff for each 
month of the fiscal year: 







HEAD OFFICE 








FIELD : 


SERVICE 












Mthly 




H.O. 






Mthly 




F.S. 


Grand 


1961 


Perm. 


Temp. 


Rated 


Cas. 


Total 


Perm. 


Temp. 


Rated 


Cas. 


Total 

3760 


Total 


Apr. 


548 


57 


51 


14 


670 


1591 


142 


142 


1885 


4430 


May 


549 


63 


54 


17 


683 


1653 


142 


83 


3957 


5835 


6518 


June 


545 


65 


41 


41 


692 


1670 


153 


58 


5866 


7747 


8439 


July 


558 


80 


32 


38 


708 


1691 


146 


52 


6353 


8242 


8950 


Aug. 


545 


80 


30 


43 


698 


1689 


151 


35 


4321 


6196 


6894 


Sept. 


545 


87 


27 


23 


682 


1691 


155 


34 


3103 


4983 


5666 


Oct. 


542 


94 


23 


14 


673 


1693 


162 


29 


2100 


3984 


4657 


Nov. 


538 


92 


27 


9 


666 


1678 


156 


32 


1163 


3038 


3704 


Dec. 

1962 

Jan. 


556 


83 


23 


11 


673 


1692 


151 


33 


1327 


3203 


3876 


605 


87 


20 


14 


726 


1727 


118 


30 


1430 


3305 


4031 


Feb. 


607 


87 


18 


15 


727 


1734 


109 


30 


1257 


3130 


3857 


Mar. 


610 


84 


16 


18 


728 


1738 


105 


28 


1041 


2912 


3640 


Aver. 


562 


80 


30 


21 


694 


1688 


141 


49 


2817 


4686 


5388 



COMPLEMENT 
TOTAL STAFF AS OF MARCH 31. 1962 





Perm. 


Temp. 


Monthly 
Rated 


Casual 


Total 


Head Office 
Field 


610 
1738 


84 
105 


16 
28 


18 
1041 


728 
2812 




2348 


189 


44 


1059 


3540 



Total complement of year-round positions as of March 31, 

1962 — 2620 

Total permanent, temporary and monthly rated staff as 

of March 31, 1962 2581 

Total vacancies in complement as of March 31, 1962 39 



2620 



NUMBER OF PROFESSIONAL EMPLOYEES 



Foresters 



231 



Biologists 



Civil Engineers 



Miscellaneous 



68 7 40 

Number of licensed scalers on staff 

Number of graduates of Ranger School on Staff 



J'otal 

346 
725 
703 



STAFF TURNOVER 

The table shown below lists the number of employees who discontinued 
their services for various reasons, as indicated during the fiscal year: 





Resigned 


Dismissed 


Died 


Super- 
annuated 


Retired 


Trans- 
ferred 


Total 


Head Office 
Field 


38 

27 


1 
5 


2 
12 


7 
12 


2 

9 


5 
3 


55 

68 


Totals 


65 


6 


14 


19 


11 


8 


123 



The staff turnover for the fiscal year is 4.6 9'f 



New Employees 
Head Office 
Field 



Male 

44 
51 



Female 

24 
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254 




Aspects of tree breeding and research are explained to delegates of United Nations 
meteorological organization at Southern Research Station, Maple. 




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256 



RESEARCH BRANCH 

As in past years the opening statement of this report is in reference to the 
responsibilities of the Research Branch as stated in the White Paper of 1954. They 
are: 

(1) To assess the research needs of the Department. 

(2) To secure co-operation with existing research agencies competent to 
meet departmental requirements. 

(3) To develop departmental research services in those fields where co- 
operation cannot be secured. 

The assessment of the research needs of the Department has been done by 
a variety of organizations and bodies at different times. The greatest effort was 
made by a committee chaired by Dr. Dymond which reported in 1960 (The 
Report of the Committee on Research). The work of the' Branch was also 
reviewed by management consultants and a committee of the Department was 
set up to review and judge research needs and research projects. This committee 
meets once or twice a year as need arises. 

The co-operation of existing research agencies has been obtained by agree- 
ments with the Canada Department of Forestry in respect to silvicultural, patho- 
logical and entomological research; the University of Toronto for forestry and 
fisheries research; the Ontario Research Foundation for various research needs; 
the Federal Department of Fisheries and the Fisheries Research Board. Arrange- 
ments are made with private firms as needed. 

As a part of the agreement with the predecessors of the Canada Department 
of Forestry, laboratories have been built at Sault Ste. Marie and Maple for the 
study of insect pests of the forest and tree diseases. These are staffed by the 
federal service. A building was proposed at Maple for the silvicultural research 
group of the Canada Department of Forestry known as the Ontario district and 
now housed at Richmond Hill. 

To meet needs that have not been adequately satisfied by co-operating 
bodies, the Research Branch has set up five sections, fisheries, forestry, wildlife, 
mensuration and statistics, and mechanical research. The last two are mainly 
service bodies but, in part, they also do original research. 

All sections but the mechanical research have a basic similarity in the setup 
of their work. They are concerned with the characteristics of species, their 
relationships to other species, their movements or migrations (these are small in 
the case of trees but important in fish and wildlife), their diseases and enemies. 
The object of all these is to produce maximum and continuing crops of the 
desirable species and to increase the use of presently undesirable ones when 
possible. Reproduction of species and their early growth is almost of paramount 
importance in the work of all sections. The adequacy of the mature population 
to provide for the succeeding generation, the kinds of spawning grounds or seed 
beds that are available or can be made, the conditions surrounding the early 
growth of the young, illustrate the basic similarity of research in all sections as 
it is done by the Research Branch. 

257 



Some important results have come to the fore in the past year. The culmina- 
tion of years of effort in the study and control of the sea lamprey will be shown 
by the numbers arriving at the barrier weirs in the spring of 1962. If the number 
is low it will mean that the poison that has been applied to the streams w'here 
lamprey have spawned has been effective. The discovery of this chemical and 
application in a precisely measured amount sufficient to kill the young lampreys 
but not strong enough to harm the young fish has been an important discovery 
and a big job of biological and of engineering know-how to which our branch 
has contributed. Its final success may revive the almost extinct lake trout 
fishing and give a boost to the tourist industry and commercial fishing. The 
development of the hybrid trout known as splake, which is a cross between lake 
and speckled trout, is proceeding, and selection is being made of those which have 
a capacity for deep swimming in the zones formerly inhabited by lake trout. 

The fact that this hybrid matures and spawns at an early age, while the lake 
trout takes seven years and is exposed to lamprey attack for three years before 
spawning, may mean that the splake can live with the lamprey even if the latter 
is uncontrolled. There are thus two good approaches to the restocking of the 
depleted lakes. Lamprey control and restocking with lake trout, with or without 
splake; no complete lamprey control and stocking with splake. 

The wildlife research has made censuses and studied the food habits of the 
big game, deer, moose, caribou, and of their main diseases and predators as well 
as some fur-bearers. Upland game birds and waterfowl are receiving the same 
attention. The census methods will provide a more accurate method of deter- 
mining populations and setting quotas for hunting in years to come. The study 
on wolf predation has given important information that will make possible the 
control or management of these animals. 

The summary of wildlife research would not be complete without a mention 
of the discovery in Northwest Ontario and Manitoba of a race of "giant" wild 
geese formerly considered extinct. 

Forestry research in the past year has seen a great advance in knowledge of 
the effect and procedures of "prescribed burning", particularly as they affect 
the derelict hardwood stands where it is hoped, by the use of fire, to destroy 
worthless stems of hardwoods and introduce more valuable species. The use 
of prescribed fire will also reduce existing fire hazards and help to control wildfires 
in dangerous seasons. 

The last year also saw the conclusion of a successful test of tree estimating 
as a substitute for log scaling. The objective of this work was to attain compar- 
able accuracy at a reduction in cost. The tests were successful in these respects, 
and if estimating is adopted as a means of assessing timber dues, it should result 
in more flexible and economic logging. 

FISHERIES RESEARCH 

The fisheries research program is being developed to obtain the new facts 
and to develop the new techniques necessary to the complex job of management 
of both the sport and commercial fisheries of Ontario. Constant attention is given 
to the task of selecting, from the many problems suggested, those which, when 
solved, will provide the greatest advantage to management throughout the Province, 
rather than locally. Continued development of the program along these practical 
lines demands that the close working relationship between management and 
research staffs be continued and constantly improved. This working relationship 
must be close enough that research is fully aware of the problems of management 

258 



and can set project priorities accordingly, and close enough to achieve the maxi- 
mum communication of research results both verbally and through reports. 
However, constant care must be taken to avoid being drawn into problems of 
local rather than Province-wide priority. In agencies where research has failed 
to resist this temptation, their programs have become more and more involved in 
investigations of local and immediate value only, and long range planning and 
progress has become impossible for management. 

Our present good working relationship has resulted from the following 
practices: frequent issue of full reports and progress reports, personal communi- 
cation between research and management specialists, an annual meeting of 
Departmental research and management biologists; and meetings of advisory 
committees annually or semi-annually to discuss the programs of research at each 
of our Great Lakes stations. These advisory committees are made up of sportsmen, 
commercial fishermen, and management and research staffs from both field and 
head office. Consideration is being given to formation of a similar advisory 
committee to consider the recently expanded sport fish research program. 

During 1961 no major changes in program, staff or facilities occurred in 
either the Great Lakes or in the Game Fish studies. Minor improvements in the 
program included a shift of emphasis from the blue pickerel of Lake Erie to 
the smelt which has become much more important. The speckled trout and 
smallmouth bass units which began operations in 1960 made good starts on their 
programs. Plans have been consolidated for the establishment of an additional 
game fish research unit to be concerned with the yellow pickerel when staff and 
funds become available. 

Lake Superior 

Under the terms of the Federal-Provincial Agreement for Ontario Fisheries, 
the major research effort on Lake Superior continues to be a responsibility of the 
Fisheries Research Board of Canada. Our staff continued to work closely with 
Board staff to ensure that results of the program are readily accessible to man- 
agement staff of our department. Particular attention was given to: assessment 
of the current status of natural lake trout stocks; to the assessment of survival 
of lake trout stocks planted in the rehabilitation program; and to continued 
measurement of the level of sea lamprey predation on lake trout. 

As was reported last year, the Great Lakes Fishery Commission on which 
this Department, and this Section, are represented, completed the first application 
of larvicide to all known lamprey-producing streams flowing into Lake Superior. 
Since this experimental control involves stream treatment, one year class of 
lampreys, those in the open lake at the time of treatment, was not affected. This 
year class returned to the streams to spawn in somewhat less than normal numbers 
in the spring of 1961. If that first treatment should prove to be as effective as 
we hope, then there should be no year class in the lake at present and none to 
return to the streams to spawn in the spring of 1962. The first indications that 
the 1962 spawning year class was at least very small, came in the latter part 
of the 1961 fishing season when it was noted that the scarring rate by lampreys 
on both lake trout and whitefish was down considerably from the level of previous 
years. It is too much, of course, to anticipate elimination of this predator, but 
if the spawning runs are in the order of 5,000 adults in the spring of 1962 as 
compared to the 40,000 to 60,000 of previous years, it will seem that initial 
success has been achieved, and the experiment should continue. The spring of 
1962 is a critical period for lake trout in the Great Lakes. 

259 



Lake Huron 

The experimental fishery in South Bay, a semi-isolated part of Lake Huron, 
on which our Research Station is located, was begun in 1947 and has, each year, 
consisted of fishing with constant effort (same kind, size and number of nets) 
in the same locations within the bay. Since the effort has been constant, it is 
reasonable to assume that catches made and examined each year have reflected, 
fairly well, the changes which have occurred in the fish populations. This 
particular project has been highly rewarding. It allowed us to document the final 
decline of the natural lake trout population to disappearance in the early 1950's. 
It provided the means of assessing the success of six annual stockings of lake 
trout yearlings in the bay over the period of years involved, 1953 to 1961, It 
has already been reported that survival and growth were good, but that sea 
lamprey predation was such that no females reached maturity at age seven. This 
project provided the best direct evidence of the disastrous effect of sea lampreys 
on trout. More recently this project is allowing assessment of the survival and 
growth of the first plantings of splake hybrids in the presence of sea lampreys. 
One additional items which may prove significant to long term management is 
the drastic decline of the ciscoe population. Ciscoes were a staple food item 
for the lake trout. This decline has been coincidental with the arrival in the 
early 1950's and rise to great current abundance of the alewife. These coincident 
changes may or may not be cause and effect — this has yet to be determined — ^but 
the matter may be of concern in the re-establishment of lake trout when and if 
sea lampreys are controlled in Lake Huron. 

Whitefish commercial catch sampling was continued in the North Channel, 
Georgian Bay, and in southern Lake Huron, This sampling, together with 
exploratory fishing by our Research vessel should allow us to detect the arrival 
of a strong year class of whitefish at an early age. This, in turn, will allow us to 
relate that successful year class to the conditions of weather, water and spawning 
stock which allowed it to occur. The recent scarcity of whitefish in Lake Huron, 
and particularly in Georgian Bay, as compared to the huge productions of the 
late 1940's and early 1950's have caused great hardship in the fishing industry, 
and in a substantial portion of the economy of the Province. In order to maximize 
yield of whitefish, stable rather than violently fluctuating populations must be 
available. In order to work towards stability we must determine the factors 
which cause failures and allow successful year classes to be produced. Our catch 
sampling program has this long range objective in mind as well as that more 
immediate advantage of year to year predictions for the fishing industry. An 
excellent example of the latter was the recent upsurge of whitefish locally in 
southern Lake Huron (Goderich^Bayfield area), where bumper crops were pro- 
duced by two consecutive year classes. Unfortunately, we must also predict that 
the good fishing will end after the spring of 1962 because no new year class is 
present to grow into the fishery. The conditions which produced these good 
year classes apparently prevailed only in this locality. No similar exceptional 
year classes appeared in Georgian Bay. 

The catch sampling projects have produced many other items of interest 
to management. Among these is a suggestion that with the disappearance of the 
lake trout a greater portion of the fishing effort has been directed to whitefish. 
There is a possibility that this increased effort may be related to the fact that the 
fisheries now harvest the whitefish at ages three and four, and even some at age 
two. Formerly the fishery relied upon older fish and on a broader range of year 
classes. This change may contribute to the violence of fluctuations in the fishery, 
and may, with the help of the sea lamprey, tend to reduce escapement to spawning. 

260 



Lake Erie 

The continued scarcity of blue pickerel in Lake Erie made efforts to obtain 
information on this species unecomonical, and having determined, by a survey 
of spawning grounds, early in 1961, that there would be no immediate improve- 
ment in the population, the project was terminated. Subsequently our research 
program has been directed to studies of smelt and of yellow perch, the two 
species which are currently of major economic importance in this lake. 

A sound basis for regulating the newly developed smelt trawling industry 
is of considerable importance to management. It is important to know where 
in the lake smelt are concentrated at different seasons of the year so that they 
may be exploited without danger to other species. Studies have therefore been 
started to assess local concentrations and also to assess those factors such as 
temperature and oxygen content of the water which may dictate the movements 
and concentrations of smelt. Such knowledge, together with hydrographic survey 
data provided by other research agencies, will allow us to reliably predict where 
smelt will be found in any particular season or year. It will also eliminate the 
need for the costly and long term exploratory fishing which would otherwise 
be necessary to provide the same information on a less reliable basis. 

Other studies of smelt, facilitated by sampling the commercial catches of gill 
netters, trawlers and pound netters, as well as our own experimental fishing, have 
revealed a peculiar alternation of strong and weak year classes. It has been found 
that the 1952, 1954, 1956 and 1958 year classes were all strong, compared to 
those of the odd numbered years. Since the trawling industry as well as the 
fishery using other types of gear tend to crop each year class of smelt as it 
grows into the size suitable for marketing, and since natural mortality in smelt 
is extremely high after age three, the industry is largely dependent upon a single 
year class each year. A good year class, followed by a poor one on a continuing 
basis is conducive neither to a stable fishery nor a stable market situation. Our 
research therefore has been directed towards confirming that this situation really 
does exist, and in attempting to find its causes. The obvious postulation is that 
one generation in some way affects that which follows next year. We have 
therefore begun a study of the food of smelt to determine whether adults are 
cannibalistic on young of the year. 

Studies of yellow perch have strongly suggested a very high rate of natural 
mortality in older fish (beyond age three) and a high population density. The 
high population density appeared related to the high mortality and may also have 
contributed to a depressed growth rate. When the legal gill net mesh size was 
274", it appeared that fishing was accounting for about 15 per cent of the total 
mortality and "old age" and other natural mortality factors accounted for over 
60 per cent of the total mortality each year. In addition that mesh size was 
inefficient in catching perch of the size achieved by this species in Lake Erie at 
age three. Thus, to avoid waste of perch, it appeared judicious to allow gear to 
be used which would more efficiently harvest the perch at a smaller size. 

Yellow pickerel studies demonstrated that no immediate improvement in this 
population was imminent. Our small effort concerned with this soecies was 
thoroughly co-ordinated with a more substantial undertaking by the U.S. Bureau 
of Commercial Fisheries. 

Co-operative studies with the Industrial Development Branch of the Federal 
Department of Fisheries in the field of gear development continued. The success 
of efforts to develop a trawl to harvest perch have been somewhat less spectacular 
than was the smelt work. 

During late August and September of 1961 another survey by our research 

261 



vessel M.V. Keenosay, in co-operation with vessels from the States of Ohio and 
Pennsylvania, the U.S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries and the Great Lakes 
Institute, was repeated to map the oxygen depletion zone of water in the central 
basin of Lake Erie. This oxygen depletion is considered of direct significance 
to fish populations, and is thought by many to be related to pollution or over- 
enrichment of the lake. 

Lake Ontario 

A major phase of the long term study of whitefish in Lake Ontario was 
completed during 1961. A fully documented report is currently being issued. This 
part of the study was concerned with an accurate assessment of the contribution 
to the commercial harvest, of hatchery plantings of eyed eggs or fry of whitefish. 
The conclusions, in brief, are as follows: 

L The planted fry were not sufficiently numerous and/or did not survive well 
enough to have a sustaining effect on subsequent catches of the fishery. 

2. The fluctuations of year class strength in whitefish in this area seem to be 
related to the weather. Cool fall spawning periods, followed by warm hatching 
periods, tend to produce large year classes, and the reverse conditions are 
associated with the production of smaller year classes. 

3. In those years when weather conditions are unfavourable it appears that 
the size of the spawning stock and of the fry plantings may influence the size 
of the fishery for whitefish at five years of age and older. 

4. Large plantings of fry were directly related to the years when spawning 
stock density was high — ^^that is, it was easy to get eggs when there was an 
abundance of spawners. 

5. Fry plantings were apparently of no value to the fishery in years when 
conditions were favourable for natural reproduction. 

6. In years when conditions are unfavourable for natural reproduction, and 
when spawning stocks are low, the Qgg collection and subsequent fry plantings 
are low. Even under the best planting and survival conditions the contribution 
of plantings to the subsequent fishery appear uneconomical. 

Two other major items of information have arisen from this work on white- 
fish. The fishing eff'ort has increased through the years, primarily through the 
introduction of nylon twine, and the age composition of the catch has gone down. 
Even though the industry is using inefficient gear, by net size selectivity standards, 
the effort has apparently been adequate to cause, in some years at least, a situation 
of marginal escapement to spawning. A reduction of fishing effort by some 
method may be necessary to the continuation of the fishery. The other item of 
immediate interest is the fact that the 1957 year class of whitefish, which was 
responsible for a great increase in the 1961 commercial catch, appeared in 
numbers in the falls of both 1960 and 1961 on the spawning grounds along the 
south shore of Prince Edward County, rather than in the Bay of Quinte, the more 
usual spawning location. The reasons for this shift of spawning location are not 
understood, but it is hoped that progeny from the 1961 spawning, when good 
numbers of females of this year class were mature for the first time, augurs 
well for the fishery in 1965. 

The commercial catch of lake trout in Lake Ontario again was made up 
almost entirely of stocks planted by the State of New York and the Ontario 
Department of Lands and Forests. The commercial catch of trout, while it was 
at a level consistent with catches incidental to whitefish fishing, were such that 
they provided a valuable and, from our point of view, economical method of 
assessing survival of stocks. During 1960, however, and again in 1961, there 

262 



appeared to be fishing effort directed specifically towards the lake trout. Such 
effort may well jeopardize the whole experiment which is directed towards the 
re-establishment of a self-reproducing lake trout population. 

It was reported in 1960 the yellow pickerel study in the Bay of Quinte was 
restricted to the accumulation of data on a routine basis. The procedure was, 
of necessity, repeated in 1961. This procedure does provide information of 
immediate value to management locally, and also provides an excellent backlog 
of material as a basis for thorough research. Broad apphcability of the potential 
results of this work will be achieved when funds and staff for the proposed yellow 
pickerel research unit become available. 

Game Fish Studies 

Lake Trout 

The experimental lake trout plantings, using a variety of techniques to 
achieve greater survival to the angler's creel, have been terminated. It was con- 
cluded that planting techniques are generally satisfactory and that some other 
factor is causing high mortality of hatchery lake trout plantings in lakes such as 
Opeongo. The subsequent study of the influence of hard versus soft water 
hatching and rearing on survival after planting is well under way. The first 
plantings of stocks of known hard and soft water hatchery experience will be 
made in 1962. An additional series of two or three year classes with similar 
hatchery experience is planned, and assessment of the results will be undertaken 
through the creel census in those years when these planted fish have grown 
up to the fishery. 

Studies of the effect of winter fishing on lake trout populations suggested 
that in some parts of the Province, at least, it is questionable whether a sustained 
production can be maintained by a population exploited by both summer and 
winter anglers. Further work was also done on the plankton feeding as compared 
to fish feeding lake trout populations. When plankton feeders are introduced 
to Lake Opeongo, where a fish diet is available to them, their growth rate 
increases very rapidly. It has become evident from this and other work that the 
growth rate of lake trout in many lakes could be noticeably improved by the 
introduction of appropriate forage species. 

Speckled Trout 

The Research projects being initiated on this species are all related to the 
development of a practical and soundly based method of determining the proper 
rate for stocking speckled trout. It is known that in certain lakes, stocking is 
necessary to maintain the population because of the lack of spawning faciUties, 
or because of extremely heavy angling pressure. What is not known with any 
accuracy is the most economical planting size and planting frequency. It is 
known also that some lakes with natural trout populations may provide better 
angling of hatchery plantings, but again the proper planting size and frequency 
are unknown. In addition to these considerations, it is known that speckled trout 
occur in lakes throughout the Province of greatly varying productivity. In lakes 
of low production capacity, there is little point in making plantings as large as in 
high productivity lakes unless, of course, strictly "put-and-take" management 
is involved. Even the density of "put-and-take" plantings should be varied in 
some way related to the lakes potential. 

With the foregoing in mind, 35 lakes were chosen from some 50 surveyed 
during 1961. These have been carefully selected as representative of the variety of 

263 



conditions encountered by routine management. An experimental planting schedule 
has been designed to assess the succes of different stocking rates under these 
conditions. The first plantings will be made in the spring of 1962. Other factors 
to be tested will include spring versus fall planting success and the relative 
success of speckled trout, rainbow trout and splake plantings in particular lakes. 
The success of all plantings will be measured by creel census and by experimental 
netting over the next several years. 

Smallmouth Bass 

Our earlier studies of smallmouth bass showed that in Lake Opeongo 
and in South Bay of Lake Huron, strong year classes of smallmouth bass 
occurred when summers were particularly warm. This discovery has allowed us 
to predict the quality of angling for this species some two or three years hence. 
Confidence in these predictions is gradually growing as it is tested annually. It 
has been found too that predictions made for South Bay bass hold true for bass in 
Parry Sound and in Stokes Bay. It is hoped that eventually we may reliably 
predict angling quality over a substantial portion of the province on the basis 
of a routine sample analysis in a single location. Such an achievement would 
provide a substantial economy to management by eliminating the need for annual, 
local studies. Our confidence in the predictions is growing, but will remain shaky 
until we understand why the relationship between strong bass year classes and 
warm summers occurs and how the factors involved operate. Studies are also 
continuing on this matter. 

Bass populations in the central part of their range, that is in Southern 
Ontario, do not appear to be influenced by the same factors which control year 
class strength in the northern part of their range (South Bay and Lake Opeongo). 
Comparable studies are being considered therefore for a typical southern Ontario 
population. 

Plans are well in hand for research into the value of hatchery plantings 
of bass fingerlings. 

Selective Breeding (Splake) 

This research program has the primary objective of developing a trout 
which can live in the Great Lakes successfully whether or not sea lampreys are 
controlled. This objective demands that the hybrid developed be able to swim 
in the deeper waters where the cold temperatures, suitable to trout, are available, 
and that it reproduces itself naturally before being killed by sea lamprey attack. 
The lake trout has been particularly vulnerable to the sea lamprey predation 
because it matured at age seven after having been available to sea lampreys for 
at least three years. By crossing speckled trout and lake trout a pool of genetic 
characters are provided from which, using techniques developed by our staff, 
we hope to select and fix the desirable characters. These are (1) the deep 
swimming ability of the lake trout and (2) the early age (two or three) maturity 
character of the speckled trout. To achieve a strain of hybrids in which these 
characters are fixed will require selection through several generations. Excellent 
and promising progress was made in the work up to and including part of 1961. 
The need for additional experimental space and water supply became clearly 
acute during 1961 when overcrowding and disease reduced the growth rate and 
caused serious mortalities in selected stocks. Little further progress can be 
achieved until these facilities become available. A delay in progress has been 
particularly unfortunate at this stage when the demand for plantings of fish in 
Lake Huron is being keenly felt. It had been hoped that the hybrid would be 

264 



ready for planting in Lake Huron, as per the recommendation of the Great Lakes 
Fishery Commission, and that no other species be planted. Such an arrangement 
would tend to guarantee a pure culture of splake with little possibility of diluting 
the fixed desirable characters by cross breeding with lake trout in the lake. Further 
delays in progress will be very costly. 

In the course of this research and incidental to it, we expect to learn whether 
or not the genetics of fishes operate in patterns similar to those already known 
in livestock and horticulture. If this proves to be the case, then there is no real 
reason why additional selective breeding research could not be designed to meet 
many of the problems of fisheries management just as it has in other disciplines. 
Disease and parasite resistant strains, faster growing strains, earlier or later 
spawning strains of many species might well contribute to better and more stable 
populations of fish. 

Parasitology 

The influence of parasites and of diseases on fish populations is not at all well 
known, but it is suspected of being an important factor in determining population 
size. In individual cases it is a certainty that parasites may kill fish, and, in the 
case of the bass tapeworm, they seriously impair reproduction. The parasite 
(triaenophorus) which occurs in whitefish seriously impairs the marketability 
of this species in Ontario. 

A survey of the fish parasites of fishes of Ontario is being undertaken in 
order to better assess which parasites may be most important and deserving 
of attempts at control. 

Headquarters 

The technical staff' at Headquarters was reduced during 1961 but continued 
to provide services in fish age determination to field offices, and provided training 
for several field management personnel. 

In addition to the co-ordination of efforts between research units within the 
Section, the supervisory staff was active in co-ordination of our research work 
with that of other agencies within and outside of the Province. 

Reports 

Fisheries research reports are listed in appendix on page 279. 

WILDLIFE RESEARCH 

Two vacancies on the staff of the Wildlife Section were filled so that research 
was started on woodland caribou and moose and on several important species 
of upland game and waterfowl. 

The Wildlife Research Station in Algonquin Park continued to be the 
centre for basic research on fur-bearers, big game, predators and some wildlife 
diseases and parasites. The application and testing of research results in co- 
operation with field staff of the Department was conducted in most Forest Districts 
in the province. Co-operative arrangements with the Universities of Toronto and 
Western Ontario, the Ontario Agricultural and Veterinary Colleges, and the 
Ontario Research Foundation on several wildlife research projects were continued. 
Also, under an agreement with the Indian Affairs Branch of the Department of 
Citizenship and Immigration, research was conducted on fur-bearing animals, 

265 



woodland caribou, polar bears, and the economics of utilization of fish and 
wildlife resources in the Patricia Districts. 

Wildlife Diseases, Parasites and Reproduction 

Emphasis was placed on studies of specific diseases and parasites which were 
found during the course of general surveys to be of high incidence in economically 
important species of wildlife. Maximum effort was applied to investigations of 
kidney worms in mink and other wildlife. As a result, the examination of a 
province-wide sample of over 2000 specimens was completed and the distribution 
and occurrence of the parasite in wildlife in Ontario is now well-known. In the 
sample, which included lynx, red fox, otter, red squirrel, muskrat, weasel, fisher, 
raccoon, marten and mink, all occurrences of kidney worm were in mink taken in 
the Central, South-Central and South-Eastern Regions. In some parts of these 
regions the incidence of affected animals approached 25%. Studies were continued 
to assess the effects of this parasite on pelt quality and reproduction of mink. 

There was a marked increase in the number of confirmed cases of rabies 
in wildlife in Ontario during the fall of 1961. These reached a peak in November 
and December. Data supplied by the Ontario Department of Health on rabies 
occurrences were compiled and analyzed and reported to field staff. 

Fur-bearing Animals 

Research on otter populations in a study area in Algonquin Park was con- 
tinued. Improved trapping and marking methods were developed so that six 
animals were tagged and released to provide information on movements, population 
densities and longevity. Analyses of about 2,200 fecal samples were continued to 
establish the diet of otter at different seasons, and to assess their importance 
as predators on fish and small birds and mammals. 

A complete compilation and analysis of fur-harvest records was started which 
will provide basic research information on the history of fluctuations of fur-bearing 
animals. This will be used to assess current population changes and to provide 
catch statistics for the economic survey of fish and wildlife resources in the 
Patricias, which is now in progress. Compilation of statistics from Patricia Central 
and West was completed. 

Survey flights to assess the status of beaver populations were continued and 
the method was refined further. Beaver populations remained at relatively high 
levels or increased in nearly all Forest Districts. Surveys of the Severn and 
Winisk watersheds in the Patricias showed that the management procedures 
resulting from the research conducted there over the past five years had produced 
excellent results. Populations had increased to trappable densities over the whole 
region with the exception of the area immediately north and south of Shibogama 
Lake. 

Big Game 

Research on deer populations is directed toward the solution of several 
problems of management. 

One of the most important problems stems from Ontario's northerly position 
in North America. The northern boundary of the range of white-tailed deer passes 
through Ontario. Along the northern fringe of the range there may be a number 
of forces which limit distribution of deer, but the most obvious is winter weather, 
particularlv snow cover, which hinders free mobility of deer in search of food and 

266 



thus reduces both survival of the younger animals and vigour in the older. To 
study the effects of snow cover on survival and distribution of deer, we have 
maintained a network of snow stations throughout the deer range since 1953. 
Using a tentative index of severity, we have been able to predict hunting success 
from the previous winter's snow records on several occasions. This information 
has been put to good use by the Fish and Wildlife Branch. In future, snow studies 
will be gradually incorporated into a general investigation of limiting factors along 
the northern fringe of the range. 

The second major problem concerns the declining productivity of much of the 
Ontario range. To thrive, deer need an abundant supply of palatable shrubs and 
coniferous cover for shelter in winter. The major pine logging activity of 1850- 
1910 resulted in residual stands that favoured deer until recently. Now, however, 
much of the forest cover east of Lake Superior has become too mature to provide 
good food for deer. Also, through selective removal of conifers (which have 
always been more marketable), good winter shelter for deer has become too scarce 
to support needs large enough to satisfy the increasing hunter demand. Since it is 
evident that the state of the forest is the most important single factor governing 
the welfare of our deer herds, it follows that manipulation of the forest environ- 
ment could be our most effective management procedure. In order to learn to 
manage our forests so as to create better deer habitat without reducing timber 
production, the Big Game Unit is co-operating with the Forestry Section of the 
Research Branch, the Timber Branch, and the Tweed Forest District staff in a 
study of experimental manipulation of lowland conifers in deer yards in South 
Canonto Township. 

Research on moose was concerned with a study of the reproductive rate in 
a heavily hunted population along the Red Lake road. A sufficient number of 
jaws and reproductive tracts, to determine ages and productivity, were collected 
for analysis during the coming year. In co-operation with the Silviculture Section 
of the Timber Branch and the staff of the Sioux Lookout Forest District, an 
attempt was made to assess a method of aerial photography for censusing moose. 
A known number of horses working in a pulo cutting operation were photographed 
at 2,400, 1,800 and 1,200 feet altitude. The results were inconclusive. It was 
apparent, however, that photographic surveys of moose populations would be 
much more expensive than the present method of visual maoping. 

In co-operation with the staffs of northern Forest Districts, assessment 
of the numbers and distribution of woodland caribou were completed for the most 
important winter range. Surveys of over 107,000 square miles during January, 
February and March showed herds of varying sizes in a discontinuous distribution. 
Density averaged one per 3.5 square miles in some of the best winter range to one 
per 94.5 square miles in range which had been partially destroyed by fires. 

Studies of reproductive success and mortality factors were continued. 

Upland Game and Waterfowl 

The re-organization of this unit was completed. A biologist has initiated 
research programs on several species of grouse, which are directed toward improved 
hunting for Upland Game. A project is now in progress to assess the characteristics 
of pinnated and sharp-tailed grouse and their hybrids which have occurred 
naturally on Manitoulin Island. It may be possible to extend the distribution of 
these grouse into other areas of Ontario which are not supporting grouse or 
pheasant populations at the present time. 

Aerial surveys of Canada Goose production in the Hudson Bay Lowlands, 

267 



started by the Fish and WildUfe Branch, were continued. The method, using low 
level aerial photographs, is now producing reliable data. Productivity in the 
summer of 1961 was about 20% below that expected, and the factors responsible 
for poor reproduction or survival of young are sttli unknown. 

Predators 

Research on predators, their ejffects on wildlife populations and domestic 
animals, and methods for their management were continued. 

Studies of the populations of timber wolves in an experimental area in 
Algonquin Park made significant progress. A study of their food habits is provid- 
ing a broad understanding of what wolves eat during different seasons of the 
year and under differing conditions of the availability of prey. Techniques to 
determine population numbers have been developed and can be used to determine 
and compare population numbers within moderately broad limits. A population 
study is providing knowledge of the comparative numbers of wolves after a three- 
year period of complete protection. Studies of the ranges and movements of 
wolves during both summer and winter have provided much new information 
on these aspects of wolf ecology and behaviour. 

The three-year experimental poisoning program in parts of Sioux Lx>okout 
and Port Arthur Forest Districts was completed and the results are now being 
analyzed. 

A study of coyotes on Manitoulin Island was initiated, and this will be 
conducted on a full-scale basis in the coming year. 

A preliminary survey of the numbers of polar bears and their distribution 
along the Hudson Bay coast was carried out during the past summer. Fourteen 
bears were found between Fort Severn and Cape Henrietta Maria, most of which 
were near the latter location in late summer. It appears that the number of bears 
reaching the Ontario coast from the ice of Hudson Bay depends on the extent 
to which the ice is broken up near shore and the time at which break-up occurs. 
Years of persistent ice and cool summer weather are characterized by low numibers 
of bears on land along the coast. There are good indications that the distribution 
of bears in the Hudson Bay basin depends on many factors, including their 
movements and the movement of sea ice, so that there is no distinct Ontario 
population. 

Miscellaneous 

A study of the economics of utilization of fish and wildlife resources in the 
Big Trout Lake region of Patricia Central was started. Collection and analysis 
of data on fish production and marketing was the first phase of this study, and 
a report is now in preparation. Similar analysis will be done for fur production 
and marketing from these areas. The results will be used to guide management 
programs in northern Ontario and to improve financial returns to the Indians from 
the harvest of these resources. 

Reports 

Wildlife research reports are listed in an appendix on page 280. 

FORESTRY 

The forestry research program is reported under the headings of Regional 
Silvicultural Research Units, Site Research, Reforestation Research, Forest Tree 
Breeding, and White Pine Blister Rust Reconnaissance Surveys. 

268 



REGIONAL SILVICULTURAL RESEARCH UNITS 

Silvicultural Research units have been established in the different regions of 
the province to study the silvicultural characteristics of the commercial tree species 
and their reproduction and growth under various conditions, with the object 
of developing cultural practices which will ensure maximum production within 
economic limits. In 1961-62 resident research foresters co-ordinated experimental 
work in the Mid-Western, Northern, Central, South-Central, South-Eastern and 
South-Western regions. 



Mid- Western Region 

The Forest Research program in the Mid-Western region is to study the 
silvics of commercially important tree species of the region in order to formulate 
sound cultural treatments leading to their continuous supply. This may be achieved 
through natural and artificial regeneration studies of these species and through 
miscellaneous studies related to their environment. 

During 1961, the program was confined to the continuation and maintenance 
of studies established earlier. 

The Northwestern Ontario Research Co-ordination Committee program was 
continued and their Annual Project Summary was published. Assistance was also 
given in supplying forestry library services to co-operators. 

Natural Regeneration, Growth Studies and Silvicultural Treatments 

The permanent sample plots established to study the effects of commercial 
clear-cutting on regeneration of spruce and jack pine were examined in detail 
for data on survival, growth and competition. Some interesting trends are 
becoming evident. 

Studies of the effects of mechanical scarification and seed trees on white 
spruce regeneration were continued on two areas at Dog River. Results indicate 
that the experiments are successful, but to gain complete understanding of white 
spruce behaviour, the survival and establishment of these seedlings will be closely 
followed. 

Interim examinations were carried out on the growth and survival aspects 
of regeneration following modified cutting operations and mechanical logging at 
Caramat. 

Artificial Regeneration Studies 

Several plantations of white spruce, black spruce, white pine and red pine 
were examined. It is hoped that the information obtained will provide the basis 
for better understanding of the requirements and behaviour of these species 
growing in pure stands, as well as their response to fertilization and heavy 
competition. 

Studies were also continued in the seed and seedling protection trials during 
spotting. Intermediate results indicate that protection generally results in better 
survival. 

Miscellaneous Studies 

Compilations of 1956 and 1957 herbicide projects were completed and 
final reix)rts will be published during the coming year. 

269 



Northern Region 

Drainage 

This work is to study the effects of drainage upon the existing water table 
and tree growth in the Cochrane Qay Belt. Approximately 8,000 feet of ditch 
was blasted during the summer of 1961 in Leitch Township Research Area. Soil 
samples were taken and analyzed for their chemical and physical properties, and 
water table fluctuations were measured. 

Road Construction 

This work is to explore the possibility of road construction without the use 
of granular fill. Three quarters of a mile of road in muskeg terrain was con- 
structed. In contrast to standard procedures, the fill consisted of peat or organic 
material dug up from the ditches alongside the road. The road has already proven 
suitable for light i/2-ton truck traffic. 

Silviculture 

An experimental cutting of 200 cords of pulpwood was carried out in the 
Research Area in Leitch Township. Two permanent sample plots, three acres 
each, in mixed stands of black spruce, white spruce, balsam, poplar and aspen 
were established. Mensurational data were compiled before and after selection 
cutting for the purpose of studying the effects of the treatment. 

Research Area, Leitch Township — General 

Inventory work initiated in 1959-60 was continued and is near completion. 
A management plan is being drawn up. A total of 75,800 black and white spruce, 
2,000 Siberian Scotch pine, and 23,000 red pine seedlings were planted for 
study purposes. A protective fence was erected around a Nellie Lake Scotch pine 
plantation to protect this stand of plus trees against rabbit damage. A total of 
25 miles of Concession, lot and boundary lines were resurveyed, cleared of 
brush and marked with paint. 

Central Region 

The work of this research unit consists both of field and laboratory studies 
of problems of tree nutrition related particularly to forest disturbance and regener- 
ation. It includes studies of the ecology of red spruce, and work on smelter 
fume pollution in relation to forest soils and vegetation. 

Tree Nutrition, Forest Disturbance and Regeneration 

It is not yet known whether such disturbances as repeated prescribed burning 
may or may not have a detrimental effect on Ontario forest soils and ultimately, 
therefore, on tree growth. These studies are designed to provide answers to this 
question. In addition it is hoped that explanations will be provided for such 
questions as why some tree seedlings grow better than others as a result of 
different types of scarification. 

Studies are under way on the effects of prescribed burning and scarification 
on nutrient release in the soil and the uptake of these nutrients and the growth 
of tree seedlings. 

Red Spruce Ecology 

This tree has characteristics which should prove useful in improving the 
productivity of derelict tolerant hardwood and mixed-wood stands. These studies 

270 



are designed to measure its productivity on different sites in pure and mixed 
stands across its range. 

It is hoped to provide explanations of differences in spruce growth in terms 
of nutrient uptake from the soil. Work is also proceeding in the examination 
of different strains for the best ecological characteristics. A large scale experi- 
mental underplanting has been established which should provide information 
useful in silvicultural practice and of a fundamental nature on shade tolerance. 

Smelter Fume Pollution 

To provide information and explanations on the nature of smelter fume 
damage and its effects on forest vegetation, forest soils and waters as a prerequisite 
for suggesting means of pollution control and the best means of forest land 
management under the circumstances. 

In the vicinity of Sudbury, Cutler and Wawa, large areas of forest have 
been removed from forest productivity due to effects of smelter fumes. The 
research officer and a member of the Botany Department, University of Toronto, 
have carried out studies at both Sudbury and Wawa on the fallout from the 
smelter fumes and the effects on forest soil, lake waters, aquatic and forest 
vegetation. Two papers have been published, and two more will follow. 

South-Central Region 

Sugar Maple Growth and Quality Studies 

The abjective of this work is to obtain information that will provide a 
sound basis for managing sugar maple stands in the Region. It is believed that 
the maintenance of a hardwood industry will be dependent upon our ability to 
produce good quality material, and that the large areas of sugar maple which 
form the majority of hardwood growing stock will require judicious cultural 
treatment if they are to serve the prospective need. To this end, studies are being 
conducted to show how defect is associated with growth or growing conditions, 
and to define the conditions under which suitable growth and quality of sugar 
maple can be attained. 

A multiple regression and correlation program is being finalized for analysis, 
using an electronic computer on data taken from several hundred samples in the 
field. 

A system of grading the standing tree for quality has been developed, and 
in conjunction with studies of stem analysis, mill recovery and growth by means 
of permanently installed diameter tapes, a working knowledge has been developed 
of the growth characteristics of the species. This work is supplying supporting 
evidence to the developing art of maple management. 

Tubed Seedlings 

The objective of this work is to develop an acceptable and inexpensive 
method of reforestation which could be useful in extending the planting season 
and in providing stock for planting immediately after wildfires, and on short 
notice. 

Studies in the past year were directed towards showing the influence of 
tubed material and size upon the development of seedling stock. In addition, 
two soil media were also tested for the same purpose. 

White and Red Pine — Regeneration and Growth Studies 

This work is designed to evaluate various techniques for estabhshing and 

271 



improving growth of pines in order that the important pine lumbering industry 
can be maintained. 

These projects were established approximately ten years ago and will yield 
useful data during the next year. 

South-Eastern Region 

Prescribed Burning 

The objective is the study of the use of prescribed burning in the management 
of hardwood stands. This was continued in 1961, when a series of burns was 
completed in the fall according to plan at Swan Lake, Algonquin Park, but 
weather conditions prohibited the burning in two other areas. 

In May, 1961, prescribed burning was carried out in a hardwood stand of 
sprout origin to study the possible use of fire in stand conversion. This particular 
fire appeared initially to be more destructive than fall fires in hardwood stands. 

Tallies made at Swan Lake suggest that fall burning kills a high percentage 
of the sugar maple seed which had fallen prior to the fire. 

White Spruce 

The objective is to study the management of an area for timber and wildlife 
which has been carried out in the Tweed District since 1957. The first regenera- 
tion tallies of clear-cut blocks, where the slash was completely burned, indicate a 
high percent stocking of white cedar and balsam fir with fair stocking of white 
spruce. Pre-cut tallies of regeneration were made on areas cut in the winter 
of 1961-62. 

Blueberries 

The objective of this study was the effect of culture on blueberry production. 
The results indicate that, although pruning by mechanical means or by fire 
increased blueberry production, burning produced a greater increase at a lower 
cost. On the basis of this study, the Tweed District is carrying out a program 
of supervised operational burns in blueberry areas. Burning in this manner should 
reduce indiscriminate fires while safely maintaining the blueberry crop which plays 
an important role in the local economy. 

Artificial Regeneration (white pine, red pine, white spruce) 

The planting of pine and spruce was done on shallow till over granitic bed- 
rock to compare their survival and growth. The survival of the red pine was 80 
percent, while the percent for the other two species was 58. Growth measure- 
ments will be taken in 1964. 

Nutrient Studies 

The objective was to assess the value of the application of trace elements 
to plants to reduce frost damage. Field and laboratory tests on white spruce 
stock (3-2) suggest that two or three foliar applications of borax spray reduce 
frost damage considerably under severe conditions (more than 20°F. of frost). 

South-Western Region 

The research program of the South- Western Region consists of a number of 
studies which are grouped into one of several main divisions, namely silvics and 
forest management, mechanical and soil conservation research. 

Silvics research objectives are long term studies on commercially important 
tree species of the Region. These investigations were sponsored by the Regional 

272 



Research Committee of the South-Western Region. The main silvical character- 
istics under study are distribution, occurrence, site requirements, tree features and 
reproduction. The silvicultural practices under consideration are methods of 
estabhshment, protection, thinning, harvesting and other cultural techniques with 
the selected species. 

In 1961, the studies were confined to seasonal diameter growth measure- 
ments of hard maple, silver maple, bur oak, American basswood, white ash and 
red pine; also, seasonal height measurements were taken at bi-monthly intervals 
on silver maple saplings. Methods of a sexual propagation of high quality 
silver maple phenotypes were tested by air layering and budding. 

Forest management research studies are designed for determining the most 
suitable techniques for the management of woodlots and plantations on a variety 
of forest sites. This entails an evaluation of tree species, tree quality and site. 
Several studies have been advocated by the Regional Rsearch Committee of the 
South-Westem Region. 

In 1961 these studies covered a wide range of activities. They include 
experimental planting designs, analysis of growth of several coniferous species in 
permanent sample plots, assessing underplanting of basswood in a heavily thinned 
hardwood stand, and collecting height and diameter data in a red pine spacing 
experiment at East Gwillimbury research area. 

Forest chemical research studies were designed to investigate the use and 
application of chemicals for growing, protecting and utilization of our forest 
trees. Many of the experiments were sponsored by the Lake Huron District. 

These studies were expanded in 1961. In addition to completing the field 
work on hawthorn and wild apple eradication with 2,4-D ester in oil and water, 
a test was designed to evaluate two soil sterilants, Dybar and Urab, in eradicating 
low quality conifers, particularly Scotch pine. The analysis of two years' field 
data on chemical release of white pine from underbrush competition in the North 
Bay District was completed. An initial report will be published in 1962. 

Forest instrument research studies are designed to investigate the mechanical 
development and adaptation of forest instruments for mensurational and silvicul- 
tural uses in the South-Western Region. All developmental work on instruments 
is done in co-operation with the mensuration and mechanical sections of the 
Research Branch. 

In 1961, these investigations were devoted to the final testing of a special 
type of dendrometer tape on trees from one-half inch to four inches in diameter; 
evaluating a high pressure sprayer as a soil scarifier; procuring a mechanical 
injector for treating trees with chemicals, and developing height dendrometer 
instruments for accurately measuring height growth of seedlings and saplings. 

Soil conservation research studies have been confined to evaluating vegetative 
control of gully erosion in the John Pierce Park, Lake Erie District. The 
investigation was initially sponsored by the Parks Branch through the Regional 
Research Forester of the South-Western Region. 

These studies were finalized by making a comprehensive appraisal of the 
willow plantings of 1957, the willow dams established in 1958, and the black 
locust plantings of 1959. A report will be written in 1962 on the entire project 
with special reference to pertinent observations and final recommendations. 

Site Research 

Site research establishes an ecological basis for renewable natural resource 
management in Ontario. The basis is ecological in that it gives the relationships 
between the features of the land and the crops which are grown on it. The 

273 



understanding of such relationships is required to determine (i) the potential 
productivity of the land, and (ii) the various degrees to which that potential can 
be developed under various conditions. 

Research in the productivity of land (which includes water) is considered 
under three groupings: 

(1) Regional Site Research 

(2) Quantitative Site Research 

(3) Site Evaluation Research 

Regional Site Research is the study of the relationships between land features 
and crops from place to place, and an evaluation of regional differences significant 
for management. This knowledge is organized within a site classification system 
useful to various kinds of resource management, whereas mapping of physiography 
on a broad basis is performed to indicate the distribution of various land patterns. 

Regional field work has been continued in north-western and north-eastern 
Ontario. A paper entitled "Glacial History of Part of North-Western Ontario" 
has been accepted for publication in the Journal of the Geological Association of 
Canada. A comparative study was also made, using the X-Ray diffraction tech- 
nique, of the mineralogical composition of three different clay soil materials in 
north-western Ontario. 

A numbered research report, "The Sites of the Kirkwood Management 
Unit", is in press. 

Quantitative Site Research is designed to determine the role which individual 
site factors play in biological production of the common site types in Ontario. 
Soil nutrients and soil moisture are at present under investigation. 

One member of staff has almost completed postgraduate studies regarding the 
release of nutrients from certain minerals. This will form the basis for further 
studies on nutrient release from mineral complexes such as soil materials. Tedh- 
niques for these are in the developmental stage. Another member obtained his 
M.Sc.,F., while on educational leave, with a thesis entitled "Studies in Moisture 
Movement and Retention in Sandy Soils". A Research Information Paper was 
published entitled "Soil Moisture — an Important Factor in the Establishment and 
Early Growth of Conifer Plantations". New techniques were explored for the 
study of soil moisture. 

Site Evaluation Research. Although both regional and quantitative site 
research are aimed at refining site evaluation, the site evaluation research places 
full emphasis on the establishment of categories to evaluate the potential of land 
for various uses. These categories include (i) land-use capability classes, rating 
the relative levels of capability of the land to produce under various conditions, 
(ii) recommended classes, indicating the kind of croD recommended under various 
conditions, and (iii) classes of recommended intensity of use. 

As part of an important co-operative project with the Land Branch, a 
numbered research rejwrt was published, "The Ecological Basis of Land-Use 
Planning." 

In all phases of site research, full use is made of the facilities of the 
draughting room and the soils laboratory. 

Section members participated in the North-eastern Forest Soils Conference 
in Quebec. One member is currently on the conference's Site Evaluation Com- 
mittee and submitted a review regarding work on site index and site evaluation 
in Ontario. 

Reforestation Research 

The program of this unit is closely related to the work of the Reforestation 

274 



and Silviculture Section of the Timber Branch and has as its objective the procure- 
ment of information for the scientific advancement of the artificial regeneration 
program. The work is developed by experiments at the nuseries, on the planting 
sites, and in the older plantations. The unit consists of three research foresters, 
one of whom is currently on educational leave-of-absence. 

Nursery Studies 

Several long-term studies are presently being conducted in the nurseries. At 
Orono nursery, an experiment to study the effects of various mthods of acidifying 
the soil is in the third year. At the Kemptville nursery a study of several tech- 
niques to reduce the losses of young seedlings due to frost heaving is in advanced 
stage. Experimental stock from two nurseries, Kemptville and Fort William, is 
being planted in a series of tests across the province to compare the planting 
success of trees of different age-classes. 

Forest Fertilization 

The series of experiments with the use of fertilizers (based on soil and foliar 
analyses) on less thrifty plantations, was continued in 1961. The work was done 
in jack pine (Pinus Banksiana) plantations to supplement earlier work which 
had been confined to red pine (P. resinosa Ait) plantations. 

Further work was done also on the study of the use of fertilizers at the time 
of planting to achieve greater survival and growth of the newly established trees. 

Frost Damage 

Laboratory and greenhouse studies were continued of the rates and degrees 
of dehardening of plant tissue in relation to frost damage and kill. This is a 
serious problem in some areas each year, and it may be possible to avoid serious 
damage by changes in nursery or planting techniques. Some laboratory and green- 
house work is being conducted on the use of hormones in nursery and planting 
operations. 

Forest Tree Breeding 

Breeding work with white pine, aspen poplars, hard pines and white cedar 
was continued. Work with chestnut was reduced to a maintenance basis. 

White Pine 

Resistance to blister rust and weevil, and satisfactory growth form and 
growth rate were the main objectives in breeding. This project was started by the 
Research Branch in 1946. 

Scions of nine clones and two populations of Pinus albicaulis were the main 
acquisitions, besides a few clones of P. flexilis, P. monticola, P. koraiensis and 
P. strobus. 

Selections from seedling populations screened for resistance to blister rust 
comprised 59 clones. 

A total of 86 interspecific and intraspecific crosses were made yielding 4,033 
full seeds. 

Three kinds of interspecific crosses were made, namely six crosses of P. 
monticola x griffithii, two crosses of P. armandi x albicaulis and 30 crosses of 
P. koraiensis x albicaulis. 

The range-wide five-station provenance test of white pine initiated in 1957 
was outplanted. One outplanting was established at Turkey Point with a total of 
6,292 trees. Another outplanting, with the same 13 provenances, was established 
in Ganaraska Forest and comprised 4,212 trees. 

275 



The selection for resistance to weeviling, in co-operation with the Forest 
Insect Laboratory in Sault Ste. Marie, was continued. A plantation of white pine 
(P. strobus) in the Kirkwood Management Unit was top-grafted for this purpose 
with 1,050 scions of 21 clones of various native and hybrid white pine materials 
selected for resistance to blister rust. 

Some white pine seeds were irradiated with thermal neutrons at the plant 
of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited in the fall of 1960. Two hours in the 
pile with a total dose of about 6,000 rem reduced germination to 36% of 
untreated controls, i.e. the L 50 dose is somewhat lower than this treatment. The 
surviving seedlings have thus far not shown abnormal growth peculiarities. Their 
resistance to blister rust in comparison with seedlings raised from untreated seeds 
of the same origin is being studied. 

Poplars 

The production of aspen-like hybrids, suitable for growing in southern 
Ontario continued to be the chief aim of this project. This project was started 
by the Research Branch in 1946. 

Interspecific hybridization resulted in 16 successful crosses between various 
aspen hybrids. 

A good method for testing the rooting ability of stem cuttings was developed 
and applied to numerous new aspen materials. Several promising clones of silver 
poplar (Populus alba L.) and aspen hybrids raised at the Southern Research 
Station, Maple, were selected on the basis of this new test. 

Hybrids of P. trichocarpa with various forms of P. alba are beginning to 
show promising possibilities of introducing the very high rooting ability of P. 
trochocarpa into aspen hybrids. Two new test plantations were established, one 
comprising 15 clones and 12 populations in Wainfleet Township, and another 
comprising one clone and 1 1 populations in the Fort Frances area. 

Hard Pines 

The development of new types, resistant to the European shoot moth and 
superior in growth form and growth rate, continued to be the aim of this project. 
This project was started by the Research Branch in 1954. 

A seed collection from red pine (P. resinosa Ait) plus trees was made 
in northern Ontario, and 17 seedling populations were obtained. 

The breeding work was centered on a study of the efforts of inbreeding 
on red pine, and 150 different pollinations on 2,068 flowers were made for this 
purpose at Kane, Pa., and in Ontario in the Lake Abitibi area. Swastika and Chalk 
River. Red pine of 12 origins were selfed, pollinated with mixed local pollen and 
top-crossed with red pine pollen of one origin. 

The extensive interspecific hybridization of 1959 yielded 2,051 full seeds in 
1960 and 667 seedlings in 1961 from 14 crosses involving Pinus densiflora, 
P. nigra, P. resinosa and P. silvestris in different combinations. 

A selfing study of five red pine in Vivian Forest yielded seedlings that 
indicate that at least these five trees are self-fertile and sihow no inbreeding 
depression. 

The results of the grafting experiment of 1960 show that early winter 
grafting — ^before January 1st — in the greenhouse is significantly superior to late 
winter grafting. 

Much new material was set out this year at Turkey Point for provenance 
tests, progeny tests and observation plots, study resistance to shoot moth under 
conditions of severe attack. 

276 



White Cedar 

The production of improved types of this species and of western red cedar 
{Thuja plicata) and hybrids, hardy in southern Ontario, is the aim of this project. 
This project was started by the Research Branch in 1956. 

A provenance test plantation, consisting of 15 provenances of white cedar 
was established in the Ganaraska Forest. 

Two observation areas of western red cedar were also established in the 
Ganaraska Forest, in addition to one small observation area of white cedar. 

A number of rooted cuttings and hybrid seedlings were set out on their 
permanent location at the Southern Research Station, to serve as future breeding 
materials. 

Chestnut 

The aim of this project is the production of hardy dwarf chestnut (Castanea) 
types, resistant to blight and suitable as dwarfing stock in a breeding program 
with timber-type chestnuts. This project was started by the Research Branch in 
1955. 

No new work was undertaken on this project. The seedlings of Chinese 
chestnut were moved from the nursery to various places at the Southern Research 
Station, for further observation and breeding when they reach flowering age. 

White Pine Blister Rust Reconnaissance Surveys 

The purpose of the program is to determine blister rust conditions in the 
white pine forests of the province. This is accomplished by investigating and 
reporting on all aspects of white pine blister rust in Ontario and advising on 
pertinent matters. Reconnaissance and damage surveys are conducted. At the 
request of the Districts assistance is given in planning and operation of blister 
rust control. Collaboration with the Federal Laboratory of Forest Pathology is 
extended as required. 

Work Performed 1961-62 

Instructional and practise session in blister rust reconnaissance for Federal 
and Provincial personnel was conducted at Green Lake and Dacre. Fifteen at- 
tendants participated. 

Rust conditions and protection needs in Dacre Chief Ranger District were 
surveyed and recommendations made. 

As part of the regular blister rust reconnaissance program, field examina- 
tions were made in Parry Sound and Pembroke Districts, and at one station in 
Swastika. 

In view of expanding planting programs in northern Ontario, surveys and 
studies of rust conditions and potential in Gogama and Swastika Districts were 
advanced. 

Ribes conditions were investigated on Mississagi and White River planting 
project areas. 

Reports 

Forestry research reports are listed in appendix on page 280. 

Mensuration and Statistics 

The primary work of the Mensuration and Statistics section is consultation 
regarding the proper statistical design of experiments and the mathematical anal- 
ysis of the data secured. The purpose of the analyses is to determine how con- 
clusive the results are and to avoid the drawing of unwarranted inferences. 

277 



At the request of the Timber Branch, an investigation is being made of 
the feasibility of determining with sufficient accuracy, the volume of standing 
timber to serve as the basis of payment of dues. Volume tables for use in this 
work were prepared from data for 20,000 trees previously secured by the Timber 
Branch. Three sample cruises were undertaken, of which two have been fully 
completed with encouraging results. 

The gathering of growth data for white pine which was commenced in 1960 
was continued on a moderate scale. The objective is to obtain data for estimating 
the yield at maturity of white pine growing in mixture and at the same time to 
test a proposed new method of estimating future yields, termed the Index Dia- 
meter Method. 

Mechanical Research 

The operation of this section was carried on with a staff of five, namely, 
section supervisor, three engineer's assistants and one maintenance machinist. 

Ninety per cent of the time was spent on the development of research 
equipment for other sections and branches; the remainder on work of a more 
general nature. 

Only projects having the broadest interest are mentioned, under their re- 
spective headings. A partial list of the other work carried out is appended. 

Forest Protection Equipment Testing Program 

The purpose of this program, which is operated the year round, is to test 
new equipment for forest fire fighting and other forest protection purposes in 
order to assess its suitability for Departmental uses. 

The main test work carried out during the past year was on the Mark I 
and Mark II Wajax fire pumps. In addition, some testing was done on forest 
fire hose, hose washing equipment and brush burning torches. 

The test work on the Mark I pump was aimed at improving the rather un- 
satisfactory engine endurance. These tests definitely showed that the endurance 
could be increased very substantially by using naphthenic base two-cycle engine 
oils which have quite recently been made available. 

The Mark II pump, a new model, was subjected to the regular performance 
and endurance tests. Although it has a somewhat lower performance than the 
Mark I, this unit will, because of its excellent endurance record, undoubtedly 
give a good account of itself in the field. 

Fire Line Builder 

The purpose of this project is to develop a self-propelled fire line builder 
of a type suitable for use in the northern part of the Province. 

Many attempts have been made to produce a machine of this nature but 
none have proved to be very satisfactory. 

The new features incorporated in the design will, it is hoped, make this 
an effective piece of fire fighting equipment. 

The construction has progressed to the point where preliminary tests will 
be made during the coming summer. 

Aerial Seeder 

The object of this project was to develop a tree seeding device for seeding 
forest areas by helicopter. 

Both the design and construction of this seeder have been completed. Test 
patterns of the seed distribution taken during actual flight show that this seeder 

278 



meets the requirements of the Timber Branch. The mechanical features and 
mounting arrangement have been passed by the Department of Transport. 
Seeding on an experimental basis will be carried out early in May. 

Portable Steam Cooker 

The purpose of this project was to design and produce a portable steam 
cooker, the aim being to improve the standard of meals at forest fire and other 
bush camps. 

The main advantages of this method of cooking are: 

1. Less cooking skill required 

2. Food practically burn-proof 

3. Meals can be kept hot on a 24-hour basis 

4. Sanitary — due to stainless steel construction 

5. Plentiful supply of clean hot water constantly vailable for cooking 
and dishwashing 

6. Minimum food wastage 

For versatility of food preparation, aluminum grills have been provided. They 
can be used for frying meat and eggs. An oven may be added later. 

The cooker was tested at the Ranger School and received favourable com- 
ment. The estimated capacity is 60 - 65 men. The source of heat can be fuel 
oil, propane gas or wood. 

A half-size model is presently under construction. This is considered a more 
practical size. Similar units can be added as the camp grows in numbers. 

Other Projects 

Self-propelled Spot Tree Planter 

Forest mensuration instruments 

Fish data Card Sorting Machine 

S^plake Tanks 

Research Vessels. Modifications and Power Plant installations. 

REPORTS 

Research Branch Reports Published During the Year Ending March 31, 1962 

Fisheries 

Report of the Laboratory for Experimental Limnology for the Years 1954 
through 1959. Research Report (Fisheries) No. 44. 

Gill Net Selectivity in the 1960 Catches of Whitefish in the Goderich Bayfield 
Area. A. M. McCombie. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. Vol. 90, No. 3, July, 1961. 
Observations on the Life History of the Hybrid between Eastern Brook Trout 
and Lake Trout in Algonquin Park, Ontario. N. V. Martin and N. S. Baldwin. 
J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada, 17 (4), 1960. 

The Effects of Underwater Seismic Explosions on Yellow Perch. R. G. Fer- 
guson. The Can. Fish Culturist, Issue 29, November 1961. 
Status of Fisheries Research Projects for the year 1960. Research Section Re- 
port (Fisheries) No. 38. July 1961 * 

Use of the South Bay Creel Census in Understanding the Smallmouth Bass 
Fishery and Predicting its Course. J. C. Budd. Research Section Report (Fish- 
eries) No. 39. July 1961. * 

Fishing Effort in the Lake Ontario Whitefish Fishery. W. J. Christie. Research 
Section Report (Fisheries) No. 40. Sept. 1961. * 

279 



Wildlife 

Wolf Control in Ontario — Past, Present and Future. D. H. Pimlott. Trans- 
actions, Federal-Provincial Wildlife Conference, Ottawa. June 15, 16, 1961. 
Preliminary Studies of Woodland Caribou Range in Ontario. T. Ahti and R. 
L. Hepburn. Transactions, Federal-Provincial Wildlife Conference, Ottawa. 
June 15, 16, 1961. 

The Ecology and Management of Moose in North America, D. H. Pimlott. 
La Terre et La Vie, 2:246-265. 1961. 

Cestodes of Wolves, Coyotes and Coyote-dog Hybrids in Ontario. R. S. Free- 
man, A. Adorjan and D. H. Pimlott. Can. Jour. Zool., 39:527-532, 1961. 
Wolves and the Wolf Research Program in Ontario. D. H. Pimlott. Ontario 
Fish and WildUfe Review, l(l):4-9. 1961. 

Wolf Control in Canada. D. H. Pimlott. Can. Audubon Magazine. Nov.-Dec. 
1961. 

Forestry 

The Ecological Basis of Land-Use Planning. G. A. Hills. Research Report 
(Forestry) No. 46. 

The Sites of the Kirkwood Management Unit. G. Pierpoint. Research Report 
(Forestry) No. 47, 

Soil Moisture — an Important Factor in the Establishment and Early Growth 
of Conifer Plantations. G. Pierpoint. Research Information Paper No. 16. * 
Moisture Relations of Nursery Stock. R. H. Leech. Research Report (Forestry) 
No. 45. 

Notes on some Aspects of Forestry in Ireland and Great Britain. R. E. Mullin. 
Research Information Paper No. 17. * 

Natural Layering of Black Spruce Picea Mariana (Mill) B.S.P. in Northern 
Ontario. W. Stanek. Forestry Chronicle, Sept. Vol. 37 No. 3. 
The Effect of Photo Period on White Pine Seedling Growth. D. P. Fowler. The 
Forestry Chronicle 37(2) : 133-143, June, 1961. 

Problems in Forest Tree Breeding. Comments. C. C. Heimburger. Recent Ad- 
vances in Botany, 1699-1703, 1961. 

* Reports distributed only to Department staff. 



280 




Scaling white pine logs; a demons+rafion at Ontario Forest Ranger School. 




Taking inventory of 1-0 red pine seedlings at Orono forest tree nursery. 

281 



TIMBER BRANCH 





BRANCH CHIEF 
J.A.BRODIE 














ASSISTANT 

BRANCH CHIEF 

M.B.MORISON 
















OFFICE 
MANAGEMENT 






SPECIAL 
PROJECTS 


































REFORESTATION 

SECTION 

SUPERVISOR 

R.W.HUMMEL 




SILVICULTURE 

SECTION 

SUPERVISOR 

A.J. HERRIDGE 




TIMBER 

SECTION 

SUPERVISOR 

L. RINGHAM 


















NURSERY 
PRODUCTION 




FOREST 
INVENTORY 




LICENSING 

AND 
RECORDS 


















TREE 
DISTRIBUTION 




MANAGEMENT 
PLANNING 




STUMPAGE 
APPRAISAL 
MARKETING 


















EXTENSION 
FORESTRY 




SILVICULTURAL 
OPERATIONS 




SCALING 
SUPERVISION 



282 



TIMBER BRANCH 

RESPONSIBILITIES OF TIMBER BRANCH 

1 Timber sales and Licences, measuring of timber cut, preparation of accounts 
for collection of stumpage charges, compiling of statistics. 

2. Production of planting stock at tree nurseries. This includes acquisition, treat- 
ment, storage, distributing seed, the establishment of seed production plots, 
and the distribution of nursery stock for planting. 

3. Management on a sustained yield basis of the Forests of the Province, the 
preparation of the forest inventory and its continuous up-dating. 
Preparation and analysis of operating and management plans covering Crown 
and Company management units. Directing cutting methods to promote na- 
tural regeneration and release cutting for stand improvement. 

4. Supervision of reforestation on Crown land by tree planting and direct seed- 
ing and other means. 

5. Extension Forestry w'hich assists organizations and individuals interested in 
reforestation. Woodlot management and conservation. 

6. Management and reforestation of demonstration forests, County and Muni- 
cipal forests, Conservation Authority forests under agreement for management. 

7. Planning and supervision of the construction of forest access roads to open 
up wood producing areas. 

8. Licensing of sawmills, pulp and paper mills. 

9. Registration and licensing of scalers. 



REFORESTATION SECTION 

During the current fiscal year, a total of 43,194,863 units of nursery stock 
was furnished from 1 1 nurseries operated through the Reforestation Section. 
This is 6,638,549 units less than the number furnished during the previous fiscal 
year. The decrease was expected because much of the stock under production 
that would have been available this year developed unusually well and was used 
during the previous fiscal year. Also, our production of Scotch Pine stock was 
reduced appropriately in anticipation of a reduction in demand from Christmas 
Tree farmers for stock of this species. 

Tree seed was collected, processed, and sown and nursery operations con- 
tinued to develop the output of nursery stock from the nurseries to approximately 
60,000,000 units per annum in accordance with established targets. 

The acreage of forest areas being managed for Counties, Townships, and 
Conservation Authorities under agreements entered into between the Minister 
and such corporations increased by 8,866 acres during the year to a total of 
156,163.115 acres. 

283 



SUMMARY OF DISPOSITIONS OF NURSERY STOCK 
APRIL 1, 1961 TO MARCH 31. 1962 

Planted on lands vested in Her Majesty in right of Ontario 26,602,720 

Planted on County, Township, Conservation Authority and other lands 

managed by the Minister 5,063,860 

Furnished in respect of Private Lands 11,505,775 

Furnished for Educational and Scientific Purposes 12,208 

Miscellany: Departmental Exhibits, etc. 7,200 

Stored at Planting Sites 3,100 

Total 43,194,863 



NURSERY STOCK DISPOSITIONS FROM APRIL 1 1961 TO MARCH 31, 1962 

Year Units 

1952-53 24,241,754 

1953-54 23,447,860 

1954-55 25,519,383 

1955-56 28,351,483 

1956-57 31,081,112 

1957-58 25,854,262 

1958-59 33,414,110 

1959-60 41,682,125 

1960-61 49,833,412 

1961-62 43,194,863 

Total 326,620,364 



284 



TREES FURNISHED IN RESPECT OF PRIVATE LAND 

APRIL 1. 1961. TO MARCH 31. 1962 

County or 
Territorial District Trees 

Algoma 221,525 

Brant 130,050 

Bruce 148,575 

Carleton 290,925 

Cochrane 59,350 

Dufferin 425,725 

Dundas 58,875 

Durham 257,675 

Elgin 96,225 

Essex 26,300 

Frontenac 146,325 

Glengarry 75,525 

Grenville 189,800 

Grey 365,625 

Haldimand 106,726 

Haliburton 139,450 

Halton 148,625 

Hastings 305,900 

Huron 201,250 

Kenora 34,850 

Kent 49,675 

Lambton 134,225 

Lanark 125,400 

Leeds 105,250 

Lennox & Addington 96,325 

Lincoln 79,150 

Manitoulin 68,600 

Middlesex 494,425 

Muskoka 271,775 

Nipissing 90,975 

Norfolk 289,150 

Northumberland 354,675 

Ontario 468,675 

Oxford 146,750 

Parry Sound 339,300 

Peel 602,925 

Perth 46,625 

Peterborough 128,675 

Prescott 221,025 

Prince Edward 37,325 

Rainy River 146,000 

Renfrew 458,150 

Russell 78,700 

Simcoe 821,350 

Stormont 51,375 

Sudbury 121,875 

Thunder Bay 315,975 

Temiskaming 28,075 

Victoria 138,450 

Waterloo 181,650 

Welland 227,275 

Wellington 299,850 

Wentworth 257,825 

York 799,000 



Total 11,505,775 



285 



AGREEMENTS UNDER SECTION 2 OF THE FORESTRY ACT 
(as of March 31. 1962) 





Date of 


Number 




Agreement 


of Acres 


Conservation Authorities: 








Ausable River 


Dec. 


13, 1951 


3,770.00 


Big Creek Region 


Dec. 


2, 1954 


2,202.40 


Ganaraska River 


Jan. 


31, 1947 


7,606.60 


Grand Valley 


Mar. 


18, 1952 


4,644.69 


Maitland Valley- 


Apr. 


1, 1955 


466.00 


Metropolitan Toronto and Region 


Apr. 


11, 1951 


1,672.00 


Moira River 


Nov. 


28, 1951 


9,815.00 


Napanee Valley 


Oct. 


28, 1954 


5,469.00 


Neebing Valley 


May 


15, 1958 


1,030.70 


North Grey Region 


June 


25, 1958 


3,513.00 


Otter Creek 


Apr. 


26, 1957 


819.00 


Sauble Valley 


Sept. 


23, 1959 


1,580.00 


Saugeen Valley 


Dec. 


15, 1952 


9,702.00 


South Nation River 


Mar. 


28, 1960 


140.00 


Upper Thames River 


Apr. 


11, 1951 


3,249.56 55,679.950 


Counties: 




Brant 


Nov. 


15, 1952 


50.00 


Bruce 


Jan. 


20, 1950 


14,656.35 


Dufferin 


Nov. 


26, 1930 


2,042.00 


Grey 


Dec. 


21, 1937 


7,183.08 


Halton 


Mar. 


14, 1950 


1,245.63 


Huron 


Nov. 


27, 1950 


1,339.00 


Kent 


Dec. 


23, 1953 


76.975 


Lanark 


July 


5, 1940 


2,656.00 


Leeds and Grenville 


Apr. 


24, 1940 


5,625.50 


Lennox and Addington 


Apr. 


3, 1952 


786.00 


P.Tiddlesex 


Mar. 


8, 1954 


280.00 


Northumberland and Durham 


June 


10, 1924 


4,877.00 


Ontario 


July 


9, 1930 


1,900.00 


Oxford 


Sept. 


1, 1950 


716.56 


Prescott and Russell 


Mar. 


15, 1937 


23,485.83 


Renfrew 


Dec. 


26, 1951 


1,713.00 


Simcoe 


June 


19, 1925 


16,135.69 


Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry 


Sept. 


29, 1949 


1,524.45 


Victoria 


Aug. 


10, 1928 


7,044.00 


Waterloo 


Apr. 


17, 1950 


710.48 


Wentvi^orth 


Nov. 


27, 1952 


889.30 


York 


Mar. 


27, 1924 


3,772.08 98,708.925 


Townships: 








Bonfield 


Apr. 


1, 1952 


60.00 


Charlottenburgh 


Apr. 


1, 1955 


175.00 


Cumberland 


May 


29, 1952 


808.44 


Galway and Cavendish 


Nov. 


1, 1952 


100.00 


Marlborough 


Sept. 


21, 1953 


200.00 


Torbolton 


Mar. 28, 1953 
TOTAL 


430.80 1,774,24 




156,163.115 



286 



SILVICULTURE SECTION 

Inventory Unit 

Capital Air Surveys Ltd. completed vertical aerial photography of 326 square 
miles in the Districts of Lindsay and Tweed, which were not photographed in 
1960. This contractor was also the successful tenderer for vertical aerial photog- 
raphy of 27,880 square miles in the Cochrane and Kapuskasing Districts. As a 
result of poor weather conditions, only 11,281 square miles were satisfactorily 
completed, the remainder of the area will be photographed in 1962. 

Field work was completed on 6,086 square miles in the Parry Sound Dis- 
trict and the Agreement Forests in the Southeastern Region. Five field parties 
cruised the Loring, Georgian Bay, Parry Sound, Bracebridge, Burks Falls, and 
Kearney Crown management units, the Conservation Authority Forests of the 
South Nation, Napanee, Moira and Ganaraska, the County Forests of Leeds and 
Grenville, Lanark, Lennox and Addington, Northumberland and Durham, Vic- 
toria and Simcoe, the township forests of Marlborough, Torbolton and Galway. 
These parties also covered the scattered Crown lands of this area, including the 
nursery properties at Kemptville, Orono and Midhurst. 

Photo-interpretation was completed for 13,132 square miles in the Tweed, 
Lindsay, and Parry Sound Districts and the Agreement Forests in the South- 




Scarification \o encourage yellow birch regeneration in Lindsay District. 

287 



eastern Region. Forest stand maps and forest ledgers were completed for 1,941 
square miles. These covered the Crown management units of Watabeag, Kirkland 
Lake, Larder Lake, and also the Ontario Paper Company licence in this area. 
Work proceeded on revision of the planimetric base maps for those areas covered 
by the 1960 photography. 

The multiplex machine was used to interpret contours and form-lines and 
prepare plans for the Parks Branch. Under this programme, plans were completed 
for Butt Lake Park, at a scale of 1" = 500' with 10' contour intervals; Sand 
Banks Provincial Park, at a scale of 1" = 600' with 10' contours; and two park- 
sites in the Killarney area. 

The use of planimetric and forestry maps remained at a high level. The 
photo-processing staff produced 65,369 contact prints; 4,711 photo-mosaics, at 
a scale of 1" = 1 mile; 948 at a scale of 4" = 1 mile; and 112 at a scale of 
2" = 1 mile; 2,194 enlargements; 278 film diapositives; 32 multiplex plates; 
263 Kelsh plates; 2,289 copy negatives; 322 cronaflex prints, and developed 3 
rolls of aerial film. 

Silvicultural Operations 

This encompasses the work of establishing and producing a satisfactory crop 
on lands dedicated to forestry both in the Crown and under agreement. This 
work is necessary as a result of logging or fires. It is also done on barren lands 
capable of producing a good forest crop. In addition, forest is established by 
planting on submarginal agricultural land, or land subject to erosion, which is 
usually acquired by Municipalities and Conservation Authorities with the assis- 
tance of the Province and then put under agreement for management by Lands 
and Forests. 

There are two major phases to Silvicultural Operations. 

(a) Artificial Regeneration — on Crown Lands and Agreement Forests by plant- 
ing and seeding. 

(b) Stand Improvement — on Crown Lands and Agreement Forests. 

This includes procedures to achieve natural regeneration as well as tending 
or improving the crop by such techniques as aerial application of herbicides. 

Stand Improvement also operates special demonstration areas where known 
silvicultural techniques are tested on an operational basis. 

Silvicultural Operations recently established a special project forester. He 
is conducting studies on projects such as seeding and herbicide spraying with 
helicopters. Another project is to determine the future size and location of white 
pine growing areas. 

Artificial Regeneration 

The numbers of trees planted is less than in 1960-1961 due to lack of suffi- 
cient stock of northern origin and a heavy call on shipping stock in the fall of 
1960. 

1958-59 — 20,190,338 

1959-60 — 27,562,247 

1960-61 — 35,630,393 

1961-62 — 31,666,580 
Predicted requirements for planting stock to cover future programmes indi- 
cate a needed increase in this work. These predicted needs rise steadily to 
43,500,000 trees in 1966-67. 

288 



TREES PLANTED ON LANDS VESTED IN HER MAJESTY 
IN RIGHT OF ONTARIO 

ADMINISTRATIVE DISTRICT AND PROJECT TREES 

Aylmer District: 

Bosanquet Township 60,025 

Charlotteville Township 19,183 

Maiden Township 1,000 

Sherbrooke Township 1,000 

South Walsingham Township 23,250 104,458 

Chapleau District: 

De Gaulle Township 54,000 

Edith Township 25,000 

Lloyd Township 1,261,000 

Nimitz Township 458,000 

Panet Township 589,000 

Racine Township 200,000 

IIB Township 100,500 

lie Township 4,000 2,691,500 

Cochrane District: 

Adams Township 150,000 

Colquhoun Township 195,000 

German Township 259,250 

Keefer Township 350,000 

Leitch Township 49,500 

Macklem Township 57,000 

Pyne Township 186,500 

Sheraton Township 300,000 1,547,250 

Fort Frances District: 

Atikokan Township 36 

Burriss Township 1,360 

Kingsford Township 70,500 

Richardson Township 74,400 

Sutherland Township 76,500 

Unsurveyed — 2 mi. North of Wausau 45,000 

Unsurveyed — near Sapawe 102,550 

Unsurveyed — Boffin Operating Unit 18,000 

Unsurveyed — 2 mi. South of Stokes Bay 7,000 

Unsurveyed — 1 mi. South of Grassy Bay 11,600 

Unsurveyed — 1 mi. North of Red Gut Bay 12,000 418,946 

Geraldton District: 

Irwin Township 62,400 

Kowkash Township 295,000 

Header Township 500,000 

O'Meara Township 1,000 

Pie Township 27,000 

Pifher Township 150,450 

85 Township 1,000 

Unsurveyed — Caramat 1,500 

Unsurveyed — 18 mi. North West of Geraldton A.75 2,400 

Unsurveyed — Stevens 1,500 

Unsurveyed — 8 mi. West of Stevens 102,400 1,144,650 

Gogama District: 

Burrows Township 1,784,300 

Kemp Township 1,911,255 3,695,525 

Hespeler District: 

Bruce Township 10,300 

North Dumfries Township 2,675 

Waterloo Township 2,050 15,025 



289 



Kapuskasing District: 

Devitt Township 27,800 

Fauquier Township 35,500 

Haig- Township 32,800 

Idington Township 700 

Owens Township 43,500 

Ritchie Township 15,000 

Rogers Township 148,000 

Sankey Township 10,000 

Studholme Township 501,900 

Wicksteed Township 137,200 

238 Township 262,000 1,214,400 



Kemptville District: 

Marlborough Township 101,090 

Oxford Township 7,536 

Ontario St. Lawrence Development 5,780 114,406 



Kenora District: 

Boys Township 17,000 

Breithaupt Township 18,000 

Ewart Township 8,000 

Forgie Township 45,000 

Glass Township 20,000 

Kirkup Township 25 

Lemay Township 25 

Mclllwraith Township 80,000 

Melgund Township 20,000 

Pelican Township 15,500 

Sanford Township 40,000 

Smellie Township 6 

Tustin Township 29,250 

Zealand Township 4,550 

Unsurveyed — Aulneau Peninsula 3,600 

Unsurveyed — North of Gordon Lake 20,000 

Unsurveyed — Hay Island 3,000 

Unsurveyed — North of Jackman Township 18,000 

Unsurveyed — Kenora M.U. 30,000 

Unsurveyed — Painted Rock Island 16,000 

Unsurveyed— Near Tustin Township 29,250 479,206 



Lindsay District: 

Anstruther Township ___"_ 162,500 

Belmont Township 63 

Brighton Township 20,582 

Bruton Township 22,900 

Cavendish Township 237,500 

Darlington Township 12,190 

Galway Township 20,000 

Hope Township 8,852 

Lutterworth Township 109,850 

Otonabee Township 275 

Ops Township 275 

Snowdon Township 10,000 

Stanhope Township 2,000 606,987 



Maple District: 

Baxter Township 252,350 

Essa Township 15 

Georgina Township 1,905 

Matchedash Township 301,000 

Orillia Township 3,000 

Tosorontio Township 2,015 

Vaughan Township 2,533 

Vespra Township 17,627 580,445 



290 



North Bay District: 

Afton Township 50,000 

Bastedo Township 25,000 

Calvin Township 5,050 

Coleman Township 196,000 

Henry Township 250,000 

McLaren Township 300,000 

Sisk Township 250 

West Ferris Township 6 

Widdifield Township 2,500 828,806 



Parry Sound District: 

Ballantyne Township 150,000 

Bethune Township 50,000 

Boulter Township 185,000 

Burton Township 110,000 

Carling Township 10,000 

Chaffey Township 55 

Foley Township 4,730 

Harrison Township 4,200 

Laurier Township 40,000 

Macaulay Township 2,400 

Machar Township 6,104 

McLean Township 160 

Medora Township 532 

Monteith Township 6,450 

Mowat Township 8,500 

Muskoka Township 30 

Proudfoot Township 2,300 

Spence Township 6,450 

Stisted Township 2,200 

Wallbridge Township 10,000 599,111 



Pembroke District: 

Airy Township 235,000 

Barron Township 75,000 

Boulter Township 61,000 

Cameron Township 310,000 

Canisbay Township 1,600 

Fraser Township 5,400 

Guthrie Township 80,000 

Lauder Township 61,000 

McKay Township 2,000 

Murchison Township 85,200 

Peck Township 36 

Pentland Township 61,000 

Sproule Township 8,000 

Stratton Township 200,000 

White Township 75,000 1,260,236 



Port Arthur District: 

Dawson Road Township 4,800 

Fraleigh Township 120,000 

Goldie Township 205,500 

Hagey Township 28,000 

Lybster Township 50,000 

Sibley Township 64,800 

Stirling Township 4,800 

Unsurveyed — near Cushing Lake Burn 173,000 

Unsurveyed— near Gull Bay 1,051,375 1,702,275 



291 



Sault Ste. Marie District: 

Aberdeen Township 10,000 

Bridgland Township 302,517 

Curtis Township 10,000 

Dennis Township 8,000 

Fenwick Township 3,000 

Gaudette Township 57,050 

Gould Township 20,000 

Haughton Township 50,675 

Hilton Township 4,300 

Kirkwood Township 93,015 

Lefroy Township 49,325 

Rose Township 195,257 

Thessalon 6 

Vankoughnet Township 1,000 

Wells Township 90,895 

Township 3H 23,600 

Township 23, Range 11 6,000 

Township 24, Range 11 48,500 

Township 25, Range 12 5,400 

Township 26, Range 12 24,600 

Township 202 15,000 

Township 2A 940,950 

Township V 814,675 

Township W 907,025 3,682,390 

Sioux Lookout District: 

Drayton Township 4,500 

Echo Township 2,400 

McAree Township 2,400 

Unsurveyed — 16 mi. South of Red Lake 2,400 

Unsurveyed — 5 mi. South of East of Armstrong 100,000 

Unsurveyed — Near Sunstrum 100,000 211,700 

Sudbury District: 

Township 129 140,475 

Broder Township 137 

Dowling Township 3,200 

Dryden Township 180,000 

Foster Township 266,175 

Hallam Township 61,250 

Halifax Township 75,000 

Hanmer Township 25,000 

Hoskin Township 25,000 

McKim Township 27 

Merritt Township 30,000 

Salter Township 10,350 

Scadding Township 48,600 

Street Township 308,425 

Tennyson Township 60,925 

Victoria Township 3,000 

Township 115 70,000 

Township 118 533,325 1,840,889 



292 



Swastika District: 

Arnold Township 48,500 

Beauchamp Township 306,300 

Benoit Township 4,250 

Burt Township 100,175 

Cane Township 49,925 

Catharine Township 95,875 

Clifford Township 20 

Davidson Township 31,600 

Dunmore Township 187,000 

Evantural Township 10,000 

Grenfell Township 308 

Gross Township 208,500 

Lee Township 120,150 

McCool Township 255,000 

McEvay Township 188,800 

Ray Township 518,500 2,124,903 



Tweed District: 

Bangor Township 37,000 

Carlow Township 210,000 

Effingham Township 6,000 

Elzevir Township 26,950 

Hallowell Township 146,200 

Kennebec Township 18,550 

Kingston Township 2,750 

Lyndoch Township 121,000 

McClure Township 69,000 

Olden Township 4,500 

Radcliffe Township 141,000 

Sydney Township 60 

Wicklow Township 155,000 938,010 



White River District: 

Cecil Township 33,150 

Mikano Township 493,050 

Nickle Township 33,200 

Township 28, Ranger XXVII 106,500 

Unsurveyed— near CP. 44 33,150 699,050 



Unclassified : 

Etobicoke Township 774 

South Orillia Township 100 

East Zorra Township 400 

Ridout Township 14,900 

Sherborne Township 3,000 

King's Highways 83,378 102,552 

TOTAL: 26,602,720 



293 



TREES PLANTED ON COUNTY. TOWNSHIP, CONSERVATION AUTHORITY 
AND OTHER LANDS MANAGED BY THE MINISTER 



April 1, 1961 to March 31. 1962 



County : 



Trees 



Bruce 140,700 

Dufferin 3,000 

Grey 213,300 

Halton 38,700 

Huron 88,510 

Lanark 34,350 

Leeds & Grenville 146,700 

Lennox & Addington 20,500 

Middlesex 20,500 

Northumberland & Durham 136,200 

Ontario 100,600 

Oxford 25,100 

Prescott & Russell 239,500 

Renfrew 380,000 

Simcoe 433,000 

Stormont, Dundas & Glengarry 196,500 

Victoria 219,250 

Waterloo 7,250 

Wentworth 12,000 

York 126,800 

Township: 

Marlborough 17,000 

Torbolton 50,500 

Conservation Authority : 

Ausable River 270,500 

Big Creek Region 23,500 

Ganaraska River 273,300 

Grand Valley 392,400 

Metropolitan Toronto & Region 120,300 

Maitland Valley 13,000 

Moira River 242,500 

Neebing Valley 80,000 

North Grey Region 214,700 

Otter Creek 6,000 

Sauble Valley 9,000 

Saugeen Valley 423,600 

South Nation River 125,000 

Upper Thames River 70,100 

Canada : 

National Capital Commission 150,000 

TOTAL: 



2,582,460 



67,500 



2,263,900 



150,000 
5,063,860 



294 



stand Improvement On Crown Lands 

During the fiscal year 1961-62, 90 stand improvement projects were carried 
out on an area of 23,218 acres. These projects were designed either to secure 
adequate regeneration following cutting operations or to improve growth and 
quality of the young stands of timber. Also, 10 regeneration surveys and 10 as- 
sessment surveys were conducted to collect the necessary data for future stand 
improvement work, and to assess results of the previously completed projects. 

In addition, 23 stand improvement projects, covering 1,304 acres, were car- 
ried out by the junior rangers during the course of their summer training. 

These combined activities include the work done on eight demonstration 
blocks, where silvicultural operations are practised on a more intensive scale, 
for the purpose of training management personnel and demonstrating improved 
techniques to the operators. Within these blocks, stand improvement funds were 
also spent on the maintenance of 10 miles of roads and three camps. 

The summary of stand improvement work completed during the year 1961- 
62, by Districts and by type of treatments, showing gross acreage treated, follows: 



SUMMARY BY THE DISTRICTS 
STAND IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS INCLUDING JUNIOR RANGERS 

1961 -62 



WORK 



Crown Lands 



Area 
in 

Projects Acres 

Regeneration survey — 

Pruning 15 

Assessment Survey — 

Total 15 

Cleaning 30 

Modified cutting 91 

Cleaning 1,171 

Assessment survey — 

Total 1,262 

Scarification — cone scattering 1,241 

Assessment survey — 

Total 1,241 

Scarification — seeding 252 

Bush Control — aerial spraying 1,660 

Cleaning 1,225 

Regeneration and assessment surveys — 

Total 3,137 



Fort Frances 
Kenora 



Port Arthur 
Geraldton 



White River 



Chapleau 



295 



Districts 



Areas 
in 

Projects Acres 

Scarification — seeding 180 

Brush control — aerial spraying 1,200 

Cleaning 602 

Total 1,982 

Modified Cutting 10 

Scarification — natural regeneration 1,000 

Cleaning 371 

Thinning 20 

Pruning 357 

Improvement — cutting 198 

Girdling _ 5OO 

Regeneration and assessment surveys — 

Road construction (0.5 miles) — 

Total 2,456 

Scarification — seeding 17 

Cleaning 77 

Road construction (7.7 miles) — 

Total 94 

Modified cutting 30 

Brush control — aerial spraying 1,000 

Cleaning 213 

Girdling 176 

Regeneration survey — 

Total 1,419 

Modified cutting 152 

Scarification — seeding 466 

Girdling " 76 

Regeneration survey — 

Total 694 

Modified cutting 100 

Scarification — natural regeneration 29 

Scarification — seeding 107 

Stand improvement — girdling 334 

Seed tree marking — 

Regeneration survey — 

Total 570 

Brush control — ground spraying 46 

Cleaning 893 

Pruning 637 

Improvement — cutting 48 

Stand conversion 46 

Total 1,670 

Cleaning 667 

Pruning 41 

Improvement — cutting 50 

Total 758 

Improvement — cutting 12 

Total 12 

296 



Gogama 



Sault Ste. Marie 



Sudbury 



Kapuskasing 



Cochrane 



North Bay 



Parry Sound 



Pembroke 



Kemptville 



Areas 
in 

Districts Projects Acres 

Tweed Modified cutting 100 

Scarification — natural regeneration 6 

Cleaning 3,395 

Thinning 140 

Pruning 818 

Stand improvement — cutting 468 

Stand conversion 4 

Tree marking — 

Regeneration and assessment surveys — 

Road construction (2.1 miles) — 

Total 4,931 

Lindsay Cleaning 1,491 

Pruning 687 

Girdling 1,668 

Tree marking, roads, plot establishment — 

Total 3,846 

Maple Modified cutting 3 

Pruning 398 

Stand improvement — cutting 4 

Regeneration survey — 

Total 405 

Grand Total 24,522 

Of the above total, work on 1,304 acres was carried, out by Junior Rangers. 



SUMMARY Of 
STAND IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS, 1961-62 

Crown Lands Acres 

Modified cutting 486 

Scarification: Natural Regeneration 1,035 

Cone scattering and seeding 2,263 

Brush control: Ground spraying 46 

Aerial spraying 3,860 

Cleaning 10,135 

Thinning 160 

Pruning 2,953 

Stand Improvement: Tree marking — 

Cutting 780 

Frilling, poisoning or girdling 2,754 

Stand conversion 50 

~ Total 24,522 
Surveys: Regeneration (10 projects) 

Assessments (10 projects) 

Plot establishment (1 project) 
Road construction (10.3 miles) 



297 



stand Improvement — Agreement Forests 

Stand improvement work was carried out on 7,759 acres in 37 different 
forests. The main activities were clearing scrub and slirub growth prior to 
planting, cleaning desirable young trees from competing vegetation, pruning trees 
to produce knot free lumber, thinning even aged stands to increase growth on 
remaining stems, improving stands by removing larger low value, or defective 
trees, harvesting mature timber and culturing and selling existing scotch pine 
Christmas tree plantations. This last activity is designated for completion in 1963 
as private enterprise can now supply existing market. In most cases only a few of 
the best Christmas trees in each acre will be sold. 

As the Dutch elm disease is prevalent in Southern Ontario, considerable 
merchantable elm was sold in harvest cutting. A marked increase in stumpage 
sales took place in the thinning, improvement and harvest cuts. This trend allows 
permanent and casual staff to be diverted to additional projects, such as pruning, 
where no product is involved. 

Most of the agreement forests are fairly accessible during the winter months, 
thus improvement projects can be carried out when unemployment is at the 
yearly high. Pruning is especially suitable for winter as work may be accomplished 
on snowshoes. 

In addition to the above work, three camps of Department of Reform 
Institutions' inmates did considerable useful stand improvement work on Agree- 
ment Forests. Their work is of a type for which labour is not normally hired. 



TABLE 



District 



Project Acre s 

Clearing ' 139 

Thinning 45 

Improvement Cutting 22 

Harvest Cutting 179 

Total 385 

Clearing 38 

Cleaning 612 

Pruning 212 

Thinning 43 

Improvement Cutting 1,157 

Harvest Cutting 416 

Christmas Tree Culture 257 

Total 2,735 



Aylmer 



Huron 



298 



District Project Acres 

Simcoe Clearing 29 

Cleaning 15 

Pruning 916 

Thinning 217 

Improvement Cutting 165 

Harvest Cutting 2 

Christmas Tree Culture 132 

Total 1,476 

Lindsay Clearing 25 

Cleaning 713 

Pruning 591 

Thinning 54 

Improvement Cutting 809 

Harvest Cutting 40 

Christmas Tree Culture 120 

Total 2,352 

Tweed Clearing 4 

Cleaning 24 

Pruning 50 

Total 78 

Pembroke Improvement Cutting 20 

Total 20 

Kemptville Cleaning 319 

Pruning 148 

Thinning 64 

Improvement Cutting 151 

Harvest Cutting , 31 

Total 713 

Total for all Districts 7,759 

SUMMARY BY TREATMENT 

Clearing : 236 

Cleaning 1,682 

Pruning 1,917 

Thinning 423 

Improvement Cutting including Girdling 2,324 

Harvest Cutting 668 

Christmas Tree Culture and Selling 509 

Total 7,759 



Forest Management Planning — March 31, 1962 

A steady advancement in the management of the Province's natural resources 
continued with a progressive revision of the management plans for the forest land 
under the jurisdiction of the Department of Lands and Forests. The revised 
management plans are prepared in conformity with the outlines of the Manual of 
Management Plan Requirements. 

The number of management units, each operating under a plan of its own, 



299 



is subject to change due to abandonment and acquisition of licences, division and 
consolidation of management units. The present number of management units is: 
78 Crown, 79 Company, 42 Agreement Forests and 5 Nursery Forests — 204 in all. 

KAanagement Plans 

1 . Crown Management Units — plans prepared by Department staff. 

There are 78 management units with a total area of 84,108 square miles, 
and with 78 management plans in force, as follows: 

77 — initial management plans; 
1 — revised management plan; 

78 — plans in use. 

Plans for fourteen management units are currently undergoing revision, as 
scheduled. On the management units for w'hich plans are not yet due for revision, 
Interim Operating Plans are being prepared. Forty-eight of these plans have been 
submitted outlining in detail the volumes and kinds of timber that can be cut, its 
location and the measures necessary for its replacements. These plans are meant 
to bridge the gap between the present time and the date the revised management 
plans will become operative. 

2. Company Managment Units — plans prepared by licences. 

There are 79 company units with a total area of 99,987 square miles, made 
up of 67 company management units operating under approved management plans. 
12 management units with plans in preparation or revision. 

79 Areas under management plans. 

3. Agreement Forests — plans prepared by Department staff. 

There are 42 Agreement Forests, 150,000 acres in area, for which separate 
management plans are being prepared. 
This area is made up of: 

22 County Forests; 
6 Township Forests; and 
14 Conservation Authorities Forests; 

42 Total. 
Preparation of management plans follows the inventory of these forests, now 
in progress; preliminary planning has been started this year. 

4. Nursery Forests — plans prepared by Department staff. 

There are five forest areas adjacent to the tree nurseries operated by the 
Department, covering approximately 9,000 acres. Managment plans for these 
areas will be prepared on completion of inventory programme. 

Other Work — during the fiscal year was as follows : 

1. A 75-hour proficiency course on advanced Forest Management, Part 2, 
was given to the members of the staff of Management Planning Unit. 

2. Three 3-day courses were given to 69 Timber Supervisors and Unit 
Foresters on Province-wide planning road network and compartmentation. 

3. A 12-hour lecture on implementation of management plan was given at 
the Forest Ranger School, within the general course curriculum. 

300 



TIMBER SECTION 

The volume of wood cut from Crown land for all species during the year 
ending March 31, 1961, remained at approximately the same level as the previous 
year — 347.1 million cubic feet — as compared with 348.1 million cubic feet in 
1959-60. This difference in volume represents a decrease in revenue from Crown 
stumpage charges of approximately $100,000. 

Sawtimber production in Ontario showed a substantial gain (14 per cent) 
in spite of the fact that the North American lumber industry experienced a 
relatively slow year due primarily to a slackening in house construction. Red, 
White and Jack Pine lumber all showed small gains while the volume of Spruce 
lumber nearly doubled. 

Pulpwood production, on the other hand, decreased by nearly 6 per cent 
and was due almost entirely to a reduced cut of Spruce for pulpwood. The 
production of pulp chips from sawmill waste became increasingly more important 
in 1961. In the year previous, the 31 sawmills with chipping facilities produced 
the chip equivalent of 163,800 cords of pulpwood. In 1961 the 33 firms with 
chippers increased this chip production to the equivalent of 206,750 cords. 




Hand planting by wedge method in North Bay District. 

301 



Market Studies 

During the course of the year, at the request of companies, business men 
and municipahties, the forest industry potential of specific areas in Ontario 
received special study. In addition, data was collected to prepare a Directory of 
Primary Wood-Using Industries for Ontario. 

Access Roads — Capital Fund Account 

Under the Access Road Construction program an amount of $73,000. was 
spent during 1961-62 on construction of roads into areas of unalienated Crown 
land containing mature and over-mature timber. 

Construction 

Swastika — Englehart Management Unit — 14 miles. 
Note — Funds for maintenance of access roads provided by Lands and Surveys 
Branch. 

Total miles of road constructed to date under this fund: 

Kapuskasing — Hearst Management Unit I41/2 miles 

Swastika — Englehart Management Unit 51 " 

Pembroke — Petawawa Management Unit 72 " 

Kenora — Gordon Lake Management Unit 8 " 



1451/2 
Kenora — Jones Road — Road-Part cost 22 



1671/2 " 

To date $851,478.79 has been spent on this type of road construction, all 
of which has been paid back to the fund from additional stumpage charges 
collected from forest operators using these roads. 

TIMBER SALES, 1961-62 

Crown Timber Sales C.T.A. 2 (1) 61 47.2 square miles 

Crown Timiber Sales C.T.A. 3 (1) 32 377.7 

Crown Timber Sales C.T.A. 4 (1) 7 19.0 

ABANDONMENTS 

In the fiscal year 1961-62 licensed areas in the amount of 267.59 square 
miles were abandoned. 



SUMMARY OF AREA UNDER CROWN TIMBER LICENCE CLASSIFIED IN 
ACCORDANCE WITH THE CROWN TIMBER ACT AS OF MARCH 31, 1962 





Licences under 


Licences under 


Licences under 


Total Area 


Year 


Section 2 


Section 3 


Section 4 


Square Mileage 


1957-58 


5,354.80 


98,149.46 


181.33 


103,685.59 


1958-59 


4,520.62 


99,612.16 


199.90 


104,332.68 


1959-60 


4,206.22 


99,818.60 


186.98 


104,211.80 


1960-61 


3,647.71 


99,103.39 


137.79 


102,888.89 


1961-62 


3,563.07 


99,347.87 


154.26 


103,065.20 



302 



SUMMARY OF VOLUME AND VALUE OF WOOD CUT BY SPECIES DURING 

1960-61 

Species Cubic Feet Value 

Softwood 

Balsam 

Cedar 

Hemlock 

Pine, Jack 

Pine, Red 

Pine, White 

Spruce 

Tamarack 

Christmas Trees 

Fuelwood 



Hardwood 

Ash 

Basswood 

Beech 

Birch, White . 
Birch, Yellow 

Butternut 

Cherry 

Elm 

Maple 

Oak 

Poplar 

Fuelwood 



14,765,587.36 


$ 316,921.67 


331,210.12 


10,957.16 


2,780,316.30 


71,275.46 


76,856,764.93 


2,115,897.28 


5,036,713.48 


269,332.86 


19,149,789.11 


1,061,648.04 


191,046,575.50 


7,157,888.17 


75,407.21 


2,008.18 


1,013.00 


180.22 


1,475,759.80 


9,625.76 


311,519,136.81 


$11,015,734.80 


109,228.14 


3,012.00 


468,974.88 


29,463.99 


385,274.81 


8,587.37 


1,783,906.11 


33,525.91 


6,972,021.66 


516,428.48 


2,483.18 


106.37 


25,626.91 


901.31 


261,363.20 


9,009.34 


5,786,733.94 


229,838.34 


239,416.54 


10,874.67 


18,356,146.54 


181,901.38 


1,201,863.45 


9,022.54 



35,593,039.36 $ 1,032,671.70 

Total all species 347,112,176.17 12,048,406.50 

Note: Value of export levy not included in above figures. 

The mills licensed during the year under the Crown Timber Act were as 
follows: 

Sawmills Daily Capacity in excess of 50,000 fbm 36 

Daily Capacity 10,000 fbm to 50,000 fbm 118 

Daily Capacity less than 10,000 fbm 797 

Specialty mills (lath, pickets, shingles, staves, headings & 

hoops, ties) 87 

Veneer Mills 23 

Pulp Mills 24 

Scaling 

Scaling examinations during the past year were held at the following locations 
and dates: 

Location Date 

Forest Ranger School, Dorset, Ontario April 7th, 1961 

Forest Ranger School, Dorset, Ontario May 5th, 1961 

Huntsville, Ontario May 12th, 1961 

Geraldton, Ontario September 29th, 1961 

Timber Licences Issued 1,265 

Pulpwood Licences 201 

303 






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354 



NOTES 



355 



NOTES 



358